Species of the Hawaiian Islands

1. b) Unique to the Hawaiian Islands, nēnē are descendants of the Canadian goose, and almost became extinct before captive propagation programs began restoring natural nēnē populations.

2. b) Plovers migrate to the Alaskan and Siberian tundra to lay their eggs.

3. b) Monk seals like to crawl up onto the beach to sleep after feeding.

4. a) The box jellyfish has a transparent cube-like body about 2 to 3 inches on a side.

5. d) Bottlenose dolphins have a highly developed cerebral cortex.

6. b) The ti plant had many uses in ancient Hawai’i, and is still used today for pork and chicken laulau.

7. a) ‘Awapuhi flower heads, when squeezed, provide a soapy, aromatic liquid, and thus it is also called shampoo ginger.

8. d) Guava is used to make juice, and is high in vitamin C.

9. c) Geckos are common today in many parts of the Hawaiian Islands.

10. c) Green sea turtles lay their eggs in the sand on the beach.

11. c) Humpback whales weigh about 45 tons.

12. d) Spinner dolphins love to flip and spin in the air.

13. a) Hawaiian Hawksbill sea turtles nest on Big Island beaches.

14. b) Pili grass was used to construct houses that were considered the best of their type in Polynesia.

15. b) Albatross nest atop the cliffs along coastlines in the Hawaiian Islands.

16. d) Red-tailed tropicbird feathers were especially valued by ancient Hawaiians for use in kāhili, the royal standards consisting of feather clusters attached to long poles.

17. a) Black-necked stilts use their long beaks to probe the mud flats for food, including worms, insects, crabs and fish.

18. c) Manta rays are filter feeders, and not a threat to humans.

19. d) Goats were not brought by the Polynesians, but by the first westerners.

20. c) The barn owl hunts for rodents at night.

21. b) There are about 700 species of fish native to the Hawaiian Islands.

22. c) There are about 200 endemic fish species, unique to the Hawaiian Islands.

23. a) Limu. There are hundreds of species of limu in the Hawaiian Islands.

24. b) Coral belongs to a group of animals called the Cnidarians (the “c” is silent).

25. c) Called ‘Ope‘ape‘a by Hawaiians, the bat is a distinct subspecies of the North American hoary bat.

26. a) Cowry shells are prized by collectors around the world.

27. c) Sponges draw water in through their pores and strain out the plankton.

28. c) By-the-wind sailors are sometimes blown ashore after storms.

29. d) ‘Apapane live in the high tropical forests.

30. a) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua trees have many connections to Hawaiian legend.

31. c) There are over 12 million seabirds in the Hawaiian Islands.

32. c) Over 60% of seabirds in the Hawaiian Islands are noddies and terns.

33. c) There are about 10,000 insect species, and about 95% are unique to the Hawaiian Islands (endemic species).

34. c) Cattle, sheep, pigs and goats all began to denude the tropical landscape.

35. a) Princess Ka‘iulani was the inspiration for the name given to the imported pīkake flower.

36. a) Wolf spiders were listed as endangered species in June, 2000.

37. c) Ventral pleats are also called throat grooves.

38. a) In just 50 to 60 hours the plover makes the non-stop journey between Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands.

39. c) The Kaua‘i cave amphipod was listed as an endangered species in June of 2000, and is found in just a few caves on the Garden Island.

40. a) Green sea turtle hatchlings weigh about one ounce.

41. d) Limu. Sea turtle adults are vegetarians.

42. c) Tiger sharks, reef sharks, and hammerhead sharks are the most common around the Hawaiian Islands. Great white sharks are occasionally seen.

43. c) Calcium carbonate skeletons form the coral reef.

44. a) Coral typically grows ½-inch to 4 inches per year.

45. c) Most geckos in the Hawaiian Islands live about 5 to 7 years, though some larger varieties may live up to 20 years.

46. b) There were about 100 native land birds in the Hawaiian Islands, evolved from about 15 to 20 ancestral populations. Over half are now extinct.

47. b) The Portuguese man-of-war tentacles may sting even when the animal is dead on the beach, so don’t touch!

48. c) Koloa. Once widely distributed throughout the islands, there are now less than 2,000.

49. d) Koa was also used to make surfboards, some as long as 18 feet (5.5 m).

50. a) Hapu‘u ferns also produce pulu, the silky hair that has many uses.

51. b) Banana. The Hawaiian name for the banana plant is mai‘a.

52. d) Pua means “flower.”

53. d) Cauliflower coral is also called rose coral.

54. c) Laysan albatross feed mostly on squid and flying fish eggs.

55. d) The wedge-tailed shearwater’s Hawaiian name is ‘ua‘u kani

56. b) Honu is the Hawaiian word for sea turtle.

57. c) Bottlenose dolphin’s are often seen in Hawaiian waters.

58. d) Pacific golden plovers are often seen in yards and grassy areas.

59. d) Tropicbirds circle each other in courtship flight.

60. b) Pueo are endangered on O‘ahu.

61. c) The snowflake moray eel feeds primarily on crabs, using its teeth to crush the hard-shelled prey.

62. a) Breadfruit. The Hawaiian name for the breadfruit tree is ‘ulu

63. d) Seagulls are scavengers that prefer shallow continental shorelines.

64. b) Brown noddies are often seen near terns.

65. c) Tilapia. There are now at least 10 species of tilapia in Hawaiian waters.

66. a) Squid. The squid Euprymna scolopes is bioluminescent.

67. c) Monk seals weigh about 30 pounds at birth.

68. d) Mango. There are over 500 mango varieties.

69. d) Macadamia. The rich nuts are sold in markets and as gifts.

70. c) Coffee is a major Hawaiian industry.

71. b) Fruit. They are all fruit eating birds, and all were already on the verge of extinction before the hurricane hit, and none of them have been seen since.

72. d) Wauke inner bark fibers were soaked and pounded to make kapa bark cloth.

73. a) Hermit crab. There are several types of hermit crabs in the Hawaiian Islands.

74. c) Urchin. There are 75 urchin species in the Hawaiian Islands.

75. b) Sea cucumber. The Hawaiian word for sea cucumber is loli.

76. d) Anthuriums are a popular local display flower.

77. a) The flower of the ‘ilima, known as pua ‘ilima, is the emblem of O‘ahu.

78. b) The Hawaiian Islands have 22 species of seabirds.

79. b) Black noddies are one of 3 Hawaiian species of noddies.

80. d) The Moorish idol, common in the Hawaiian Islands, feeds primarily on sponges and also eats algae.

81. c) Monkeypod trees grow many places throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

82. d) Sandalwood. Very few mature sandalwoods now exist in the Hawaiian Islands.

83. d) Coconut Palms had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

84. b) Maile leis were significant in ancient Hawaiian culture.

85. b) Ono is also known as wahoo.

86. c) Baleen hangs from the whales upper jaw, and is used to filter food from the water.

87. d) Krill. The whale fills its mouth with up to 1,000 gallons of water and then strains out the krill through the baleen.

88. b) Spinner dolphins live about 20 years, on average.

89. b) The total Hawaiian monk seal population is about 1,300.

90. d) Lobe coral comprise most of the reef structure in Hawaiian waters, along with coralline algae.

91. c) Saddle wrasse are often seen in schools, and feed on crustaceans, mollusks, worms and urchins.

92. c) The reef triggerfish feeds primarily on algae, but also eats small invertebrates.

93. c) Mongoose have had a terrible effect on birds of the Hawaiian Islands, but Kaua‘i continues to remain mongoose free (though sightings have been reported).

94. b) ‘Io, the Hawaiian hawk, was listed as endangered in 1967.

99. a) ‘Alalā, the Hawaiian crow is extremely endangered, and attempts at captive propagation and recovery are being undertaken.

100. b) Heliconia. One common variety (H. bihai) is known as the lobster claw.


Species of the Hawaiian Islands

Advanced Questions

1. c) Kāhili ginger blooms in late spring throughout summer. In ancient Hawai‘i, a kāhili standard (made with bird feathers) was a symbol of Hawaiian royalty.

2. b) ‘Iwa. The great frigatebird’s large size, forked tail and bent wings make it look a bit like an ancient pterodactyl in flight.

3. d) Several types of native ‘o‘opu live in Hawaiian waters.

4. c) The Maui Parrotbill uses its bill to split wood in search of insect larvae.

5. a) 5 billionths of a volt per meter are sensed by their electroreceptors

6. b) The coot’s Hawaiian name is ‘alae ke‘oke‘o.

7. b) 3 species of orchids are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

8. c) Black hydroids colonize rocky coastlines.

9. d) The Hawaiian bat is found mostly on the Big Island and Kaua‘i.

10. a) The Hawaiian Islands ranked 1st nationally, and 7th worldwide, with 3 confirmed deaths from shark attacks.

11. c) Mobulidae is the scientific name of the manta ray.

12. d) The gecko uses its tongue to clean its clear, fixed eyelids, which are similar to contact lenses.

13. a) Sus scrofa is the scientific name of the wild boar.

14. c) Over 35% of federally listed endangered and threatened species are Hawaiian, including over 500 species.

15. c) Pacific golden plovers spend winters in the Hawaiian Islands.

16. d) Koloa are found mostly on Kaua‘i, though some have been relocated to the Big Island and O‘ahu.

17. c) Box jellyfish feed on plankton.

18. c) Anemones. Sea anemones have stinging nematocysts that kill their ingested prey.

19. b) Midway Island has nearly 400,000 nesting pairs of albatross.

20. b) The short-tailed albatross is known as the golden goony.

21. d) Striped dolphins are sometimes seen in Hawaiian waters.

22. c) Bullfrog. Around the year 1900, frog legs were offered for sale in markets in Hilo and O‘ahu.

23. a) The wēkiu bug is a marvel of adaptation.

24. b) A humpback song typically lasts about 20 minutes, and may be repeated again and again for many hours.

25. a) Less than 1,000 humpbacks remained before the ban on hunting them was enacted.

26. a) Kalo was the ancient Hawaiian term for taro, a staple of their diet.

27. c) Cleaner wrasse are even known to clean some shark species.

28. b) The trumpetfish may be yellow, but more commonly is gray/brown to orange/brown.

29. a) Melon-headed whales are occasionally seen around the Hawaiian Islands.

30. d) Sugar cane was called Kō by the ancient Hawaiians, who had many uses for the plant.

31. b) ‘Olena is also known as tumeric, and provides a curry seasoning.

32. c) 3 species of sea turtles are considered native to the Hawaiian Islands: Greens, Hawksbills, and Leatherbacks.

33. c) Maui’s emblem is the pink rose, called pua lokelani in Hawaiian.

34. c) Starfruit fruit is juicy and tasty.

35. d) Lychee is an island favorite when the fruit ripens.

36. b) Pili grass was thatched into beautiful Hawaiian homes.

37. c) Kapa bark cloth was made from the inner bark of the plants.

38. a) Prosar anglica lives amid a variety of other unique life forms in the Alaka‘i Swamp.

39. b) Mahimahi is known to have moist, flaky flesh.

40. d) Female hala trees produce the fruit from which the keys were utilized.

41. d) Chitin is similar in hardness to human fingernails

42. c) 9½ feet long and 480 pounds is typical size for a bottlenose dolphin.

43. d) Shelf and finger coral are the most common Hawaiian corals growing in calmer, deeper waters.

44. d) ‘Ala (to rise up) and lā (the sun) give the native crow its Hawaiian name.

45. c) Parrotfish are up to 12 inches long.

46. c) Poi dogs were a delicacy of ancient Hawai‘i, often cooked in an imu, or underground earthen oven.

47. d) The crown flower is the food of choice for the monarch butterfly.

48. b) The Happyface spider has a markings on its back formed into a smiling face.

49. c) Hibiscus. The bright yellow flower is Hawai‘i’s official state emblem.

50. a) Ostriches. Ostrich feathers were a valuable product because the fashion elite in New York, Paris and London deemed them the preferred decoration on ladies’ hats.