1900-1990

1900-1990

Second Fire Devastates Chinatown

On January 20, 1900, a fire was intentionally set in the Chinatown area of Honolulu, at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague.

The fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres, displacing more than 4,000 residents. The fire burned for at least 17 days.

First Airplane Crash in the Hawaiian Islands

On June 10, 1911, the first airplane crash in the Hawaiian Islands occurred when Clarence Walker hit a hala tree in Hilo. The pilot survived.[i]

Submarine Sinks in Pearl Harbor

On March 25, 1915, the Navy submarine F-4 sank in Honolulu Harbor, killing the 21-man crew. The submarine was one of four based in the Hawaiian Islands. On August 29, 1915, the submarine is brought up to the surface and then towed to Honolulu Harbor.

Seven Ships Set Afire in Honolulu Harbor

On February 4, 1916 in Honolulu Harbor, the crews of seven interned steamships, including the German cruiser Geier, set their vessels on fire to prevent them from being used by the United States military.

Officially the United States was still neutral in the war, which began in Europe in 1914. On April 6, 1917 the United States declared war on Germany.

First Aviation Fatality in the Hawaiian Islands

On November 19, 1918, Corporal Mark Grace of the Fort Kamehameha Aero Squadron was flying a plane when he suddenly went into a tailspin that caused the plane to crash.[ii]

Train Derails in Gulch

In 1922, a train belonging to the Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway and Land Company derailed at Waikakalaua gulch, killing four people and injuring two, and causing a pile-up of 28 pineapple-filled railroad cars.

Tsunami Strikes Hawai‘i Island and Maui

On February 23, 1923 an earthquake in the Aleutians generated a tsunami that sent waves to more than 20 feet above normal in the Waiākea area of Hilo. The tsunami also caused serious damage in Kahului, Maui.

Crater Erupts

A violent eruption of Halema‘uma‘u Crater took place in 1924. Halema‘uma‘u—about 3,000 feet (914 m) across and more than 280 feet (85 m) deep—is located within Hawai‘i Island’s Kīlauea Caldera, and was a lava lake during a century of continuous volcanic activity until 1924 when a violent steam eruption drained the lava from the lake.

Since 1924, approximately 40 more eruptions have occurred in the area of the summit and rift zones that run down the volcano’s flanks. Halema‘uma‘u Crater was about 1,200 feet deep in 1924, but eruptions as recently as 1974 and 1982 poured lava onto the crater floor and filled it to its present depth, about 280 feet (85 m).

Today pungent sulfur fumes continue to steam up from mineral-encrusted cracks on Halema‘uma‘u’s black-rock floor.

First Civilian Trans-Pacific Flight Crashes

On July 14, 1927, the plane of navigator Emily Bronte and pilot Ernest Smith crash landed on Moloka‘i, completing the first civilian flight from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California) to the Hawaiian Islands.

Bronte and Smith’s July 14, 1927 journey covered about 2,200 miles (3,541 km) and took 26 hours and 36 minutes. They originally intended to fly to Honolulu, but a fuel shortage led to the crash landing on Moloka‘i in their 27-foot (8.2-m) monoplane named The City of Oakland.

Disaster at Dole Air Derby

On August 16, 1927, eight planes left Oakland, California for the Hawaiian Islands in the first trans-oceanic flight race, the Dole Air Derby. Entrants competed for the prizes of $25,000 and $10,000 being offered by James Drummond Dole, president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company. This was the first race from the United States Mainland to the Hawaiian Islands.

A total of ten lives were lost when two planes crashed on take-off; two planes encountered difficulties and had to turn back; and two planes disappeared over the Pacific Ocean.

The winner of the trans-oceanic race was Art Goebel (with navigator William Davis) in the monoplane Woolaroc, with just 4 gallons (15 liters) of fuel to spare. Taking second place was Martin Jensen (with navigator Paul Schluter) in the Aloha. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Torrential Rains Break Dam

In the first decade of the 1900s, Kaua‘i’s McBryde Sugar Plantation built dozens of reservoirs, including the Alexander Dam, one of the world’s tallest hydraulic fill earthen dams, with a capacity of more than 800 million gallons.

Measuring 640 feet thick at the base, 120 feet (37 m) high, and 620 feet (189 m) long at its crest, Alexander Dam cost $2.2 million to build and became the second highest earthen dam in the Hawaiian Islands.

As the dam neared completion on March 26, 1930, torrential rains broke the structure and caused a mudslide that killed six people. The dam was eventually rebuilt, finally opening in December of 1932.

Army Bombs Lava Flow

Lava flows threatened Hilo (including defense facilities) in 1930 and 1942, and the Army Air Corps attempted unsuccessfully to divert or disperse the flows by dropping bombs on the advancing lava.

Lava flows from a Mauna Loa eruption reached the South Kona area in 1950 when it only took about three hours for the flowing lava to reach the ocean. The 1950 event lasted for 23 days, destroying many homes and ranches.

A 1975 Mauna Loa summit eruption lasted for several days and blocked a road near the summit.

Elephant Attacks Trainer

On March 3, 1933 an elephant named Daisy, who was born in captivity and was the star attraction at Kapi‘olani Zoo, threw her trainer to the ground, punctured his chest with a tusk, and crushed him.

The nearly five-ton African elephant was circled by Honolulu police officers and shot less than ½-hour after the attack. The elephant’s body was dumped about four miles out to sea.[iii]

Japanese Planes Attack Pearl Harbor

At 7:55 a.m. on December 7, 1941, more than 350 Japanese bomber planes attacked Pearl Harbor. Deaths of United States military personnel totaled 2,323 people. Sixty civilians were also killed in the attack, and another 1,178 people were wounded.

Eight huge battleships were sunk or damaged, along with three light cruisers, three destroyers, and four smaller ships. In all, 21 United States ships were damaged and 347 planes were destroyed.

1,177 men perished in the fiery sinking of the U.S.S. Arizona, which was at its moorings on Battleship Row and sunk in just nine minutes after being hit by a bomb.

Nine hundred crew members of the Arizona remain entombed in the sunken vessel. United States anti-aircraft guns responded to the warplanes 15 minutes after the start of the bombing, and 29 Japanese planes were destroyed.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was considered an act of war, and brought the United States into World War II.

After the United States dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, and Nagasaki on August 9, the imminent defeat of Japan led to a celebration of “V-J Day” (Victory in Japan Day) on August 15, 1945.

On September 2, 1945, the forces of Japan officially surrendered on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri battleship (now berthed at Pearl Harbor’s Battleship Row).

Japanese Submarine Attacks Army Ship

On January 28, 1942 in Hawaiian waters, a Japanese submarine torpedoed an Army transport ship, the Royal T. Frank, killing 21 people.

The Battle of Midway Atoll

On June 4, 1942, Japan’s naval fleet attempted to secure Midway Atoll, which is located about 1,309 miles northwest of Honolulu. American fighter pilots and dive-bombers sank four aircraft carriers of the Japanese fleet along with three destroyers and two cruisers. The U.S. forces also lost an aircraft carrier, the Yorktown, as well as one destroyer.

On June 5, 1942, United States Admiral Chester William Nimitz (1885—1966), the commander of the Pacific Fleet, announced the United States victory over the Japanese Fleet at Midway.

The Battle of Midway became a turning point of World War II, securing Midway as a strategic Navy base location for the duration of the war and providing a strategic port location for submarines and ships.

Shipwreck at Midway

On February 13, 1944, the United States Navy submarine rescue vehicle U.S.S. Macaw ran aground at Midway Atoll. It had been on a mission to retrieve the submarine U.S.S. Flier when bad weather caused the grounding of the ship. A crew manned the ship’s pumps until a March storm finished off the vessel.

Ammunition Explosions Take Lives

On May 21, 1944, an explosion of mortar ammunition at Pearl Harbor triggered a fire and a series of other explosions involving nine ships in all. The accident killed 163 people and injured another 396.[iv]

Bomber Planes Collide

On June 8, 1944, two army bomber planes collided into each other above Kalihi and crashed into the ground, killing the four crew members. About a dozen homes were ignited by the crash, killing ten women and children.[v]

Plane Crashes into Ocean

On November 14, 1944, a C-54 airplane en route to the United States Mainland with 17 people on board, plunged into the ocean about 50 miles from O‘ahu.[vi]

Plane Disappears, Memorial Built

In 1945, Robert S. Thurston, Jr. disappeared on a military mission over the Pacific Ocean. As a memorial to their son, a 1941 graduate of Punahou School in Honolulu, Robert’s parents built Thurston Memorial Chapel on the Punahou campus in 1966.

April Fools Tsunami Strikes Hawai‘i Island

On April 1, 1946, an earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, 2,400 miles north of the Hawaiian Islands, generated a tsunami that hit the Hawaiian Islands about four hours later, around 6:30 a.m.

The first waves were said to resemble an extra high tide surrounding homes and buildings. The third and fourth waves were the biggest of some 15 tsunami waves, each arriving about 15 minutes after the previous wave.

The natural shape of Hilo Bay amplified the waves, causing them to surge onto the land, with some of the waves reaching heights up to 56 feet above sea level, killing people and destroying property.

The tsunami included 15 waves in all, rising up to 56 feet above sea level in some places, and 33 feet in Hilo where close to 500 homes and businesses were destroyed and at least 1,000 more damaged. The cost of the destruction totaled about $26 million, including railroads, bridges, piers and ships.

The tsunami killed an estimated 159 people in the Hawaiian Islands, including 96 in Hilo and 24 in Laupāhoehoe on Hawai‘i Island. Some people drowned because they were curious at the sight of an empty bay and went out to look around, only to have the tsunami waves arrive a few minutes later to sweep them away.

As each wave receded it revealed the floor of Hilo Bay. Then the tremendous surge of water would arrive again, sweeping inland and destroying everything in its path.

The 1946 tsunami also hit other Hawaiian Islands, killing 17 people on Kaua‘i, 13 on Maui, and six on O‘ahu (one at Makapu‘u, two at Kahuku, and three at Kahana).

Army Plane Crash Kills Ten

On August 16, 1947, an Army B-17 crashed into the ocean about 45 miles (72 km) off Barbers Point, O‘ahu, killing 10 of the 13 aboard, including the ranking United States diplomat in Japan.[vii] The plane was scheduled to land at Hickam Air Force Base about 35 minutes after the time of the crash.

Superfortress Fire Kills Crew Members

In 1948, sixteen of twenty crew members of a fully loaded Superfortress were killed in a fiery crash at Hickam field.

Mauna Loa Eruption Destroys Homes

In 1950, an eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawai‘i Island lasted for 23 days, taking only about three hours to reach the ocean in the South Kona area. Many homes and ranches were destroyed.

Military Air Transport Crashes

In 1955, the worst air disaster in the history of the Hawaiian Islands occurred when a military transport plane crashed in the Wai‘anae Mountains, killing all 66 passengers.

Tsunami Strikes Kaua‘i

On March 9, 1957, an earthquake in the Aleutian Islands generated a tsunami that destroyed 75 homes on Kaua‘i’s north shore, including 25 of the 29 homes in the Hā‘ena region. At O‘ahu’s Pōka‘ī Bay, more than 50 boats and six yachts were smashed against the breakwater.

Air Force Bomber Hits Mountain

In 1957, four Air Force members were killed when their six-jet B-47 bomber crashed into a Wai‘anae Range mountainside at 400 miles (644 km) per hour.

Plane Crash Kills 44

On November 8, 1957, a Pan American Stratocruiser flying from San Francisco to Honolulu crashed into the sea about 1,000 miles (1,609 km) from O‘ahu, killing all 44 aboard.

Hurricane Nina Strikes

On November 30, 1957, Hurricane Nina caused $100,000 damage.

Hurricane Dot Hits Kaua‘i

In 1959, Hurricane Dot passed over Kaua‘i, bringing winds well over 100 mi/hr and causing $6 million in damage.

Kīlauea Volcano Erupts at Summit

Kīlauea Iki (“Little Kīlauea”), a crater in the summit area of Kīlauea Volcano on Hawai‘i Island, last displayed a stunning fire show in 1959 when fountains of lava erupted to heights of 1,900 feet, the highest ever recorded in the Islands.

Activity in the summit area also occurred in 1977. Since 1987 the summit area has seen only two eruption events, each lasting less than one day.

Tsunami Strikes Hawai‘i Island

On May 22, 1960, 61 people in Hilo were killed when an earthquake in Chile generated a tsunami that hit the Hawaiian Islands. The Chilean earthquake occurred 6,600 miles away from the Hawaiian Islands, moving a piece of land the size of California about 30 feet in just minutes. The tsunami waves generated by the earthquake took more than 15 hours to reach Hawai‘i’s shores.

Hilo took the brunt of the damage as it was hit by at least seven significant tsunami waves over a two-hour period. The third wave was the most destructive. In Hilo Bay, the tsunami created a bore that rushed ashore at a speed reported to be more than 37 miles per hour, surging water as high as 36 feet above sea level.

In addition to the 61 people killed in Hilo, 43 more required medical care for their injuries. At least 229 homes were destroyed, as well as 308 public structures and businesses. The destruction was most severe near Hilo’s Kamehameha Ave., where entire city blocks were washed away. Damage was estimated up to $50 million.

Many people died because they went to the shoreline to investigate what was happening as the water drained out from the bay and river. In all, the Chilean earthquake and the resulting Pacific-wide tsunami caused the death of an estimated 2,000 people, mostly in Chile, but also 122 in Japan.

Lava Flow Destroys Town

In 1960, a Kīlauea lava flow destroyed the town of Kapoho (“The depression”[viii]).

Explosion Rocks Nuclear Submarine

In 1960, one sailor was killed when the $50 million nuclear submarine Sargo, at its berth in Pearl Harbor, was shaken by a violent explosion. To put out the fire, the crew submerged the submarine while its stern torpedo room hatch was left open.

Sigma 7 Spacecraft Plunges into Pacific

On October 6, 1962, the Sigma 7 spacecraft, with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra on board, circled Earth six times before splashing down on the Pacific Ocean about 1,300 miles (2,100 km) north of Honolulu.

The aircraft carrier Kearsarge picked up Schirra, who was then flown to O‘ahu’s Hickam Air Force Base.

Tsunami Strikes Islands of Hawai‘i and Maui

In 1964, one of North America’s largest earthquakes ever recorded, at magnitude 8.4 on the Richter scale, occurred in Alaska, sending tsunami waves toward the Hawaiian Islands.

The tsunamis caused flooding in Kahului, Maui, where the waves rose to more than 11 feet and in Hilo where the waves rose to more than 12.5 feet. No deaths occurred in the Hawaiian Islands, but waves also struck in Alaska and California. In all, 122 were killed; nine from the earthquake, and the rest from tsunamis.

Frank Sinatra Rescued on Kaua‘i

Frank Sinatra first came to Kaua‘i in the early 1950s when he performed at the Kaua‘i County Fair. In April of 1964, Sinatra returned to Kaua‘i, directing and starring in None But the Brave, the story of a group of United States Marines who crash land on a Pacific island controlled by the Japanese during World War II.

Sinatra stayed at the Coco Palms Hotel in Wailua, and one Sunday afternoon while Sinatra was swimming at Wailua Beach he saw Ruth Koch, wife of movie producer Howard Koch, in trouble in the water. Sinatra swam out to help her but instead found himself quickly pulled out to sea while Koch made it safely to shore.

Sinatra was rescued after about 20 minutes in the water, apparently just in the nick of time as he was on the verge of drowning, and apparently starting to turn blue. Though an ambulance was called, Sinatra was okay and was able to recuperate at home, missing just one day of work before returning to the set.

The main set of None But the Brave was located at Pila‘a Beach on Kaua‘i’s northeastern shore.

Moon Walkers Arrive in Pearl Harbor

On July 26, 1969, the Apollo 11 Columbia 3, carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after returning from the first human visit to the moon. The astronauts were picked up by the carrier Hornet and brought to Pearl Harbor.

Kīlauea Eruption Pours into Sea

In 1971, an eruption from Kīlauea Volcano’s Mauna Ulu (Growing Mountain[ix]) vent poured into the sea near Kealakomo (“The entrance path”[x]). The eruption added 97 acres (39 ha) of new land to Hawai‘i Island.

Tornadoes Wreak Havoc

In 1971, a tornado damaged 18 homes near Wahiawā in Whitmore Village as well as warehouses and pineapple fields in Wahiawā. One house in southern Kona was damaged by a separate tornado, and thousands of macadamia nut trees were uprooted.

Earthquake Shakes Hilo

On April 26, 1973, an earthquake in Hilo caused an estimated $1 million damage.

Tsunami Strikes Halapē on Hawai‘i Island

On the morning of November 29, 1975, two strong earthquakes shook the southeastern coastal of Hawai‘i Island. One of these was earthquakes was at least a 7.2 magnitude on the Richter scale, with an epicenter near an old Hawaiian village site called Halapē. The ground in the area sunk some 12 feet (3.7 m) and rocks fell from the cliffs above.

The earthquakes caused a small eruption of Kīlauea Volcano and generated a localized tsunami. When the tsunami came ashore at Halapē, it swept some Boy Scouts and their leaders who were camping there up onto a rugged lava field, and many were washed into a huge crack in the lava.

Nineteen people were injured, many severely, and two were killed, including a scout leader and a local fisherman. A huge piece of land actually slid into the ocean and the tops of the palm trees were sticking up from the water. One of the tsunami waves traveled more than 300 feet inland.

Hurricane ‘Iwa Brings 100 m.p.h. Winds

On November 3, 1982, Hurricane ‘Iwa passed between Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, bringing gusts of wind with speeds of more than 100 miles per hour and causing damages totaling $239 million.

Kīlauea Volcano Begins Current Eruption

In 1983, a flank eruption began on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano, and it has continued almost uninterrupted to the present day, releasing more than 67 billion cubic feet of lava and covering at least 40.7 square miles, increasing the island’s size by more than 535 acres.

The eruptive activity began on January 3, 1983 at Nāpau Crater with 250-foot fountains of lava. In June, 1983, the activity moved to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Vent with lava shooting up to 1,400 feet high and eventually reaching the Royal Gardens subdivision about four miles from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō.

In 1983 and 1984, 16 homes were buried and/or burned. In 1984 at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, explosions of fountaining lava reached heights of more than 1,500 feet.

Eruptive activity moved to Kupaianaha Vent in July, 1986, and soon the lava was flowing through the community of Kapa‘ahu and across the coastal highway. Later in 1986, 14 houses in the community of Kalapana were destroyed.

In the spring and summer of 1990, numerous homes in and around Kalapana Gardens were destroyed along with the county store and the Mauna Kea Congregational Church.

The destruction totaled 181 homes by the end of 1990. Gone was the black sand beach on crescent-shaped Kaimū Bay, which was filled with lava. In 1992 the eruptions moved from Kupaianaha Vent back to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō.

In 1997, amidst a swarm of earthquakes, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater erupted and collapsed, sending abrasive red cinder dust (fine-grained lithic tephra) over dozens of square miles of Kīlauea’s eastern flank. The iron in the volcanic rock oxidized as it was ejected, creating red dust-sized particles that were a kind of volcanic rust, and the floor of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater fell nearly 500 feet.

About three miles up the East Rift Zone from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater, and 9 miles east of Kīlauea’s summit, curtains of fiery lava up to 100 feet tall shot from fissures in the Earth. Two miles west, at Nāpau Crater, a 24-hour eruption occurred.

In May, 2001, the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Vent flow covered almost a mile of an unpaved access road, blocking nearly 1,500 people from the lots they owned. A significant increase in lava flows from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō began on May 12, 2002, the same date that Mauna Loa showed volcanic activity.

Kīlauea’s May 12, 2002 outbreak of lava first reached the ocean along the Puna coast on July 19, 2002. As many as 4,000 visitors per day flocked to the area to see the increased activity, including streams of lava cascading up to 45 feet off the seacliffs into the ocean.

Since May, 2002, the lava flows of Kīlauea Volcano have added more than ten acres of land to Hawai‘i Island, and created new black sand beaches along the island’s southeast shore. The eruptions also sparked a fire that burned 3,600 acres. In 2004, spectacular lava flows into the ocean drew record numbers of visitors.[xi]

Earthquake Rocks Hawai‘i Island

On November 16, 1983, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake centered near Ka‘ōiki and lasting 40 seconds caused more than $6 million in damage on Hawai‘i Island.

Mauna Loa Eruption Threatens Hilo

A 22-day eruption of Mauna Loa in 1984 sent lava flowing for 16 miles down to the 3,200-foot level of the mountain, and covered more than 18 square miles. The flow came close enough to Hilo to make many people very nervous.

Man Killed at Hālona Blowhole

On April 13, 1986 an 18-year-old man looking down into O‘ahu’s Hālona Blowhole was killed as a powerful geyser of water shot upward. The geyser is created by waves hitting the rocks and funneling water into the blowhole.[xii]

Hurricane Estelle Strikes Islands

On July 23, 1986, Hurricane Estelle caused $2 million damage on Hawai‘i Island, Maui, and O‘ahu.

Woman Sucked Out of Plane

On April 28, 1988, Aloha Airlines Flight 243 was flying from Hilo to Honolulu at an elevation of about 24,000 feet (7,315 m), 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Maui, with 89 passengers on board, when a large chunk of the jet’s roof and walls, from the cockpit to the back of the cabin, were suddenly torn from the plane’s cabin, causing an “explosive decompression of the cabin.” A flight attendant standing at seat row 5 disappeared through the hole in the left side of the fuselage.

Another flight attendant, who had been standing at row 2, was hit in the head by debris and suffered head lacerations and a concussion. The flight diverted its route, and was able to land safely in Maui. A total of seven passengers sustained serious injuries and 57 more passengers had minor injuries.

The missing flight attendant was not found despite a sea search. The $5 million dollar Aloha Airlines Boeing 737 airplane sustained major damage, and had to be dismantled and sold for parts and scrap.[xiii]

Hole in Fuselage Kills Nine

Nine people were killed in 1989 when a United Airlines 747 sustained a hole in its fuselage shortly after taking off from Honolulu Airport.



[i] Hoover, Will. The day Hawai‘i really took off. The Honolulu Advertiser, 12/17/2003. Accessed 5/15/2004 at Internet site: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Dec/17/ln/ln10a.html, 5/15/2004.

[ii] Hoover, Will. The day Hawai‘i really took off. The Honolulu Advertiser, 12/17/2003. Accessed 5/15/2004 at Internet site: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Dec/17/ln/ln10a.html, 5/15/2004.

[iii] Hoover, Will. 1993 attack cost life of beloved zoo star. The Honolulu Advertiser, 8/20/2004.

[iv] 1944 was year of disaster. The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 2/08/2004.

[v] 1944 was year of disaster. The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 2/08/2004.

[vi] 1944 was year of disaster. The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 2/08/2004.

[vii] The ranking United States diplomat in Japan was George Atcheson Jr.

[viii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ix] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[x] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xi] Updates on volcanic activity may be seen at the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park website (www.nps.gov/havo) and the United States Geological Service (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory website (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov).

[xii] More warnings needed by Hālona Blowhole. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/5/2002.

[xiii] Aloha Flight 243: Air Disaster. Internet site: http://www.disastercity.com/flt243/index.htm, 9/01/2001.