Hawaiian Culture / Ancient Hawai‘i

1. d) Kamehameha I is also known as Kamehameha the Great.

2. c) Ali’i. The highest class among the ancient Hawaiians were known as ali‘i.

3. d) Kapu. A strict set of rules regulating what was kapu guided many aspects of Hawaiian life.

4. d) H4. eiau. There are many heiau throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

5. b) The 62-foot-long Hōkūle‘a Voyaging Canoe was launched in 1975 and has made many successful journeys.

6. d) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua was used to carve most of the large figures, many of which were destroyed as Christianity became prevalent in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1800s.

7. b) King Kalākaua is known as the Merrie Monarch.

8. a) Liholiho had to share power with Ka‘ahumanu, Kamehameha’s wife.

9. c) ‘Iolani Palace remains today a gem of Honolulu.

10. d) Kapa was often decorated with geometric designs.

11. c) ‘Iolani Palace was Lili‘uokalani’s home, and then her prison.

12. d) The Hawaiian word for family is ‘ohana, which literally means “many ‘oha,” a model of the extended Hawaiian family.

13 b) Prince Kauikeaouli was proclaimed Kamehameha III.

14. a) King Kalākaua won the controversial election.

15. b) Queen Lili‘uokalani was born Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha.

16. b) Kava was called ‘awa in ancient Hawai‘i.

17. c) Kalo was a staple of the ancient Hawaiians diet.

18. c) Kamehameha I was victorious in many military conquests.

19. c) It is now said that picking ‘ōhi‘a lehua blossoms will cause it to rain because it separates the couple, causing tears to flow from heaven.

20. a) Wai is the Hawaiian word for water.

21. d) Hula is often accompanied by chants.

22. b) Kalākaua revived Hawaiian hula and other cultural practices that missionaries had discouraged or forbidden.

23. c) Red-tailed tropicbirds were sought for their long, red tail feathers.

24. b) The Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) was born May 20, 1858, the only child of Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

25. c) Geckos and skinks were brought by the early Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands.

26. b) The breadfruit tree had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

27. d) Menehune are thought to still exist today hidden high in the forests.

28. b) ‘Auana (also spelled ‘auwana) and kahiko are the two main forms of hula. Kahiko is the older and more traditional form.

29. a) Pulu also had medicinal uses for Hawaiians.

30. b) Petroglyphs. The Hawaiian term for petroglyphs is ki‘i pōhaku.

31. d) Kūpuna (plural of kupuna) are grandparents, relatives, or ancestors.

32. c) Recent research points to a time between A.D. 200 and A.D. 500 as the first inhabitation of the Hawaiian Islands by Polynesian voyagers.

33. d) Shark skin made the finest drum heads.

34. b) Kukui nuts provided the primary light source of ancient Hawaiians.

35. a) Polynesians brought a descendant of the Southeast Asian wild boar to the Hawaiian Islands.

36. a) Kanaloa is deep in the ocean, ruler of the dead and the banished gods.

37. d) Pele is the goddess of volcanoes.

38. b) Battle of ‘Aiea. Both sides used foreign gunners.

39. d) Kapi‘olani Park. King Kalākaua’s wife was Queen Kapi‘olani.

40. b) 6,000 years ago. They eventually sailed east to Tahiti and the Marquesas and later south to New Zealand, east to Easter Island, and north to the Hawaiian Islands.

41. c) Kai is the Hawaiian word for sea.

42. b) The Hawai‘iloa was launched in 1993, and in 1995 the crew sailed it to Tahiti and the Marquesas and back using no navigational instruments.

43. d) Kaua‘i. The king of Kaua‘i at the time was Kaumuali‘i.

44. a) Hōkū means “star,” and le‘a means “happiness.”

45. c) Māui was said to have lassoed the rays of the sun to make it move more slowly across the sky so his mother would have time to dry her kapa cloth.

46. d) Haleakalā means “House [used] by the Sun.”

47. c) Wana is the Hawaiian word for sea urchin.

48. b) Diamond Head is the place called Lē‘ahi by Hawaiians.

49. a) Coconut palms had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

50. c) Pili grass houses lasted up to 10 years in drier areas.

51. a) Brother and sister. Lili‘uokalani became queen after King Kalākaua died.

52. c) Keiki is the Hawaiian world for children.

53. d) Still commonly seen in the Hawaiian Islands, the hala tree’s stilt-like roots make it easy to identify.

54. c) Feathers were woven into long royal capes.

55. c) Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) proclaimed the new constitution in 1864, and it would remain in effect for the next 23 years, until the Bayonet Constitution.

56. d) ‘Iolani means “Bird of Heaven.”

57. c) These were just some of the games played during the Makahiki Festival.

58. d) Kamehameha died of measles in London in 1824.

59. c) Lahaina was also a royal court for Maui chiefs.

60. c) Sandalwood. The sandalwood trade decimated the native species.

61. c) The stamp printing was done by carving split bamboo with a design.

62. a) Yellow. Other plants produced different colors for dyes.

63. c) Princess Lili‘uokalani was appointed sole Regent during King Kalākaua‘s absence.

64. c) Sitka spruce trees from southeast Alaska were used because the Hawaiian Islands no longer had any koa trees big enough (though ancient Hawaiians may have occasionally also used Sitka spruce driftlogs).

65. b) Hi‘aka was represented by the ‘ohi‘a lehua.

66. b) Pa‘ao initiated the social order that separated ali‘i (royalty), kahuna (priests), maka‘āinana (commoners), and the Kauwā class, the lowest outcast members.

67. c) Hikina a ka Lā Heiau (“Land of the Rising Sun” Heiau) is oriented to the North Star, which Polynesians called Hōkūpa‘a.

68. a) Kalani‘opu’u was the Big Island chief Cook was attempting to take hostage when he engaged in a fatal encounter with natives onshore, who were angry that another of their chiefs had been killed, and ended up killing Cook.

69. b) Ceremonial helmets were constructed, and bore a resemblance to Homeric Greek military helmets.

70. b) ‘Ilima. In ancient times, ‘ilima were reserved for Hawaiian royalty.

71. c) The Hawaiian moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis) is about 13 inches long, inhabits wetlands and taro fields, and is most easily identified by its bright red frontal shield and red bill with a yellow tip.

72. c) 1840. Drafted in the Hawaiian language, the constitution was a step away from the traditional monarchial form of government.

73. a) Hīnano is the Hawaiian name of the fragrant flower of the male hala tree.

74. b) The Tahitian word toa means “strong.”

75. c) Shark teeth were also attached to heavy wooden clubs used as weapons.


Hawaiian Culture / Ancient Hawai‘i

Advanced Questions

1. b) 12. The letters are: h,k.l,m,n,p,w,a,e,i,o,u. Hawaiian became a written language in 1829 when missionaries voted to make these 12 letters the Hawaiian alphabet.

2. a) Makahiki. Cook arrived on the Big Island during this festival on his second visit to the islands, and said to have been treated as the god Lono.

3. b) ‘Aumakua, such as ‘io the hawk or pueo the owl, were considered sacred, and might appear at times to warn or protect.

4. b) The breadfruit tree. The sap also had medicinal uses, and once solidified it was used for chewing gum.

5. c) Wiliwili was the most buoyant of the native woods, and so was preferred for surfboards.

6. d) The Battle of Nu‘uanu was the deadliest event ever in the Hawaiian Islands, including Pearl Harbor.

7. c) Poli‘ahu is the snow goddess, and the name of the hill is Pu‘u Poli‘ahu.

8. c) Cook was 50 when he died in an encounter with natives.

9. b) Washington Place became their home after they were married.

10. d) ‘Olena is also called turmeric.

11. a) Pua‘a is the Hawaiian name for the wild boar.

12. d) Kahiko means “ancient.”

13. c) Pulu had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

14. d) Petroglyphs may be among the first efforts of an ancient people to construct a written language.

15. b) Mana is spiritual or divine power.

16. c) The Hōkūle‘a has two 62-foot long hulls.

17. b) The lei po‘o encircles the dancer’s head.

18. d) 1852 was the year the constitution was adopted, and it favored American interests at the time.

19. a) Kumulipo. This ancient genealogical chant has provided much insight about ancient Hawai‘i.

20. d) Akamai means “clever” or “smart.”

21. b) Pele. Ka wahine ‘ai honua means “The woman who devours the earth.”

22. c) A large stone quarry used by ancient Hawaiians is found on Lua Makika.

23. d) Maile was an important plant in ancient Hawai‘i, and maile leis are still common today, often used at grand openings.

24. a) The feathers of the ‘o‘o were highly valued, leading to its extinction island by island. The last survivors were on Kaua‘i, but it has now been over 15 years since an ‘o‘o was sighted.

25. b) Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha would eventually become Queen Lili‘uokalani.