Hanalei History Part 2

Part 2

Western Contact to the Great Māhele

(1778—1850)
 

Kamehameha and the Treacherous Kaua‘i Channel

Missionaries Come to Hanalei

The Alexanders Establish a Mission at Wai‘oli

The Wai‘oli Lease

Abner and Lucy Wilcox

Russian Forts in Hanalei

The Sinking of Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i—Cleopatra’s Barge

The Kaua‘i Rebellion

Captain Kellett—Hanalei’s Pilot of the Port

Charles Titcomb—Silk, Coffee, Sugar, and “Emmasville”

Kaua‘i’s First Cattle Ranch

The Great Māhele

 
 
 
 
 
“A century ago thousands of thatched huts dotted this land of rainbow and stream, of frequent rain and fertile soil. Beat of tapa mallet and poi pounder echoed abroad by day, thrum of hula drum by night.”

Ethel Damon[i]

British explorer Captain James Cook reached Kaua‘i in 1778 and established the first documented Western contact with the Hawaiian Islands.[ii] Cook was on a voyage of discovery for England and in command of two ships, the HMS Discovery and the HMS Resolution.

On January 19, 1778 Cook’s ships approached Kaua‘i’s southeast coast. Hawaiians in canoes paddled out to meet the ships, and the natives traded fish and sweet potatoes for pieces of iron and brass, which were lowered down from Cook’s ships to the Hawaiians’ canoes. The next day Cook sailed to Kaua‘i’s southwest coast and went ashore at Waimea Bay.

The Hanalei region had already been inhabited by Hawaiians for more than 1,000 years by the time Cook established Western contact in 1778.[iii]

The arrival of Westerners in the Islands soon led to a rapid influx of foreigners and foreign influences, including alcohol and modern weapons, which brought significant changes to traditional Hawaiian culture.

[Photograph/Illustration: Captain Cook; HMS Discovery; HMS Resolution]

Hundreds of foreign ships came to the Hawaiian Islands in the decades after the arrival of Captain Cook. These foreign ships included explorers, fur traders, whalers, sandalwood traders, and missionaries.

Beginning in the late 1800s and continuing well into the 1900s, hundreds of thousands of immigrant laborers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands to work on sugarcane plantations, and later many of them worked on rice and pineapple plantations.

Diseases brought to the Hawaiian Islands by foreigners after Western contact decimated the native population. The Hawaiians had been isolated from other cultures for many centuries, and thus had little or no immunity to the many different foreign ailments brought by immigrants.

Hawai‘i’s native population declined from an estimated 300,000[iv] people in 1778, the time of Western contact, to about 40,000 in 1890. Measles, smallpox, Asiatic cholera, whooping cough, scarlet fever, diphtheria, influenza, bubonic plague, dysentery, and numerous other maladies took thousands upon thousands of native Hawaiian lives.

The high death rate among natives from diseases undoubtedly left in its wake many empty villages and abandoned taro patches throughout the Hawaiian Islands, including the remote Hanalei region. The decline in native-farmed taro acreage dates back at least to 1791 when the sandalwood trade with China began, though Hanalei lasted longer in taro than other areas in the Islands.

The influx of foreigners after Western contact increasingly altered traditional Hawaiian ways of living. Beginning in the mid-1800s, Hanalei Valley’s rich bottomlands began to be used to grow various agricultural products, including coffee, tobacco, sugarcane, and rice.

By the end of the 1800s, rice farming and cattle ranching dominated the region’s landscape, while the amount of taro grown steadily diminished to the point where residents of Hanalei had to import poi from Kalalau Valley along the nearby Nāpali coastline.

Kamehameha and the Treacherous Kaua‘i Channel

Kaua‘i is the northernmost of the eight main Hawaiian Islands, and between Kaua‘i and its nearest neighbor, O‘ahu, is the longest and most treacherous of the between-island channels, the Ka‘ie‘iewaho Channel, also called the Kaua‘i Channel.

Long after Western contact, the perilous nature of this stretch of ocean kept Hanalei relatively isolated from Western influences compared to other more populous regions of the Islands.[v]

Also keeping the Hanalei region remote are the large waves that arrive on Kaua‘i’s north shore every winter. These large ocean waves make Hanalei Bay an inhospitable place for visiting ships.

After Western contact with Hawai‘i was established in 1778, changes occurred rapidly throughout the Islands. At the Battle of Nu‘uanu in 1795, King Kamehameha I led an estimated 16,000 soldiers with 960 canoes and 20 armed foreign ships to victory, gaining control of all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau.

Kamehameha’s military victory furthered his attempt to establish a united Hawaiian Kingdom, which would not be complete until he gained control of Kaua‘i. Kamehameha immediately began preparations to cross the Ka‘ie‘iewaho Channel and invade Kaua‘i.

Many ships have met their end in the Ka‘ie‘iewaho Channel, and those of King Kamehameha I are among them. Taking advantage of Western technology and Western support, Kamehameha built a force invincible by other Hawaiian chiefs, yet his troops were no match for the rough ocean crossing between O‘ahu and Kaua‘i.

Kamehameha’s impressive invasion fleet set sail for Kaua‘i in April of 1796, leaving O‘ahu at midnight with an estimated 800 or more canoes and more than 8,000 soldiers. Much of the canoe fleet was swamped, however, when a storm over the ocean channel brought tempestuous winds and violent seas that forced Kamehameha’s warriors to turn back.[vi]

[Illustration (or existing sketch/painting) of invasion fleet of King Kamehameha sailing for Kaua‘i.]

In 1804, King Kamehameha moved his capital from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu on O‘ahu, and continued making plans to attack Kaua‘i. Kamehameha’s forces included 21 armed schooners, a large fleet of double-hulled canoes, 40 swivel guns, eight cannons, and an estimated 7,000 warriors. Among Kamehameha’s forces were about 50 Europeans, and most of them had muskets.[vii]

“Let us go and drink the water of Wailua, bathe in the water of Nāmolokama, eat the mullet that swim in Kawaimakua at Hā‘ena, wreathe ourselves with the moss of Polihale, then return to O‘ahu and dwell there.”

King Kamehameha I preparing his warriors for a second attempt to invade Kaua‘i[viii]

The second attempt by King Kamehameha to conquer Kaua‘i failed due to an epidemic that infected thousands of native Hawaiians, including King Kamehameha. This epidemic was referred to as ka ma‘i ‘oku‘u, and is thought to have been cholera or a typhoid-like fever).

Many warriors died, including the prominent warrior chief Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe, the father of Queen Ka‘ahumanu. The sickness delayed for the second time Kamehameha’s attempt to conquer Kaua‘i.

Undaunted, King Kamehameha renewed his efforts to mount a large-scale attack on Kaua‘i, and employed foreigners to construct an armada of sailing ships in Waikīkī. This third planned invasion never took place, however, because Kaua‘i’s King Kaumuali‘i ceded his island to King Kamehameha in 1810, and pledged his allegiance to the powerful ruler. For Kaumuali‘i’s acquiescence he was allowed to remain as Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler.

The rule of King Kamehameha I over all of the Hawaiian Islands inaugurated a new age of Hawaiian monarchy and Western involvement. Kamehameha established a Western-influenced system of government, appointing a Council of Advisors, Treasurer, and a Prime Minister, as well as a governor for each island.

Taxes were levied and could be paid with handicrafts or produce. King Kamehameha also instituted a fee for licensing trade and wharfage, and encouraged the sandalwood trade with foreign ships.

King Kamehameha initially ruled from Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island, then from Hilo (1796), then Lahaina (1803). In 1804 the center of government was moved to Honolulu, which had the best available port.

A bustling trade with China in Hawai‘i’s native sandalwood began in 1791 when it was discovered that the fragrant wood could be sold for a high price in Canton. The sandalwood trade brought a steady stream of foreign ships to the Hawaiian Islands. Extensive groves in the mountains above Hanalei were harvested and shipped to a nearly insatiable Chinese market.

The sandalwood trade had profound effects on native ways of living as the growing demand for wood led to the abandonment of taro patches and other traditional food producing activities. Commoners were ordered by chiefs to travel high into the mountains to harvest the sandalwood, which was valued by the Chinese for making fine furniture, boxes, chests, carvings, perfume, and incense.

Hawaiian sandalwood was sold or traded for Western products, including large and expensive sailing vessels such as Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (The Pride of Hawai‘i), the elegant, ocean-going yacht purchased by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) in 1820 for $80,000 worth of sandalwood. Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i served as the king’s ship-of-state until it sank in Hanalei Bay in 1824.

The sandalwood trade ended by 1840 because virtually all of the large, marketable trees had been logged. Few reminders of the sandalwood era remain today, though a 1960 Hanalei Valley forest fire that burned on the ridge called Kauka‘ōpua (“The horizon clouds alight,”[ix]) revealed a pit the size of a ship’s hold. The pit had been dug in the ground to measure out one load of sandalwood,[x] a common practice during the sandalwood era.

Hawai‘i’s whaling era began in 1819, and during the following decades whaling ships brought tens of thousands of foreigners to Hawai‘i’s shores. During the whaling industry’s heyday, Kōloa on Kaua‘i’s south side was the third biggest port in the Islands.

During the 1830s, as many as 60 whaling ships were arriving each year in Kōloa. A much smaller number of ships visited Hanalei to trade for supplies and restock their provisions. The presence of whaling crews on Kaua‘i and the associated trade in Western goods brought significant influences to native ways of life in Hanalei.

After the death of King Kamehameha I in 1819, his heirs introduced major changes that affected all of the Hawaiian Islands. Perhaps the most profound change was the breaking of the eating kapu that had prohibited men and women from eating together. This occurred in 1819 when King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) ate with the dowager queens Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] and Ka‘ahumanu.

The breaking of the eating kapu began a process that eroded traditional Hawaiian religious beliefs and eventually led to the complete overturning of the traditional Hawaiian kapu system. It also coincided with the adoption of Christianity by the Hawaiian monarchy.

Missionaries Come to Hanalei

Just a few months after the breaking of the kapu, the First Company of American missionaries arrived in the Hawaiian Islands, which at the time were known as the Sandwich Islands. The missionaries sailed to Hawai‘i from Boston aboard the Thaddeus, and as soon as they reached the Islands they began to actively convert native Hawaiians to Christianity.

In all, twelve companies of American missionaries arrived in the Islands between 1820 and 1840, building churches and schools, and preaching throughout the Islands.

The missionaries developed a written Hawaiian language and produced millions of pages of printed documents, exerting wide-ranging influences on native ways of life. Missionaries arrived in the Hanalei region by the early 1820s, and they immediately established a significant presence.

By many popular accounts, the missionaries did much good: teaching individuals to read, administering medicine, and helping the community in various ways. Some historians claim that the missionaries, like other Western influences, encouraged Hawaiians to abandon their native ways of living, devalued native beliefs, and attempted to suppress cultural traditions (e.g., hula). Others note that the Hawaiians came willingly to hear the missionaries preach, and voluntarily attended missionary schools.

Some argue that the natives’ receptiveness to missionary ideas, as well as the overthrow of the eating kapu by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), were both the result of earlier Western influences that had already degraded traditional forms of subsistence and led to a native population with changing physical and spiritual needs.

The sandalwood trade, the whaling era, and the decimation of the Hawaiian population due to disease were already occurring when the first missionaries arrived in the Islands in 1820. All of these foreign influences led to the decline of traditional cultural practices among the native population.

Whether missionaries exacerbated the tragic loss of Hawaiian people and culture, or instead helped alleviate the consequences, is a matter of debate. Likely, both are true. By the early 1830s, missionaries throughout the Hawaiian Islands were running more than 1,000 schools educating as many as 50,000 people.

The First Company of American missionaries arrived in Kailua-Kona on Hawai‘i Island (the Big Island) on April 4, 1820 and began their congregational mission work. The First Company of American missionaries left Boston on the Thaddeus on August 31, 1819 under the command of Andrew Blanchard, reaching the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands) on March 31, 1820 on the brig Thaddeus.

Among the arriving missionaries were Samuel Ruggles (1795-1871) and Samuel Whitney (1793-1845), who then traveled to Kaua‘i aboard the Thaddeus. Ruggles and Whitney arrived at Waimea, Kaua‘i on May 3, 1820, and soon visited Hanalei region.

Also arriving on Kaua‘i in 1820 on the Thaddeus was George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, the son of Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler, Kaumuali‘i, who had ceded Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810. Humehume had been sent to the United States when he was a child, reportedly to protect him from the queen, and he didn’t return to Kaua‘i until arriving on the Thaddeus with Ruggles and Whitney.

Joyous at his son’s return, Kaumuali‘i placed Humehume second in command and rewarded the captain of the Thaddeus by giving him a valuable cargo of sandalwood that could be sold for a high price in China.

The missionaries Ruggles and Whitney were welcomed by the elder Kaumuali‘i, and were given land and a residence. Ruggles and Whitney established a mission station at Waimea on Kaua‘i’s southwest shore, and were instrumental in establishing new mission stations in other areas including Hanalei.

Samuel Whitney served his entire missionary career on Kaua‘i, primarily at the Waimea mission station but also traveling around the island to preach and to support other mission stations.[xi] The arrival of the Protestant missionaries on Kaua‘i would lead to some of the most pervasive and far-reaching foreign influences in the early post-contact history of Hanalei.

The Alexanders Establish a Mission at Wai‘oli

On July 15, 1834, Reverend William Patterson Alexander and his wife Mary Ann, along with their young son William DeWitt, arrived at Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay. William and Mary Ann had just finished serving in the Marquesas Islands, and before that William had graduated from New Jersey’s Princeton Theological Seminary.

William Patterson Alexander was the son of James Alexander, a Kentucky Presbyterian elder and “one of the early settlers in the blue grass state.”[xii] During William and Mary Ann’s journey to the Hawaiian Islands, their son William DeWitt was just 17 months old, and he took his first steps during the voyage. Mary Ann recalled: “William...learned to walk on the ship that brought us from Nukuhiva, and had a swinging gait.”[xiii]

“William Patterson Alexander, a tall Kentuckian with aquiline nose and very blue eyes, had just had his twenty-ninth birthday...Mary Ann, who as a young bride three years earlier he had brought around Cape Horn from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was now twenty-four. She ‘was beautiful to look upon’ at this time, wrote mother Parker, one of their co-workers at the Marquesas. Mary Ann wore her hair in the curls of that day. She too had blue eyes, and perhaps she had not yet entirely lost her rosy cheeks of Harrisburg. Their seventeen months’ old baby they had named William DeWitt after Mary Ann’s pastor who had introduced them to each other and also married them.”

Mary Charlotte Alexander[xiv]

On July 19, 1834, William Alexander traveled from Waimea to Hanalei in anticipation of establishing the Wai‘oli mission station, first permanent mission station on Kaua‘i’s north shore. After this first visit to the region, he wrote: “arrived at Waioli spying out the land.”[xv] Another visit was made on August 9 “to set up door frames & c.”[xvi]

On the night of August 21, 1834 the Alexanders left Waimea in a double-hulled canoe belonging to Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa. They sailed for 8½ hours along the Nāpali coast by night, arriving the next morning at the mouth of Wai‘oli Stream in Hanalei Bay. In a letter to her children, Mary Ann recalled: “We went to Waioli in a double canoe at night as the ocean was calmer. Old Kaikioewa, the Governor, sent us.”[xvii]

On the journey from Waimea to Wai‘oli, the Alexanders were accompanied by about 75 people, including Davida Papohaku (David Stone-wall) from the church of Father Whitney at Waimea.[xviii] The party camped at the mouth of the Wai‘oli River in a small village that previous visiting missionaries and their followers referred to as Kalema, Bethlehem.[xix]

“At early dawn a canoe passing into the bay over the wave called Mano-lau touched the beach at Wai-oli, the valley of “Waters-singing-praises”—of waterfalls singing over high wooded cliffs, of streams singing along fern banks, of ‘wreath-making’ Hana-lei river singing through flowering lowlands, and of waves singing as they thrum on an ivory shore:—Waioli in Hale-lea, ‘House-of-joy.’ To Mary Ann, with perils over, it seemed like heaven.”

Mary Charlotte Alexander[xx]

Two years earlier, in 1832, native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had erected a pole-and-thatch meetinghouse for use by missionaries during their visits to the area. This meetinghouse is believed to have been a traditional hale pa‘ahana (work place) or hale mua (where food was prepared and eaten).[xxi] After Western contact the structure was likely used for Christian worship.[xxii]

William Alexander, his wife Mary Ann, and their son William DeWitt were among the first “outsiders” to settle in the Wai‘oli area. During the following decades several different missionary families ran the church and school, and these families were some of the first Caucasian residents of the region.

In anticipation of the Alexanders’ arrival, the native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had built a 50- by 20-foot, (15- by 6-m) grass-thatched dwelling. This thatched mission house was located closer to the shore than the present Wai‘oli mission house. The native-built structure served as the Alexanders’ residence for about three years before a more suitable building was constructed.

“Natives thronged the shore to help beach the canoe and thus have first sight of the strange white woman and child [the Alexanders] who had come from so far. And crowds accompanied the little family to the new thatched house which during preceding weeks the dwellers in this northern valley had gladly made ready for their kumu [teacher].”

Ethel Damon[xxiii]

The Alexanders soon added various improvements to their native-built home. They used stalks of native ferns to partition the house into three rooms including a sitting room and dining room, both of which had lauhala (pandanus) mats on the floor, and a bedroom, which had boards on the floor, a rarity at the time.

“It was a good sized house,” wrote Mary Alexander. “We made partitions of the stalks of uluhi [uluhe] ferns...for 3 rooms—bedroom, dining room, and sitting room. Lumber was scarce in those days so we had but one room with a board floor—our bedroom. The rest of the house was covered with lauhala [pandanus] mats.”[xxiv]

Carpenter Joel P. Dedman, a neighbor of the Alexanders, helped them make improvements to their grass-covered home. Dedman also made the Alexanders’ doors, windows, and furniture including “a study table, trundle bed, two settees and a high chair.”[xxv]

In the Alexanders’ first grass-thatched mission house dwelling at Wai‘oli, they had two more sons: James McKinney, born January 29, 1835, and Samuel Thomas, born October 29, 1836.

In 1834, Dedman received a grant of land from Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa for the cultivation of sugarcane. Dedman was to construct a sugar mill and the Governor was to provide the wood for the project. William Alexander wrote: “Our new neighbour Mr. Dedman is building himself a house and is about to carry on the sugar manufactory on a large scale.”[xxvi]

Dedman’s sugar mill was comprised of wooden rollers placed on end and turned by horse power. The cane was fed in from the side and crushed by the rollers, which extracted the juice. The juice was then boiled down in a whaler’s trypot. Despite his efforts, Dedman’s plan to run a sugar mill for Governor Kaikio‘ewa was soon abandoned.

Western-style materials were hard to come by at the time, and the Alexanders made do with whatever materials they could acquire. Mary Ann Alexander wrote: “Glass too was very scarce then. We oiled paper and used that instead for some of our windows. We commenced housekeeping without furniture, no cooking stove, no cupboard for our dishes, only a pine dining table and a few chairs that we had brought with us from the states and an ironwood settee that a carpenter made for us, but we were content.”[xxvii]

The native-built mission house at Wai‘oli served as the Alexanders’ home for their first three years at Wai‘oli. “We lived three years in the native house,” recalled Mary Ann, “I was never happier. It was delightful to live with my doors open, and have no fear of the people around me. James and Sam were born in that house.”[xxviii]

The Alexanders also had a study built near their mission dwelling in 1834. “Dear old Father Whitney used to come and see us sometimes,” Mary Ann wrote, “There was only one white man near us till we had carpenters come to build our house. Your father needed a study, so we had a small house built...covered with lauhala [pandanus].”[xxix]

Also in 1834, Reverend Alexander built a cookhouse that would later become part of a large mission home (the Wai‘oli Mission House). Coral limestone blocks were cut from the shallows near the mouth of nearby Waipā Stream for use in the foundation of the cookhouse as well as for the front steps and chimney.

“It is a substantial native building, thatched with grass, 50 feet long and 20 feet wide,” wrote Alexander, adding “I have the frame of a cookhouse set up and hope to have it covered in the course of another week.”[xxx]

The same year, Governor Kaikio‘ewa donated land at Wai‘oli for a school and church, and encouraged the growth of the mission station. The establishment of the church was assisted by Kaua‘i’s dowager queen, Kekaiha‘akūlou (Deborah Kapule), a Christian convert. Deborah Kapule (1798-1853) was a favorite wife of Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler, Kaumuali‘i, before his death in 1824.

Samuel and Mercy Whitney came from Waimea to visit the Alexanders at Wai‘oli, sailing there in Governor Kaikio‘ewa’s double canoe. Reverend Alexander was assisted by Brother Samuel Whitney from the church at Waimea in founding the Wai‘oli Church, which was officially established on October 19, 1834 with just ten original members. Only a select few new members were admitted.

“Brother Whitney assisted me in organizing a little church,” wrote Alexander.[xxxi] About 700 people attended worship at the Wai‘oli meetinghouse on the Sabbath. The population of the Halele‘a district at this time was estimated by the missionaries to be 3,107 people.[xxxii]

Soon more than 1,000 people were attending Alexander’s mission gatherings, including 1,500 people at “a Communion”[xxxiii] attended by Reverend Whitney on January 4, 1835. Large numbers of natives came to hear William Alexander preach.

“The mission center of church and school and home pitched its tent a little further mauka near the Waioli river and in the very shadow of the three mountains, Hihimanu, Namolokama and Mamalahoa, on whose precipitous sides waterfalls were almost constantly splashing out of the clouds or the deep blue of distance into the dense green of trees and ferns below. Namolokama, the middle peak, rises more than three thousand feet toward Waialeale, the center of the island, but so close did the Waioli mission houses cling to the base of the mountains that the blue ridge of Namolokama seemed to be the very summit of the island.”

Koamalu[xxxiv]

William Alexander also acted as a doctor in various situations, administering medicinal treatments to the natives. Mary Ann Alexander later wrote to her children: “Your father was the doctor. He gave them medicine [doses of castor oil and other drugs in bottles improvised out of joints of bamboo]. I made toast and coffee and bowls of pia [arrow root] for the patients. They wanted warm food when they were sick. The natives are naturally a kind people.”[xxxv]

Father Whitney from the Waimea mission traveled frequently to the Hanalei region to “help in the new work, beside the people from his Waimea church, who...came over to settle in Waioli and form the nucleus of the new church there.”[xxxvi] Whitney was referred to as “the precious father,” by William Alexander, who also visited the Whitneys at the Waimea mission station.

When Mrs. Whitney became so ill that she “was brought to the very gate of death,” Alexander “made 6 voyages around the Pali [cliff] in a canoe, a distance of 35 or 40 miles.”[xxxvii] Alexander also wrote of the difficulty of being in such a remote location, stating that “without society & without books, the mind flags & the furniture grows rusty.”[xxxviii]

During these first years when the Alexanders were among the few non-native settlers in the Hanalei region, the native Hawaiians still retained many of their traditional customs. “The people had but little foreign goods in those days,” wrote Mary Ann Alexander, “but they had cloth of their own manufacture, tapa made out of the bark of a shrub. They had learned from the first missionaries to make holokus [Mother Hubbard wrappers], and to braid hats; they still wore the pau [pā‘ū] [skirt made of a long length of bark cloth wound around the hips]. The men wore the kihe [kīhei][a tapa robe knotted over the shoulder], and the maro [malo-a loin cloth], mostly, when we first arrived at the islands.”[xxxix]

In April of 1835 at Wai‘oli, Reverend Alexander’s first task was to oversee the construction of a new pole-and-thatch meetinghouse for visiting missionaries. The new building would replace the meetinghouse that had been built by the natives in 1832, but had burned down just a few months before the arrival of the Alexanders in 1834.

In 1835, Reverend Alexander wrote that, “the people here are actively engaged building a church [a grass one]. The frame is set up 90 feet by 36, & I think it will soon be covered.”[xl]

The new church meetinghouse was an open-sided structure thatched with lau hala, and was built on the same site as the previous meetinghouse that had burned down. The building took about three months to complete, and the finished structure measured about 90 by 40 feet. Timbers were also gathered for the construction of a new schoolhouse.

In 1835, Reverend Alexander wrote: “Since the meeting house was erected, the congregation, Sabbath forenoons, has usually amounted to 800 to 1,000 and afternoons about 600—Wednesday afternoons about 400 attend.”[xli]

Those who attended the church meetings left a variety of contributions, including fresh chicken as well as “fish, a canoe paddle, the handle for the spade used in cultivating taro, and very rarely a piece of money. A temporary, but very real embarrassment once arose at the Waioli parsonage by heaping payments in dried fish.”[xlii]

“Mr. Alexander had at first believed that the broad bay of Hanalei, which he called by the name of its wave, Manolau Bay, was to have a commercial future. But a towering breaker which swept the bay farther out, called after the traditional first voyager to the group, who was supposed to have landed here, the Hawaii-loa, made the harbor dangerous for shipping especially during the winter months.”

Mary Charlotte Alexander[xliii]

At the beginning of 1836, the new meetinghouse at Wai‘oli was officially dedicated, with Reverend Samuel Whitney in attendance.[xliv] On August 22, 1836, Reverend Alexander wrote: “I have 90 children in my school. Have established four other schools in my bounds.”[xlv]

A census taken about this time by Wai‘oli missionaries recorded “about 160 persons living in the Waioli ahupua‘a, 650 persons living in the Hanalei ahupua‘a, and a total of 3,000 persons living in the Halelea district.”[xlvi]

In 1836, Alexander reported that “over one thousand adults out of the whole population had some knowledge of reading the Hawaiian language.”[xlvii] This high literacy rate was in part due to the assistance of five graduates from Maui’s Lahainaluna Seminary where many native teachers were being trained at the time.

Lahainaluna Seminary was established in 1831 as Hawai‘i’s first English school, and had the goal of advancing education for young Hawaiian men while training them to become teachers and ministers.

Missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869) visited the Alexanders at Wai‘oli in October of 1836. Reverend Alexander wrote: “Brother Bingham and family spent the month of October with us, a visit long to be remembered, during which time our Heavenly Father placed a third son in our arms to train up for His service.”[xlviii]

The thatched home that had been built for the Alexanders at Wai‘oli in 1834 by the natives was deteriorating badly in 1835. In January of 1836, Reverend Alexander began acquiring logs of native ‘ōhi‘a lehua timber from the nearby mountains, and by November of that year the frame of a Western-style home had been erected.

Samuel Whitney periodically made the journey from the other side of the island to visit the Wai‘oli mission, sometimes receiving assistance from Reverend Alexander. Bro. Whitney has just arrived here via the Pali tormented with the toothache,” wrote Alexander early in 1837, adding, “I have just pulled out the troublesome tooth, and hope he will feel better by and by.”[xlix]

“We now hope the Lord intends to spare him with us a little longer—From the 3rd inst. up to the 17th, the day he was taken, it rained almost incessantly, none of the clothes we had washed during that period could be dried except what were dried by the fire—everything became damp, even clothes in trunks—our house leaked in many places, mats on the floor almost rotted, & I assure you we longed for a better house.”

William Patterson Alexander, in a letter to Mr. Chamberlain, January 25, 1836.[l]

The two-story, four-room mission house at Wai‘oli was finished in April of 1837 for a total cost of about $2,000. The house was built with a gable entrance and a front lānai on both the first and second stories. The outside of the house was originally yellow. The color was most likely chosen because “yellow ochre was the only paint available.”[li]

The Wai‘oli Mission House dwelling was built about 21 feet from the cookhouse that Alexander had erected in 1834. It was a common practice at the time to build a cookhouse separate from the main house in case of fire. The cookhouse at Wai‘oli would later be connected to the main house by the addition of a dining room/pantry.

The Alexander’s third and fourth children, Henry Martyn and Mary Jane (a Christmas child), were born in the new mission house, which Alexander referred to as the “zinc palace” in reference to its roofing material.[lii]

From 1836 to 1838, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took place in the United States, boosting interest in membership in missions throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Alexander noted that there was “a general religious excitement all around Kauai,”[liii] and in 1837 Alexander was teaching 120 children for five days of the week.

Mrs. Alexander taught a school of girls in the subjects of “geography, arithmetic, writing, & sewing; a weekly meeting with 70 or 80 women to read the scriptures & converse on religious subjects; and a semi-monthly meeting with mothers to teach them their duty to their children and urge them to perform it.”[liv]

Also in 1837, Mr. and Mrs. Edward and Lois H. Johnson arrived at Wai‘oli from New Hampshire to assist the Alexanders and direct the schools of the mission station. On their way to Wai‘oli they stopped at Kalalau Valley, where Lois Johnson noted that they were “the first missionaries who have ever landed there.”[lv]

Lois stayed on the beach at Kalalau while, “Brother Alexander and Husband took a walk back among the inhabitants,” wrote Lois, adding that “The shore where we landed is overhung by an immense ledge of rock affording a shady resting place underneath its own overhanging summit for two or three hundred...In the meanwhile, the people assembled, being marched on to the ground in regular order by one who seemed to act as a captain and apparently felt as much pleasure and pride as a General would in marching his regiment on to the field. Brother Alexander proceeded to examine them and preach to them.”[lvi]

[Photograph: Nāpali Coast]

[Photo Caption:]

“The Pali baffles all my powers of description. It indeed surpasses all that I have every seen in sublimity. It extends along the shore of the ocean for many miles and it almost seems as you sail along as if its towering peaks which seem to reach to the Heaven, sometimes appearing in broken, ragged mountains, sometimes shooting up in the form of sugar loaf, would lose their balance and overwhelm you beneath their ruins in the mighty deep. Here might the painter find scope for the boldest touch of his pencil & here the power gathers laurels for his brow.”

Lois Johnson, 1837[lvii]

When the Johnsons finally arrived in Hanalei Bay they were greeted at the shore by Hawaiians. “We arrived safely at Waioli, the place of our destination,” wrote Lois Johnson, “and were welcomed by multitudes of natives on the shore, anxious to see their new teachers. Glad was I after being tossed about for six months to set my foot upon the spot which is to be the field of our labours, and a delightful spot too in prospect; here perpetual spring smiles and the luxuriant soil spontaneously yields her increase.”[lviii]

The Alexanders had successfully established the Wai‘oli Mission more than three years earlier, and finally in November of 1837 they were getting some help. “We are not so lonely as we were the last three years,” wrote William Alexander, adding, “we have been singularly favored in getting associates. Brother and Sister Johnson, who were part of the large reinforcement who arrived last Spring, are located with us: and we find them true yokefellows, amiable, affectionate, devoted and active.”[lix]

“I have just returned from an excursion to Kauhakake in Koolau where I preach every Thursday under the shade of a large kukui grove to an attentive audience of 400. It is about 10 miles distant up hill and down. I preach 5 or 6 times a week to an audience of about 1000 here at the station, give out medicine to many ‘impotent folk’—spend as much of the forenoon in my study as the sick will allow, and afternoons converse with those who come in crowds to enquire about the way to heaven. We have cheering evidence that the Holy Spirit is moving on the minds of many...The little church here now consists of 38 members.”

William Patterson Alexander, in an 1837 letter to his brother James in Tennessee.[lx]

An 1837 report by William Patterson Alexander to the Missionary Herald of Boston stated, “The people in our vicinity are now planting cotton, with the governor’s approbation, for the purpose of raising funds to build a permanent school house and church and get a bell.”[lxi]

Seven acres of sugarcane were also planted to raise money, although only crude methods of sugarcane juice extraction were available at the time.[lxii]

“Our School House is framed and thatched & the carpenter waits for the bds. to finish it,” wrote Alexander on January 27, 1838, “He took the job for 100$ & is to wait until the people raise cotton to pay him. The house is 40 ft. by 24, thatched outside & to be lathed & plastered inside.”[lxiii]

In 1838, another Western style, wood-framed home was built at Wai‘oli, this one for Reverend Edward Johnson and his wife Lois. The Johnsons initially occupied a small, thatched home until the new home was constructed not far from the Alexanders.

The Johnsons would occupy their new home until 1867 when Reverend Johnson passed away. Around 1890, the Johnson house was moved by rolling it on logs of ‘ōhi‘a lehua to a location east and closer to the beach, across from where Hanalei Pavilion is now located, where it came to be known as the Hanalei Hotel (see Part 3).

Raising money to support the mission continued to be a challenge. “Our common schools taught by native teachers are in a languishing condition,” wrote Alexander in 1838, “This arrives mainly from the want of means to support the teachers.”[lxiv]

Alexander continued to travel around the island to preach, and also visited the neighboring island of Ni‘ihau, “then thickly populated, where he spent five days among the people in 1838.”[lxv]

Mary Ann Alexander “was proud of the butter that she made, and she sent many calabashes of it to the sisters in Honolulu.”[lxvi] William Alexander sent barrels of oranges to the missionaries in Honolulu, and in 1839 sent them “a barrel of corn of his own raising. As soon as he succeeds in obtaining the mill for it, he grinds corn meal.”[lxvii]

Members of the Wilkes Expedition, a United States exploring expedition, visited the Alexanders at Wai‘oli in 1840. Mrs. Alexander wrote, “We have now a scientific gentleman with us from Boston, Mr. Coultrouy Alexander, quite an interesting man. Mr. Alexander has been with him to the mountain after ferns, and has visited some caves that are near us, he has also been to the sea after shells.”[lxviii]

The commander of the expedition, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, recalled that his group “were all much struck with the dress of the native women, its unusual neatness and becoming appearance. It seemed remarkable that so many of the them should be clothed in foreign manufacture, and that apparently of an expensive kind; but on closer examination, the dresses proved to be tapas, printed in imitation of merino shalls, ribans, & c.”[lxix]

In 1840, William Alexander added a dining room and pantry to the Wai‘oli Mission House (built in 1837), connecting the structure to the cookhouse (built in 1834). By 1841, the Alexanders had five children: William DeWitt (8); James McKinney (6); Samuel Thomas (5); Henry Martin (2), and one daughter, Loise, who was born at the end of 1840.[lxx] A lease for the Wai‘oli Mission lands was signed by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and William Patterson Alexander in 1841.

The Wai‘oli Lease

“I, Kamehameha III, lease out to William P. Alexander a certain parcel of land at Waioli, Kauai. On the East of said land the river of Waioli is the boundary; on the North and the West the mountain between Waioli and Waipa is the boundary; on the South the pond called Momona is the boundary...said land is William P. Alexander’s and his heirs or his assigns, for twenty-five years, for a cattle pasture...he is to pay to Kamehameha III one-half of the cattle born on said land, female and male; and he is also to see that they are cut and branded before being delivered into the hand of Kamehameha’s man, ...and on the expiration of aforesaid term of years he is to restore the land, together with the houses and fences and all the property attached to the land to Kamehameha III or his heir, the owner of the land.”

Lease signed by Kamehameha III, William Patterson Alexander, and G. P. Judd on October 12th, 1841 in Honolulu.[lxxi]

It was not without consequences that the missionaries of Wai‘oli lived so far from their United States Mainland homes and families. On November 10, 1841, Mary Ann Alexander wrote to her mother: “O how I do want to see you, my dear mother, my heart does agonize to see you...Jane tells me that you indulge the hope of seeing me yet once more in this world...Still, dear mother, much as I want to see you, I could not go home now with an easy conscience, and take my husband away from the great work he is engaged in.”[lxxii]

Two decades later Mary Ann would finally be able to visit her mother in the United States. William Alexander was not so fortunate, receiving news of his mother’s death in 1842.

A storm in 1837 brought gale force winds that knocked down the pole-and-thatch meetinghouse at Wai‘oli. The structure was repaired, but plans were begun for a more substantial and durable building. Seven acres of sugar cane were planted at Wai‘oli in 1839 to raise money to build a new church as well as a schoolhouse.

A horse-powered sugar mill was constructed at Wai‘oli, and after the cane juice was extracted, it was boiled in iron pots that had been obtained from a whale ship. The $413 earned was put toward the construction of the school house and church.[lxxiii]

In 1840, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) signed legislation establishing a public school system throughout the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. All children from the ages of four to fourteen were required to attend school. Meanwhile, plans progressed for the new church meetinghouse at Wai‘oli.

In 1841, William Alexander wrote: “Our present tabernacle was overthrown by the winds last winter and is now unsafe when the wind is strong.”[lxxiv] The new Wai‘oli Church was completed in November of 1841, constructed in the Western style, timber-framed, using logs of the native ‘ōhi‘a lehua harvested from the hills rising up behind the Wai‘oli mission station.

In a memoir, Reverend James M. Alexander recalled his father, William Patterson Alexander: “It was an exciting time in Waioli, when the whole population, with long ropes, with shouts and chanting, dragged the heavy timbers into place for the church, and also for a house for Mr. Alexander. Coral stone was obtained by divers from the sea, and made into lime for the masonry.”[lxxv]

In November of 1841, the new church building was completed,[lxxvi] with a main interior space of 35 by 70 feet, and plastered on the inside and outside. The church was thatched with lau hala.[lxxvii] The hipped, thatched, split-pitch roof and four-sided lānai made the structure a blend of Hawaiian traditions and American architecture.[lxxviii]

The Wai‘oli Belfry was built next to the new church in the tradition of English and Colonial American missionary churches. Like the church, the Belfry also used structural beams made from ‘ōhi‘a lehua, and had a thatched exterior.

[Illustration: Wai‘oli Belfry]

In a letter to her mother, Mrs. Alexander describes the new Wai‘oli Church as “a frame house covered with grass. It is neatly plastered inside, and on the walls outside as we could not afford to clapboard it. As we have no pews, most of the people sit on settees of their own making, and some on the floor. The preacher has a stand with a table before him. We are obliged to adopt this plan as lumber is very expensive out here. When the house is finished the people will try and raise money to buy a bell.”[lxxix]

Funds were indeed raised to purchase a church bell, including $88 contributed by natives. The bell arrived by ship from Boston in 1843. Ethel Damon noted that the bell “seemed almost a personage of distinction in its village, its arrival at the beach greeted by the entire congregation...as a special guard of honor, certain men were appointed to raise it on a frame of poles and bear it proudly to its thatched belfry,”[lxxx] with “the bearers and accompanying throng moving as in a royal procession.”[lxxxi]

The construction of Wai‘oli Church and Wai‘oli Church Belfry were significant accomplishments in terms of architecture and construction at such an early date in the region’s history.

Mary Charlotte Alexander wrote: “The greatest material achievement of the people at Waioli during Mr. and Mrs. Alexander’s nine years there had been the earning of funds and the building of their own new frame church, accomplished in 1841 after five years of united effort on the part of the whole populace.”[lxxxii]

Church membership at Wai‘oli rose from 27 in 1837 to 180 in 1843,[lxxxiii] when Reverend George B. Rowell arrived along with his wife Malvina. George had previously graduated from Amherst College and Andover Theological Seminary. After arriving at Wai‘oli, he took over the ministerial duties of Reverend Alexander.

In 1844, students from the Wai‘oli Select School worked on the nearby coffee plantation of Charles Titcomb, earning a total of about $500. They also cultivated beans for their own use.[lxxxiv]

The Wai‘oli Church was re-thatched with lau hala in 1846, and shingles were installed on the roof in 1851. About ten years later, a board floor, seats, and a pulpit were installed in the church.

Abner and Lucy Wilcox

Between 1820 and 1848, twelve separate companies of missionaries would make the journey to Hawai‘i under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (A.B.C.F.M.). These missionaries—180 Protestant men and women in all—were Congregationalists, unlike the Alexanders who were Presbyterians. Two American missionaries who figured prominently in the history of Hanalei were Abner and Lucy Wilcox.

Abner Wilcox married Lucy Eliza Hart on November 23, 1836. They were both district schoolteachers in Connecticut before volunteering for missionary work. Just three weeks after being married, the newlyweds left Boston Harbor and sailed for Hawai‘i with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries. The Eighth Company was the largest of the twelve missionary groups, and their journey was the fastest.

The Wilcoxes, along with 30 other missionary volunteers, sailed around Cape Horn aboard the 228-ton barque Mary Frazier on a 116-day voyage. After teaching in Hilo from 1837 to 1844, Abner and Lucy Wilcox were transferred to Waialua, O‘ahu, where Abner was placed in charge of the Manual Labor Boarding School. Lucy led weekly prayer meetings for females.

On July 15, 1846, the Wilcoxes boarded the schooner Emelia with their four young sonsCharles Hart, George Norton, Edward Payson, and Albert Spencerand sailed for Kaua‘i to teach at the Wai‘oli mission station.

The next day they sailed into Hanalei Bay where a large group of native Hawaiians awaited them at the landing. Also greeting the Wilcoxes were the Reverend George B. Rowell, his wife Malvina, and a small number of other Caucasian residents.

On the same day the Wilcoxes arrived at Wai‘oli, they moved into the Mission House and the Rowells were transferred to the mission station at Waimea, Kaua‘i. For the next 23 yearsfrom 1846 to 1869Abner and Lucy Wilcox and their growing family lived in the Wai‘oli Mission House and Abner Wilcox taught at the Wai‘oli Select School for Hawaiian boys.

The curriculum taught by Abner Wilcox at Wai‘oli included reading, writing, mathematics, geography, moral philosophy, and church history. He also preached on Sundays.

The initial classes conducted by Abner Wilcox in the thatched schoolhouse at Wai‘oli were attended by 48 native Hawaiian boys ranging in age from 12 to 18. Classes were taught in the Hawaiian language using Hawaiian language materials.

The Wai‘oli Select School sought the brightest and most promising students of the various schools on Ni‘ihau and Kaua‘i, and the finest of these students were in turn sent to the Lahainaluna Seminary on Maui. At the Wai‘oli Select School, the desks were boards placed on blocks, and the students sat on woven lau hala mats.

Wai‘oli Select School students lived with local families, and some of the students worked at coffee plantations in the area. Students also worked on the school’s farm, where a variety of produce was grown. Much of this produce was sold to whaling ships that arrived in Hanalei Bay to restock their provisions.

In 1846, the Hawaiian Kingdom established a Department of Education and adopted the missionary-funded common schools as public schools. At this time, the children of the Wai‘oli school grew corn, beans, potatoes, yams, and bananas on a four-acre plot. They also farmed a large patch of taro.

By 1846, eight of the boys that had attended the Select School at Wai‘oli had gone on to attend Lahainaluna in Maui. Twenty other former Wai‘oli students had gone on to run common schools on Kaua‘i.

The mission district schools were present in at least twelve different north shore settlements, with more than 400 children of the Halele‘a district (about one-sixth of the total population) in attendance.[lxxxv]

American Joseph Gardner was placed in charge of all Government sheep and ran a small cloth factory at Wai‘oli in 1848, manufacturing cotton and woolen cloth. The cotton was grown at Wai‘oli, and Gardner’s mill had a loom and several spinning-wheels.[lxxxvi] The fine woolen cloth grown in Hanalei and woven at Gardener’s mill was awarded a silver medal by the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society in Honolulu.[lxxxvii]

During an 1848 visit to Hanalei, R. C. Wyllie noted: “Woolen and cotton cloth, woolen blankets and saddle-girthing were the articles manufactured. There was a good loom that went by a spring-shuttle, and several spinning-wheels, etc.”[lxxxviii]

Also in 1848, Edward Johnson was ordained a preacher, and assumed the Wai‘oli Mission duties of the previous minister, Reverend Rowell.

[Abner Wilcox] had 12 boys out of school Monday with measles and as many every day this week. They do not have them very bad, get back in two and three days. Our children are well. I expect every day some of them will be taken down. I dread the hooping cough.”

Lucy Wilcox, 1848[lxxxix]

During much of the 1800s, Kaua‘i’s only Western doctor was missionary James W. Smith, who visited the Wai‘oli region about once every month or two. Though Abner Wilcox was not a medical doctor, he did what he could to treat the various ailments afflicting native Hawaiians.

For example, when smallpox struck Kaua‘i’s north shore in 1853, Abner Wilcox and Edward Johnson vaccinated many native Hawaiians and tried to isolate the disease in the region.

Abner and Lucy Wilcox had four sons before arriving at Wai‘oli, and then four more sons in the twelve years following their arrival at Wai‘oli (seven of the children lived to adulthood).

The children of Abner and Lucy Wilcox included: Charles Hart, George Norton, Edward Payson, Albert Spencer, Samuel Whitney, William Luther, Clarence Sheldon, and Henry Harrison.

According to Charles Wilcox, there was a “belief among Waioli Hawaiians that the Wilcox boys were kolohe, a mischievous lot.”[xc] Charles recounted a story about a deacon who was hit in the head by a kukui nut and was sure one of the boys must have been hiding up in the tree’s branches.

George Norton Wilcox, the second oldest son, recalled that “besides the Johnsons there were not many white people at Hanalei. We always had Hawaiians around us.”[xci] George was not allowed to speak Hawaiian during his childhood at the Hilo station or when they lived on O‘ahu.

“In the early days,” George recalled, “we were forbidden to speak Hawaiian, and I never learned it well. Later, at Waioli, Sam and Luther were allowed to run around freely and to talk to all the Hawaiians. So they learned it better.”[xcii] Sam later studied Hawaiian at Punahou School on O‘ahu.

Despite living thousands of miles away from their families, Abner and Lucy Wilcox were able to provide their sons with some visits to their United States Mainland relatives. Sam recalled seeing his maternal grandmother: “And that grandmother Hart! Did I ever tell you that I actually saw her when I went East as a boy? She was ninety-five years old, but so spry she could sit on a small milking stooland so I saw her sitting one day milking a cow and smoking her corn cob pipe while she milked.”[xciii]

“We boys used to go out early in the mornings to the cliff at Waikoko to catch...birds that fished at night...and flew back at dawn to their nests. They could not see well by daylight and we could often catch several as they flew along the cliff. We had nets on wire, like butterfly nets.”

George Norton Wilcox[xciv]

The few Caucasian residents in the region occasionally visited each other. Josephine Wundenberg King recalled: “It was one of our greatest pleasures to visit at the mission, and quite a gala day when we went to spend the day with either the Wilcox’s or the Johnson’s. Being rowed in our boat as far as Titcomb’s landing and walking the other mile when we were too big to be carried.”[xcv]

The Wilcox boys had a pet Galapagos turtle given to young George in Hilo by a sea captain named Pitman, “from whose yard it must have wandered away.”[xcvi] “When Captain Pitman gave George that baby turtle for his own,” recalled Samuel Wilcox, “George was the happiest little fellow alive...once we found [the turtle] way across the Waioli river...we often used to stand on his back, three or four of us, and ride across the water.”[xcvii]

Josephine Wundenberg King also enjoyed the pet turtle: “At the Wilcox’s it was our delight to have a ride with the boys, Sam and Luther, on their land turtle, and climb trees with them.”[xcviii]

The Wilcox boys had a pet dog that sometimes wandered back to its original owner. “Our Smut was just a dog, but we boys liked him,” recalled George, adding, “Old Titcomb gave him to us. Then Smut had two homes, because he would run over to Titcomb’s when he felt like it.”[xcix] George recalled that traveling to the other side of the island was not easy: “It was quite a ride for little fellows like me, my mother always rode side saddle.”[c]

The curriculum of the Wai‘oli School in 1848 was “geography, arithmetic, elements of geometry, astronomy, first seven chapters in Bailey’s Algebra, moral philosophy, Church history, Sacred geography and Chronology. Also Reading, penmanship, writing compositions, public speaking and a class in English.”[ci]

In 1849, at the age of 16, William DeWitt Alexander visited the mission home where he had lived when he was a child. “We soon descended the hill, crossed the river, & hastened home,” recalled William, “the feeling with which I gazed on the home of my early days, I cannot describe. The main features of the place were not changed. But still many changes had taken place around the station...the natives who were still living had, for the most part, moved their dwellings down to the seashore.”[cii]

In 1851, Abner Wilcox took his five-year-old Albert to Boston for corrective surgery on his clubfeet. During Abner’s absence, Lucy Wilcox ran the Wai‘oli Select School and tended to the many tasks required to raise her children, not always easy in such a remote area as Kaua‘i’s north shore. To make candles to light the house, Lucy “saved beef tallow from every [cow] killing.”[ciii]

In the 1850s, the Wai‘oli Mission House and adjacent mission station pasturelands included a total of 39 acres.[civ] Missionaries estimated the population of the Halele‘a district to be about 2,000 people, with about 700 included in the congregation.[cv] In 1854, Reverend David Nuuhiwa was chosen as Assistant Minister, becoming the first native Hawaiian serve in such a post for the Wai‘oli Mission.

The Wai‘oli Select School continued its efforts in the 1850s, but funding the school and providing the proper books continued to be a challenge for Abner Wilcox. His son Edward built an addition to the Wai‘oli Mission House in 1859-60 while on a break from attending Punahou School on O‘ahu. Edward removed the roof from the dining room/pantry area and then added a second floor bedroom.

George Wilcox attended Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College from 1860 to 1862, majoring in engineering, and earning his engineering certificate. George’s first job was planting sugarcane on his parents’ land at Wai‘oli. He later worked as a luna (foreman) on the Princeville sugar plantation of R. C. Wyllie before building Grove Farm in southern Kaua‘i into a major sugarcane plantation.

“Waioli flats at the mouth of the river when the tide was out...the beach was very hard at low tide, you could gallop a horse over it without leaving any marks. Well, we would make a bamboo torch. Split up dry bamboo and tie it at intervals. Then the fellow that carried it alight would run out, you had to go on the run because the crabs would run up to the light, and another boy with a pail would catch them and put them into his pail. Once a dead bat came floating along too. It had dropped into the water probably and died. So they put that into the pail too. By and by along came another bat and he put that in too. Well, pretty soon along came another—and then the game was up, because we fellows behind realized that the one ahead with the pail was just dropping the same bat overboard again and again.”

George Norton Wilcox at age 91, recalling his youth at Wai‘oli.[cvi]

In 1861, Abner Wilcox was advised by his sponsors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, that continued support was doubtful.[cvii] In 1862, Louise Johnson began the Hanalei English School, the first English school in the Halele‘a district.[cviii]

In 1863, all mission lands in the Hawaiian Islands, including the Wai‘oli mission, were divided among Hawai‘i’s missionaries as part of their pensions. The Sandwich Islands Mission became independent, and would no longer be supported by the American Mission Board, which transferred the Sandwich Islands Mission to the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. The Wai‘oli Mission House was deeded to Abner Wilcox.

A fire in 1863 burned down the Wai‘oli schoolhouse. “At about 10 o’clock in the evening of Monday the 2nd of March, the alarm of fire was given which proved to be our school house,” recalled Abner Wilcox in a Wai‘oli Select School report, adding that “the ringing of the bell at such an unseasonable hour soon aroused the inhabitants and brought together a large company. Being covered with thatch, the flames spread with great rapidity, and very little could be saved.”[cix]

As the flames died down, efforts were made to save whatever could be salvaged from the fire, including some of the large timbers, which were later used to start the foundation of a new schoolhouse. “A few books and slates were snatched from the flames by those who first arrived,” recalled Abner, “my writing desk escaped...with only three legs.”[cx]

After the flames subsided, “the pupils with the native assistant teacher arranged themselves and standing around, sang, in mournful strains, its requiem.”[cxi]

With assistance from the Board of Education, Abner Wilcox was able to acquire materials to build a new schoolhouse with the help of his son George. “On obtaining the materials,” recalled Abner, “we commenced as soon as possible to prepare the foundation and build a house 32 by 21 feet. My second son, with a native carpenter undertook the work.”[cxii]

In the 1860s at Wai‘oli, one of the Johnson children, Julia, taught at the Government school along with Josephine Wundenberg King, the daughter of Princeville Plantation manager Gottfried Wundenberg. “The native children were very affectionate and obliging and loved to be with us whenever we were willing to have them,” recalled Josephine, “often accompanying us on our horse back rides after school over the hills and into the valleys gathering ohia’s, poha’s and limes which grew in abundance everywhere.”[cxiii]

Josephine also wrote about a memorable journey to Līhu‘e: “The Johnsons had some very good horses, nearly all named after late American Generals. Sherman being my expecial favorite. I rode him all the way from Hanalei to Lihue once with Julia on her Hero, and Mr. McBryde as our escort, he was in a hurry to get home, so we had to make time too, to keep up with him. We made the trip in about eight hours, resting for dinner about five o’clock at Mr. Krolls in Kealia.”[cxiv]

George Wilcox recalled a time during his childhood when inclement weather brought a rare instance of hail: “Once at Waioli when I was a little fellow I was reciting my lesson to my mother, I suddenly exclaimed, ‘I feel cold.’ ‘Nonsense,’ said my mother. ‘You ain’t cold.’ But in a few minutes hail was falling, beating on the veranda and one of the native boys came in holding his two hands full of it.”[cxv]

Reverend Johnson passed away in 1867, and the pastorate at the Wai‘oli Mission was taken over by Reverend Adamu Pali, a native Hawaiian from South Kohala on Hawai‘i Island. Abner and Lucy Wilcox made a return visit to their original home in Connecticut in 1869, their first trip home since leaving for Hawai‘i in 1836 with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries.

Accompanied by their youngest son Henry, Abner and Lucy crossed the United States Mainland from California via the new transcontinental railroad. They dropped Henry off in California where their oldest son Charles was employed with the brother of Lucy Wilcox.

“The overland journey was far harder than sailing round the Horn, and somewhere the germs of chills and fever were taken on. No luxuries such as Pullman sleepers and diners existed on this first trans-continental railroad...Abner and Lucy carried baskets of food for the week’s wearisome journey over a rough roadbed, and sat up all night on the hard seats of draughty, dusty day coaches. Hold-ups by Indians were not infrequent.”

Ethel M. Damon[cxvi]

Tragically, both Abner and Lucy Wilcox contracted malarial fever and died soon after they reached their New England home. They had intended to return to Kaua‘i after their Mainland visit, but this was not to be.

Edward Wilcox wrote to his brother an account of the sad events: “They were worn out with the journey. I had not thought of their being even dangerously sick...but about noon she [Lucy] was taken with chills...and about three, died. It was so unexpected. The day of the funeral Father [Abner] was looking and feeling so well that we all thought he would be over his sickness in a short time; but from Saturday evening he was worse. He died Friday Morning...we buried him by Mother...just one week between their deaths.”[cxvii]

Lucy Wilcox passed away on August 13, 1869. Abner Wilcox passed away on August 20, 1869. Abner and Lucy Wilcox left a legacy on Kaua‘i not only in their enduring mission work but also in their many sons, who would go on to leave their own legacies.

George Wilcox built Grove Farm Sugar Plantation into a massive and profitable enterprise and then used his great wealth to become one of Kaua‘i’s most generous philanthropists. George was also a member of every Hawaiian legislative body from 1888 until 1898, and served as King Kalākaua’s Prime Minister in 1892.

Albert Wilcox was a member of the House of Representatives of the Hawaiian Kingdom from 1891 to 1892, and helped to found the Samuel Mahelona Memorial Hospital at Kapa‘a with Mabel Wilcox, the daughter of Samuel and Emma Wilcox.

Mabel was selected by the Territorial Board of Health as Kaua‘i’s first public health nurse in 1913, and Kaua‘i’s Territorial Board of Health Tuberculosis Nurse from 1914 to 1917. She also volunteered for duty in World War I, serving for 18 months in Belgium and France.

Samuel Wilcox became Sheriff of Kaua‘i in 1872, and served in that capacity for 25 years. He was also a member of the House of Representatives in 1901-1902 and a Senator from 1903 to 1907.

Elsie Wilcox along with her sister Mabel helped to found Wilcox Memorial Hospital with funding provided by the trust of their uncle George. Elsie was also Chairman of the Kaua‘i Board of Child Welfare and Commissioner of Education for twelve years, resigning to take a post as the first woman Senator in the Territorial Legislature and serving in that capacity for eight years.

Russian Forts in Hanalei

Western presence on Kaua‘i wasn’t confined only to sailors and missionaries. Various trading prospects were developing in the Hawaiian Islands, and several major countries began to take an interest in establishing a presence on Kaua‘i and securing future trading opportunities.

When the 210-ton, three-masted Behring wrecked on the shores of Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay early on the morning of January 31, 1815, it began a 2½-year sequence of events involving foreigners and the construction of various stone and earthen forts on Kaua‘i, including two in the Hanalei region.

The Behring was under the command of Captain Bennett when it anchored at Waimea Bay with a load of sealskins (otter pelts) bound for the Russian-American Company’s headquarters at Sitka, Alaska, which at the time was the capital of Russian-America. After Bennett went ashore, southwest winds intensified rapidly and pushed the Behring onto the beach.

King Kaumuali‘i, Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler who had ceded Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810, seized the Behring’s cargo and had the valuable pelts taken to his home near Makaweli in west Kaua‘i. In response, the Russian-American Company’s governor, Alexander Baranov, sent German-born Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) Schäffer (1779-1836) to the Hawaiian Islands to retrieve the cargo, which was worth about 20,000 piastries.

Schäffer, who was born in Germany, had previously been a surgeon in the Russian army. In 1812, he helped to build hot air balloons in Moscow to observe the movements of Napoleon’s armies. Schäffer later became a ship’s surgeon with the Russian-American Company.

If Schäffer could not retrieve the cargo on Kaua‘i, he was to seek a fair amount of the native sandalwood as payment for the furs. Schäffer’s seemingly simple mission for Baranov turned into much more as he became carried away by visions of colonial Russian power and delusions of personal grandeur.

In his initial adventures on the islands of Hawai‘i and O‘ahu, Schäffer angered American traders and fell out of favor with King Kamehameha’s advisors. Schäffer then traveled to Kaua‘i, and in the spring of 1816 two Russian ships, the Otkrytie and Ilmena, carrying forty Aleuts and several Russians, arrived to support Schäffer’s mission.

Schäffer quickly ingratiated himself with Kaumuali‘i, who had been the last island ruler to surrender to Kamehameha’s control. Schäffer gained favor with the vassal ruler when he cured Kaumuali‘i of dropsy and then cured the fever of Kaumuali‘i’s wife.

Kaumuali‘i returned to Schäffer what was left of the shipwrecked Behring’s cargo, and Schäffer soon managed to convince Kaumuali‘i that the strength of Russia could be used to throw off the rule of King Kamehameha. Such an offer, however, had not been authorized by anyone in Russia.

Schäffer’s offer appealed to Kaumuali‘i, who had long been unhappy with Kamehameha’s total domination, and saw an association with Russia (Schäffer) as a chance to reclaim his own independence as ruler of Kaua‘i.

Alliance with Western powers had worked for Kamehameha. Why should they not work for him? Just as Kamehameha had utilized foreigners and Western weapons, so too could he.

On May 21, 1816, and without the knowledge or approval of Czar Alexander Pavlovich, Kaumuali‘i signed a document that put Kaua‘i under the protection of the Russian Empire. In return, Schäffer promised Kaumuali‘i an armed Russian warship to lead an attack on Kamehameha’s forces.

Unaware that Schäffer was promising more than he could deliver, Kaumuali‘i agreed to the arrangement and was promised Russian protection as well as a ship that was to be the beginning of Kaua‘i’s naval forces.

On July 1, 1816, Schäffer and Kaumuali‘i entered into a secret agreement to use Schäffer’s (purported) Russian authority to reclaim Kaua‘i from King Kamehameha I, and also to launch expeditions against other islands that Kaumuali‘i felt he had a hereditary right to rule. Kaumuali‘i had thoughts of conquering Maui, Lāna‘i, Moloka‘i, and O‘ahu, which he felt to be his right based on lineage.

Schäffer designated Kaumuali‘i an officer in the Russian navy, complete with a uniform and a silver medal, and in turn asked for permanent trading posts for the Russian-American Company as well as exclusive trading rights, including rights to export sandalwood.

Kaumuali‘i had previously pledged allegiance to King Kamehameha I, and thus his agreement with Schäffer was considered treasonous. Kaumuali‘i promised Schäffer half of O‘ahu as well as rights to all of the valuable sandalwood growing on O‘ahu. Schäffer was to supply ships, ammunition, and men, while Kaumuali‘i would supply 500 men as well as food and provisions for the forces.

On September 12, 1816, with the assistance of Kaumuali‘i’s men and a few hundred Aleut Indians, Schäffer began building a lava-rock fort on the east bank of the Waimea River. This sacred site on Waimea Bay was formerly known as Pa‘ula‘ula o Hipo (“Red Enclosure of Hipo”).

Schäffer’s fort was built in the design of a six-pointed star, and included thirty-eight cannons to protect trading vessels arriving at the important anchorage. The Russian flag was raised over Fort Elizabeth, named in honor of the consort of the Russian Emperor, Empress Elizabeth (1779-1826).

For unknown reasons, Schäffer misspelled the name as “Elisabeth,” and a sign at the site still uses this spelling. The fort’s walls totaled about 1,200 feet (366 m) in length, standing up to 20 feet (6 m) high and 17 feet (5 m) wide at the base.

Schäffer’s grandiose gestures were not confined to fort-building. He was also able to take possession of the ship Lydia by sending the ship’s captain to the headquarters of the Russian-American Company at Sitka for a payment (which was never received).

Schäffer promptly gave the Lydia to Kaumuali‘i, who in turn granted Schäffer ownership of the valley of Hanalei, which at the time included at least 30 families. Presumably Schäffer was to assume something similar to the traditional role of konohiki, or headman of the Hanalei ahupua‘a (natural watershed land division), and the accompanying land and fishing rights.

With the encouragement of Kaumuali‘i, Schäffer renamed Hanalei Valley, calling it Schäfferthal (“Schäffer Valley” in German), and reputedly he also gave Russian names to some of the Hawaiians living there. A formal transfer of ownership took place on October 6, 1816, “with the Russian flag flying, a twenty-one gun salute, and toasts.”[cxviii]

Schäffer began work on two earthen fortresses in Hanalei: Fort Alexander, named after the Czar Alexander and built on the bluff above the Hanalei River near the current location of the Princeville Hotel; and Fort Barclay, named for Russian general Barclay deTooly and built nearer to Hanalei River.

Meanwhile, rumors of Schäffer’s rash activities had filtered back to the czar’s court. On November 21, 1816, Lieutenant Otto von Kotzebue arrived in Hawai‘i on the Russian Navy brig Rurik. He repudiated Schäffer’s acts, informing King Kamehameha that Schäffer and Kaumuali‘i did not have the support of the Russian Emperor.

Things came to a head a few weeks later when natives killed a Russian and set fire to some buildings near Fort Alexander at Hanalei. Aleuts from Russian Alaska carried water from the marsh below in an attempt to extinguish the flames.[cxix]

In May of 1817, as part of a plot by Americans in Hawai‘i to make Kaumuali‘i think twice about his association with Russia, Kaumuali‘i was informed (wrongly) that Russia and America were at war.

The implication was that by coming under Russian protection, Kaumuali‘i had declared himself an enemy of the United States—something he had not bargained for. The plan worked perfectly, and Kaumuali‘i promptly renounced the deal with Schäffer, who was quickly run out of Waimea.

Schäffer then sailed to Hanalei on the Kodiak, which was leaking badly. The Hawaiians and others onshore at Hanalei had already killed two Aleuts. Schäffer fired a three-gun salute as he raised a Russian flag at Fort Alexander. This angered Hanalei’s natives, who attacked the fort and wounded an Aleut. In return, the Russians fired their six-pounder cannons.

Some of Schäffer’s men left for Sitka, but Schäffer sailed for Honolulu on the unseaworthy Kodiak. The ship was taking on about two feet of water per hour and took about five days to reach Honolulu, barely making the voyage as the crew continuously pumped water from the ship. After reaching O‘ahu, Schäffer was told not to come ashore unless he wanted to surrender all his arms and be taken to Hawai‘i Island as a prisoner.

Fortunately for Schäffer, the American vessel Panther just happened to arrive in O‘ahu under the command of Captain Isaiah Lewis, who had been treated medically by Schäffer a year earlier. On July 7, 1817, Lewis provided Schäffer safe passage from the Hawaiian Islands.

In 1821, Schäffer emigrated to Brazil, where he purchased a title for himself. Thereafter he was known as Count von Frankenthal, and was made a nobleman by Emperor Dom Pedro I.

Much of Fort Elizabeth in Waimea was dismantled in 1864, having long since been abandoned. Today a significant amount of the once formidable stone-walled structure still stands.

An outline of the foundation of Fort Alexander may be seen on the lawn just above the Princeville Hotel. A small pavilion at the site provides information about the old fort.

Westward of [Hanalei Valley] there is a region of mountains, slashed by deep ravines. The upper ridges are densely timbered, and many of the ohias have a circumference of twenty-five feet three feet from the ground. It was sad to turn away forever from the loveliness of Hanalei, even though by taking another route, which involved a ride of forty miles, I passed through and in view of, most entrancing picturesqueness. Indeed, for mere loveliness, I think that part of Kauai exceeds anything that I have seen.

Isabella Bird Bishop, 1873[cxx]

The Sinking of Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i—Cleopatra’s Barge

The elegant royal ship Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i, originally known as Cleopatra’s Barge, was perhaps the most famous sailing vessel ever owned by the Hawaiian monarchy. Purchased by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) in 1820, the ship sank in Hanalei Bay four years later.

The Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i was built far from the Islands, 7,000 miles away in the harbor of Salem, Massachusetts. George Crowninshield Jr., heir to a shipping fortune, commissioned the Salem shipbuilding firm of Retire Becket to construct Cleopatra’s Barge, the first ocean-going yacht in the United States built solely for pleasure rather than commerce or war.

George Crowninshield Sr. earned a sizeable fortune through privateering during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and then became the head of a shipping firm called George Crowninshield and Sons. The shipping firm dissolved in 1815.

Measuring 100 feet (30 m) along its deck and 83 feet (25 m) long at its waterline, Cleopatra’s Barge cost about $50,000 to build and another $50,000 to furnish. The ship had five staterooms, a large forecastle, and mahogany paneling inlaid with bird’s-eye maple and other fine woods.

Known as a hermaphrodite brig, the extravagant vessel had a main mast that was square-rigged, while the fore and aft sails were rigged on the mizzen.

Thousands of visitors came to see Cleopatra’s Barge as it was being built in the Salem, Massachusetts harbor. The ship’s name comes from the famous William Shakespeare play Anthony and Cleopatra in a description of how the barge appeared as it carried Cleopatra on the river of Cydnus:

“The barge she sat in, like a burnish’d throne,

Burn’d on the water: the poop was beaten gold;

Purple the sails, and so perfumed that

The winds were love-sick with them; the oars were silver,

Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke, and made

The water which they beat to follow faster,

As amorous of their strokes.

For her own person,

It beggar’d all description: she did lie

In her pavilion—cloth-of-gold of tissue—

O’er-picturing that Venus where we see

The fancy outwork nature: on each side her

Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids,

With divers-colour’d fans, whose wind did seem

To glow the delicate cheeks which they did cool,

And what they undid did.”

[Illustration: Cleopatra’s Barge]

In April of 1817, George Crowninshield Jr. journeyed on Cleopatra’s Barge to sixteen southern European and Mediterranean ports, where many thousands of visitors admired the American ship.

After George Jr. passed away suddenly and unexpectedly, the ship’s expensive furnishings were auctioned off. In July of 1818, Cleopatra’s Barge was sold for $15,400.

The new owners of Cleopatra’s Barge, the Boston Merchant firm of Bryant and Sturgis, used the ship to carry a coffee shipment from Rio de Janeiro, but soon realized the vessel wasn’t a suitable cargo ship.

Cleopatra’s Barge was then sent to the Hawaiian Islands in the hopes that it could be traded for fragrant and valuable sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), which could be sold for a profit in China.

Cleopatra’s Barge made the voyage to Hawai‘i in 1820 under the command of Captain John Suter. The ship was then purchased by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), the 24-year-old son and successor of King Kamehameha I.

Kamehameha II had begun his reign in 1819, and in November of 1820 he acquired Cleopatra’s Barge for a cargo of sandalwood (8,000 piculs) worth about $80,000 in China, yielding a significant profit for the firm of Bryant and Sturgis. At the time, sandalwood was selling for about $10 per picul.

After purchasing Cleopatra’s Barge, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) renamed the ship Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i), and used it as a royal pleasure craft, ship-of-state, merchant vessel, and for interisland travels that included transporting American missionaries.

On July 21, 1821, King Kamehameha II sailed to Kaua‘i on his royal ship to meet with Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler, Kaumuali‘i.

When King Kamehameha II arrived at Waimea, Kaumuali‘i pledged his allegiance to the monarch and accepted his sovereignty. Kaumuali‘i did this despite the fact that he had recently plotted with Georg Schäffer to overthrow the rule of the monarchy.

King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) then embarked on a 42-day tour of Kaua‘i, and upon the completion of his journey he invited King Kaumuali‘i to come aboard the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i, which was again anchored in Waimea Bay. Once Kaumuali‘i was aboard, the King Kamehameha II set sail for O‘ahu, taking Kaumuali‘i as a prisoner.

Later on O‘ahu the powerful Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, the former queen as the wife of King Kamehameha I, married the captive Kaumuali‘i to ensure the monarchy’s control over Kaua‘i. Ka‘ahumanu furthered her efforts to eliminate potential threats to her power by also marrying Keali‘iahonui, the son of Kaumuali‘i by another wife. Kaumuali‘i passed away on O‘ahu in 1824.

When King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) was away from the Islands visiting England with Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] in 1824, a royal crew sailed the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i to Kaua‘i, perhaps to investigate a possible insurrection there. It would be the ship’s last journey.

On April 5, 1824, the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i became shipwrecked at the mouth of the Wai‘oli River in Hanalei Bay, and was abandoned.

The king and queen would never learn of the fate of the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i. Queen Kamāmalu died of measles on July 8, 1824, and less than one week later King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) also died of the disease.

Ironically, the royal couple had originally intended to sail to Europe on the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i, but a late change of plans led them to instead sail on the whale ship L’Aigle. The king died without ever receiving news that his elegant ship-of-state had met its demise on the reefs of Hanalei Bay.

In a written account, missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869) blamed the shipwreck of Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i on a drunken crew. Others dispute this cause, instead blaming the ship’s captain, the weather, and even the natives of Kaua‘i, who did have a potential motive since their former ruler, Kaumuali‘i, was at the time being held in Honolulu as a virtual prisoner of King Kamehameha II. A few days after the shipwreck of the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i, a salvage attempt was witnessed by missionary Reverend Hiram Bingham.

Bingham’s account states: “After the people had, with commendable activity, brought on shore from the wreck, spars, rigging, and other articles they attempted to draw up the brig itself. This furnished one of the best specimens of the physical force of the people, which I ever had opportunity to observe for more than twenty years among them—indeed the most striking which I ever saw made by unaided human muscles.”[cxxi]

Bingham tells of how the natives wove rope from the bark of the hau tree, “and with their hands without any machinery, made several thousand yards of strong rope...twelve folds of this they made into a cable. Three cables of this kind they prepared for the purpose of dragging up the wreck of the Cleopatra’s Barge on shore.”[cxxii]

Three ropes were attached to the ship’s mainmast, and the men were directed by an older man named Kiaimakani (“Wind watcher”), who “passed up and down through the different ranks...the old chieftain, with the natural tones and inflections, instructed them to grasp the ropes firmly, rise together at the signal, and leaning inland, to look and draw straight forward, without looking backwards toward the vessel.”[cxxiii]

Unfortunately the ship’s main mast snapped and the huge vessel rolled back, ending the salvage efforts. A large man named Kiu was descending the ship’s mainmast as it splintered.

The natives feared he had been killed, and they rushed to see what had happened. Fortunately they discovered Kiu swimming in the water on the ocean side of the wreck.

“...the ancient meles of Hawaii, prayers for divine aid and means of infusing the swing of rhythm into prolonged muscular effort, old songs of an almost vanished folk disappearing before the steam-roller, as it were of civilization which would iron every folk out on the same model. Such a prayer of olden days was heard there at Hanalei, chanted by one trained in the art, to swing the waiting multitude into the rhythm of concerted action. It was an ancient and popular song, used when a tree for a canoe was to be drawn from the mountains to the shore, rehearsed with great rapidity and surprising fluency.

The multitude quietly listening some six or eight minutes, at a particular turn or passage in the song indicating the order to march, rose together, and as the song continued with increasing volubility and force, slowly moved forward in silence; and all strained their huge ropes, tugging together to heave up the vessel. The brig felt their power, rolled up slowly towards the shore, upon her keel, till her side came firmly against the rock [reef], and there instantly stopped: but the immense team moved unchecked; and the mainmast broke and fell with its shrouds, being taken off by the cables drawn by unaided muscular strength. The hull instantly rolled back to her former place, and was considered irrecoverable.”

Reverend Hiram Bingham, 1824[cxxiv]

In the 1850s, the builders of a small vessel at Wai‘oli paid native Hawaiians to retrieve an iron gun from the wreck of the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i. Also retrieved from the 1824 shipwreck were the oak capstan (much decayed) and the iron post upon which it revolved.

In 1932, 93-year-old George Norton Wilcox recalled: “I was reading Your account of hauling on the Cleopatra’s Barge at Hanalei. It rolled back on to the reef. I wonder how it ever got over that reef into deep water inside the reef. Yes, I suppose some storm rolled it in.”[cxxv]

George also recalled diving down to the wreck: “The natives told me it was five fathoms deep there where it lay. When I was a boy some divers went searching there to find a brass cannon that was said to be on it. But it must have been taken off long before. I tried to dive with the natives, but it was so deep I had to come up, couldn’t stand the pressure. The natives brought up some bolts encrusted with coral.”[cxxvi]

In 1995, researchers from the Smithsonian Institute rediscovered the shipwrecked Cleopatra’s Barge buried beneath the sands of Hanalei Bay. Many historic artifacts were recovered (see Part 5).

The Kaua‘i Rebellion

In 1824, after the death of Kaua‘i’s former ruler Kaumuali‘i, his son Humehume challenged the rule of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) with a surprise attack on the fort at Waimea. The fort was successfully defended, and Humehume’s troops retreated to nearby Wahiawa and Hanapēpē.

King Kamehameha II was away in England at the time of Humehume’s attack on the fort. The king had left Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu in charge of the Hawaiian monarchy. In response to Humehume’s rebellion, the well-armed troops of Ka‘ahumanu’s Principal Counselor, Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], marched on Hanapēpē and the Wahiawa plains.

Kalanimoku (1768-1827) was also known as “Billy Pitt”, Kalanimoku was the right hand man, Treasurer and Principal Counselor (Kālaimoku) to King Kamehameha I and to later to Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu. Kalanimoku was present at the death of Captain Cook, and took the nickname of “Billy Pitt” after William Pitt, the English Prime Minister; guardian of young Liholiho (the future King Kamehameha II).

Maui’s Governor Hoapili commanded the warrior force of Ka‘ahumanu, which included about 350 soldiers from Maui and as many as 1,000 O‘ahu soldiers. On August 18, 1824, Ka‘ahumanu’s warriors marched from Waimea to Hanapēpē and then continued for about two miles up the east side of Hanapēpē Valley.

Kalanimoku’s warriors easily defeated Humehume’s meager and ill-prepared forces, who were armed only with spears and relatively few muskets. An estimated 50 to 130 of Humehume’s group were killed, including women and children. It was said that many of the dead were left on the battlefield to be eaten by pigs, and thus the event became known as ‘Aipua‘a (“Pig eater”[cxxvii]).

Kalanimoku further avenged Humehume’s rebellious attack on the fort by searching out and slaughtering or deporting anyone remotely connected to the failed rebellion, including many Kaua‘i chiefs. Humehume, who had fled on horseback into the mountains with his wife and child, was captured about two weeks after the initial attack on the Waimea fort.

Ka‘ahumanu arrived on Kaua‘i on August 27, 1824 and soon replaced virtually all of Kaua‘i’s chiefs with chiefs from O‘ahu and Maui who were loyal to her and to King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).[cxxviii] Even Kaua‘i chiefs loyal to the monarchy were taken from their positions of power and replaced by O‘ahu and Maui chiefs, most of whom were relatives of King Kamehameha I.

A. Keali‘iahonui, the son of the former Kaua‘i ruler Kaumuali‘i, remained in control of the ahupua‘a of Kalihikai, the only region on Kaua‘i still under the control of a Kaua‘i native, [cxxix] Kaikio‘ewa, a cousin of King Kamehameha I, was appointed governor of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, replacing Governor Paul Kanoa (1802—1885). Humehume remained imprisoned on O‘ahu until his death of influenza on May 3, 1826.

[Photograph: Humehume]

Captain Kellett—Hanalei’s Pilot of the Port

One of the first Caucasians to settle in Hanalei was Englishman Captain John Kellett, who first arrived in the Islands in 1825 and came to Hanalei in 1836. Kellett served for many years as Hanalei’s Pilot of the Port (harbor pilot), overseeing the movement of ships arriving at Hanalei Bay. Kellett also kept a warehouse for produce being shipped from Hanalei.[cxxx]

Captain Kellett built what came to be known as the Kellett House on a bluff called Lanihuli overlooking the ocean near the mouth of the Hanalei River. Kellett’s home played a prominent role in the early post-contact history of Hanalei.

“Mr. Kellet was the pilot at Hanalei harbor...he had a rather bent figure, was very spare, and had long white hair which hung in curly waves on his shoulders and he walked with his feet well turned out, as was the style of a man o’wars-man in those days. He had a Hawaiian wife and a family of two daughters Mary and Betty and five sons.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[cxxxi]

The Kellett house was often referred to as the Lanihuli home, or simply Lanihuli, the name of the area where it was built. According to legend, “when the Līhau-o-Lanihuli, ‘gentle cool rain of Lanihuli,’ blew, fishermen considered it a lucky omen and went to the river or sea.”[cxxxii]

The Kellett house at Lanihuli was home to Captain Kellett’s family for many years. The home was located on the rise between the Hanalei River and the plateau, and became a gathering place for visitors.

The makai (seaward) side of the large Kellett house was rented to numerous different Hanalei families during Kellett’s lifetime, including the Dudoits, Rhodes, Wundenbergs, and Princeville Plantation owner Robert Crichton Wyllie.

Captain Jules Dudoit served as the first French Consul to Hawai‘i from 1837-1848. When Captain Belcher of the Sulphur visited Hanalei in 1837 with Dudoit, he noted that “The Consul possesses a tract of land on which his tenant (Kellett, an Englishman) feeds cattle, makes butter, cheese, and farms to great advantage. I am certain that our men derived more nourishment from the cattle we embarked there than from any previous diet...I would therefore strongly advise ships of war to sacrifice much to secure these advantages.”[cxxxiii]

Captain John Kellett passed away in 1877 and was buried at Lanihuli. One of the daughters of John and Becky Kellett was named Becky, and married Captain Hatfield, who commanded Robert Crichton Wyllie’s schooner, named the Prince of Hawaii.

Two children of John and Becky Kellett were Mrs. Birkmyre and Mrs. Makee, who lived in Hanalei. Another daughter of Captain Kellett, Mary, married Hiram Friedenberg, who grew up in Kōloa and later grew sugarcane in Hanalei.

Children of Hiram Friedenberg included Mrs. Deverill, Mrs. Radway, and Mrs. Lindley.[cxxxiv] By the early 1900s the Kellett House fell into disrepair, and soon was beyond reclamation. “On the bluff of Lanihuli, overlooking the ocean,” wrote Ethel Damon in 1931, “lived for forty years Captain Kellett, an Englishman...He built the quaint, rambling house at Lanihuli, now, alas, almost in ruins...”[cxxxv]

Robert Crichton Wyllie, Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Hawaiian Kingdom and owner of the Princeville Plantation, rented half of the Kellett house for use as a summer residence and for his English-style entertainment. Wyllie often allowed visitors to stay there when he was gone, and he had a Chinese cook named Koka (also spelled Goka).[cxxxvi]

The daughter of the Princeville Plantation manger recalled: “Our servants were all Hawaiians with the exception of Goka a Chinese steward, who was a very superior man...and kept a store on the hill near Lanehule [Lanihuli].”[cxxxvii]

Koka’s younger brother, Ah Poi, came from China to run the business with him, “and they were most successful.”[cxxxviii] Koka later married a part-Hawaiian, part-Caucasian woman and returned to China.

“We kept no cows...in the valley, and had to buy our milk from Mr. Kellet. He sold it at a rial (12½ cents) a gallon.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[cxxxix]

Charles Titcomb—Silk, Coffee, Sugar, and “Emmasville”

Foreigners attempting agricultural pursuits in the Islands quickly came to appreciate the fertile soils on the coastal plain of Hanalei. The ready water supply and warm climate made Hanalei the site of many agricultural endeavors in the early 1800s.

Land use in the region changed from primarily taro and other traditional Hawaiian crops to a variety of new agricultural products, some of which were more successful than others.

Charles Titcomb was one of Hanalei’s first foreign agricultural entrepreneurs, and perhaps the most persistent. By profession a watch-maker, Titcomb began his attempt to build an industry of silk production in 1836 with an extensive silk cocoonery in Hanalei.

Titcomb’s silkworm operation extended along the banks of the Hanalei River, about one mile up from the ocean, on 90 acres of land leased from King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

Captain Belcher of the Sulphur noted in 1837 that “A new house had been erected, ground fenced in, and an extensive plantation of mulberry trees were in full vigour, preparatory to the introduction of the silk-worm.”[cxl]

Titcomb initially planted about 25 acres of mulberry trees, and by 1840 he had about 100,000 of the trees growing to provide food for an estimated 500,000 silkworms imported from China and America. The trees were of the native or black mulberry varieties, as well as species imported from the United States. Species included white, Canton, and Morus multicaulis.

Titcomb raised the crossbred Chinese-American silkworm, which produced a pale yellow silk (sometimes straw to orange-colored), and the American silkworm, which produced a coarser, white silk.

Titcomb was said to be the first person to export silk from the Hawaiian Islands, producing several high-quality crops that he sold for a high price to Mazatlan and Mexico City.[cxli] He also employed many native Hawaiians and considered the Hawaiian women “skilful in the art of reeling the delicate threads from the tiny cocoons.”[cxlii]

About 5,500 silkworm cocoons were required to produce one pound of reeled silk, with one acre of trees producing about 50 pounds of raw silk. Hawai‘i’s rich soil and warm, moist climate allowed the mulberry trees to grow extremely fast—up to one inch per day.

Despite some initial success, Titcomb’s silkworm enterprise suffered numerous setbacks and he struggled to make a profit. Titcomb eventually abandoned the silkworm enterprise due to droughts, insect pests, and strong seasonal winds that stripped the trees of their leaves.

A major drought affected the region in 1840, and insect pests affecting the silk enterprise included a large spider species. Another obstacle was the fact that the worms needed daily feeding but missionaries discouraged work on the Sabbath, which was traditionally a day of rest.

By 1844, Titcomb had transferred his energies to the production of coffee, after “securing berries from the Kona fields of Messrs. Hall and Cummings.”[cxliii] Titcomb’s coffee plantation put him in direct competition with his neighbors, Englishman Godfrey Rhodes and Frenchman John Bernard, who had started their own coffee plantation in Hanalei in 1842.

Titcomb hired children of the nearby Select School at Wai‘oli to tend to his thousands of coffee plants growing near the Hanalei River. He provided the students with hoes and also allowed them to plant beans between the rows of coffee for their own use.

The lack of a paper currency in Hawai‘i had long been a problem for Titcomb. George Norton Wilcox recalled, “Paper money? No, I don’t remember ever seeing paper money at Hanalei. Perhaps I was too young to use it. But I suppose that was what old Titcomb was always growling about, complaining that the government would not make it official coinage.”[cxliv]

Eventually, Titcomb and other early immigrant agricultural entrepreneurs procured some of the first paper currency in the Islands. The money was produced by Judge Andrews, who “engraved small currency for the settlers, Bernard, Titcomb and Kellett, of Hanalei.”[cxlv]

In 1844, the students of the Select School earned “about $500.00 in paper currency or trade for cultivating [Titcomb’s] thousands of coffee plants on the Hanalei river, after the young plants were set out.”[cxlvi]

By 1846, more than 100,000 coffee trees were growing in Hanalei Valley on the coffee plantations of Titcomb and his neighbors John Bernard and Godfrey Rhodes.

Titcomb’s coffee mill consisted of a mule turning a perpendicular post fitted at the top with a horizontal cog wheel that turned a flay wheel connected by bands to the milling machinery. Titcomb’s house and sheds “stood on the left hand side of the present road as one follows through the valley, about half way between the big bridge and the first group of stores.”[cxlvii]

Despite initial success, coffee production in Hanalei eventually came to an end due to several factors, including the loss of laborers to the California Gold Rush in the 1840s, floods in 1847, a drought in 1851, and blight due to the white hairy louse (an aphid species).

In 1855, R. C. Wyllie bought Godfrey Rhodes’ business interest in the Hanalei plantation for $8,000. The sizeable coffee plantations of both Titcomb and Wyllie soon succumbed to the various problems, and both men took to growing sugarcane.[cxlviii] By 1862, the uprooted coffee trees were being used to fuel sugar boilers.

[Photographs: Titcomb, Rhodes, Wyllie]

“The coffee blight has already covered the two Hanalei plantations which in the spring of 1857 we saw in full and successful culture, yielding 200,000 pounds of excellent coffee. The scores of women and children were busy picking the ripe berries and depositing their gathering at night at the overseer’s office, but now all is silent. Not a gatherer was abroad and we saw laborers bringing in coffee trees upon their shoulders, to heat the sugar boilers of Mr. Titcomb.”

Reverend Samuel C. Damon

Note: Damon’s account was written for the newspaper The Friend, of which he was editor, and was cited in: Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

Entrepreneurial and determined, Titcomb began a sugar plantation and built a crude sugar mill that used four or five horses to turn the rollers. Titcomb’s mill “had no centrifugals to dry his sugar but his golden syrup was beautiful,”[cxlix] according to Hanalei resident Josephine Wundenberg King.

Desiring to boost production, Titcomb asked the captain of a whaling vessel headed south to bring him new varieties of sugarcane. The whaling ship George Washington under the command of Captain Pardon Edwards returned to Hawai‘i from Tahiti in 1854 with the sugarcane varieties requested by Titcomb, but Edwards sailed to Lahaina instead of Hanalei and Titcomb never received the samples.

The new sugarcane varieties were propagated by United States Consul Chase who “planted them in his garden, where both varieties, Tahiti and Cuban, flourished.”[cl] The lush growth of the new varieties attracted the attention of Hawai‘i’s sugarcane farmers, and within a few years cuttings were being widely planted.

The Tahitian variety eventually came to be known as Lahaina cane, and was preferred because it grew fast and had high yields as well as a hard rind that deterred rodents and other pests.[cli]

In 1856, after King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) married Emma Na‘ea Rooke, at Kawaiaha‘o Church, and then the royal newlyweds visited Kaua‘i as part of a “Royal Progress” through the Hawaiian Islands.

Emma Na‘ea Rooke was the adopted daughter of Dr. Rooke, and was given the name Kalanikaumakeamano at birth, taking the name Kaleleonālani after her husband and son died.

She was Hawai‘i’s queen as the wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and was the mother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862). Queen Emma was the daughter of George Na‘ea and Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young, and the granddaughter of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o] (parents of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young).

Queen Emma was the great granddaughter of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (the brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]). Queen Emma was also the great great granddaughter of Keōua Kupuapāikalaninui and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]).

In Hanalei, the royal couple King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma stayed at Charles Titcomb’s coffee plantation in Hanalei, and to honor the Queen, Titcomb changed the name of his plantation to “Emmasville.”

On February 5, 1863, Princeville Plantation owner R. C. Wyllie paid $29,000 to purchase about 750 acres of Titcomb’s 956 acres at “Emmasville.”[clii] Titcomb retained ownership of his sugar and coffee mills. Titcomb then moved to Kīlauea, “where he had already, on January 27, 1863, secured from Kamehameha 4th for $2000 the Grant to the Ahupuaa of Kilauea.”[cliii]

Titcomb built a home in Kīlauea and lived there until he passed away in 1883, two years after the passing of his wife. The Titcombs were laid to rest in a family cemetery in back of their Kīlauea home, where their son Charles was also buried.[cliv] In the early 1900s, the Kīlauea home was used as the Plantation Hospital.

Kaua‘i’s First Cattle Ranch

Another significant foreign influence on Kaua‘i’s north shore in the early 1800s was the cattle ranch of Englishman Richard Charlton, which was later purchased and run by Captain Jules Dudoit.

The ranch was founded on August 27, 1831 when Charlton, the British Consul for Hawai‘i in Honolulu, secured a 20-year lease from Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa for a portion of Hanalei from the eastern side of Hanalei Valley to Kalihiwai.[clv]

With longhorn cattle brought from “Norte California,”[clvi] Charlton started one of the first cattle ranches in the Hawaiian Islands, and the first on Kaua‘i. By 1840, Charlton had about 100 head of cattle. Charlton’s fee for use of the Hanalei area land was to be paid with lumber, “560 boards,”[clvii] to be cut by Charlton and used by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to build a house. Apparently the fee was never paid by Charlton, yet he retained use of the land until the lease was purchased by Jules Dudoit in 1845.

Captain Jules Dudoit served as the first French Consul to Hawai‘i from 1837-1848, during which time there was a controversy regarding Catholic priests from France in Hawai‘i, as well as significant disagreements of about the importation of alcohol. Dudoit moved to Hanalei with his family in 1848 after retiring from the consulship.

From 1848 until the early 1850s, the Dudoits, including their five children (Maude, Adele, Blanche, Charles, and Jules), lived in the Kellett House. Dudoit exported butter and packed salt beef for whaling ships, and also shipped beef to Honolulu.

Behind the Kellett home was an area where cattle were slaughtered. Elsie Wilcox noted that the slaughter-pens “were in the little valley back of the Lanihuli home, directly back of where Mr. Birkmyer’s house now stands.”[clviii]

Jules Dudoit owned the brigantine John Dunlap, which often made trips across the Ka‘ie‘iewaho Channel (Kaua‘i Channel) between Kaua‘i and O‘ahu and provided one of Hanalei’s few sources of supplies from Honolulu at the time, and in turn purchasing cattle and salt beef from Hanalei. Mrs. Dudoit was the daughter of renowned explorer Peter Corney, an employee of the Hudson Bay Company and author of The Early Voyages of Peter Corney.

Living with Mr. and Mrs. Dudoit in Hanalei was the wife of Peter Corney as well as three of the Corney children: Fanny, Emily, and Peter. Jules Dudoit had traveled to Hawai‘i on a ship with the Corneys, who were going on to meet their father, Peter Corney, in the Northwest.

Upon learning of their father’s death, the Corney family remained in the Hawaiian Islands where one of the daughters, Anna, married Jules Dudoit.

When Albert Lyman of Connecticut sailed the trading schooner Samuel Roberts into Hanalei Bay in 1850 he noted, “We every day procure a bucket of the most delicious rich and new milk from the estate of Mr. Dudaver/Dudoit, on which he has about 1800 head of fine cattle. Milk is a most acceptable article on board, and a rare treat for us all.”[clix]

Jules Dudoit purchased a Grant to the Namahana land in the Ko‘olau district from Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) for $603 and moved there with his family.[clx] In 1862, Dudoit sold his Kaua‘i property to Samuel Clark and moved to Honolulu.

Jules Dudoit was murdered in 1866 while sleeping in bed. The crime was committed by Dudoit’s Chinese cook, apparently because the cook’s wages “had been docked for broken crockery.”[clxi] Mrs. Dudoit narrowly escaped death in the incident, but then went on to live a long life, passing away in 1903.

The Great Māhele

On January 27, 1848, the total control of Hawai‘i’s land by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) ended with the institution of a new system of private property ownership known as the Great Māhele (“mahele” means division), with the king dividing the land between himself and 245 of his chiefs.

Note: The term “Great” is not always used, since some people do not consider the institution of private property ownership in Hawai‘i a “Great,” event, as it eventually led to Hawaiian commoners owning less than one percent of Hawai‘i’s land.

The Māhele was completed on March 7, 1848, and on the following day the remaining land was divided between the king and the government. The end result was that about 24% of Hawai‘i’s land was owned by the king (Crown lands); 37% was owned by the government; and 38% was given to the ruling ali‘i (chiefs) (it was primarily this portion of Hawai‘i’s lands that became today’s private lands, sold and traded).

Maka‘āinana (commoners) were able to apply for title to lands they cultivated, referred to as kuleana, and in 1850 the Kuleana Act was passed to define their rights and authorized a Land Commission to grant land titles.

The Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles was usually simply called the Land Commission, and was appointed in December of 1845 by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) to determine land rights. In November of 1846, commoners were given the right to buy the land they cultivated in November of 1846, but the process for this to occur was not enacted into law until August of 1850.

The Land Commission was dissolved in 1855. Requirements for maka‘āinana to be granted land included having the land surveyed, filing a claim with the Land Commission, and proving the land was being cultivated to earn a living

Throughout the archipelago, about 11,000 maka‘āinana (commoners) were granted about 28,600 acres (11,574 ha) of land.[clxii] The Indices of Awards in the Māhele recorded 70 kuleana grants in Wai‘oli, 55 in Hanalei, and 19 in Kalihikai.[clxiii]

After the Great Māhele, the ahupua‘a of Hanalei was held as Crown lands by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). The ahupua‘a of Waipā was given to Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, the great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, and the ahupua‘a of Wai‘oli was considered government land.

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826-1883), was the daughter of Mataio Kekūanaō‘a and Kalani Pauahi; the wife of William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I); and the mother of William Pitt Kīna‘u. Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani’s second husband was Isaac Young Davis.

On her mother’s side, Princess Ruth was the granddaughter of Keōuwahine and Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū, and great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and Kānekapōlei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū).

In 1850 the Legislature passed a law allowing non-Hawaiians (resident aliens) to own land in the Hawaiian Islands. By 1890, more than 75 percent of lands originally granted to chiefs was owned by non-Hawaiians.

The massive loss of Hawaiian-owned lands to non-Hawaiians was exacerbated by a law passed by the Legislature in 1874 removing mortgage transactions from the courts and placing them in private hands. This resulted in huge losses of lands by natives to non-Hawaiians in the 1880s. The law apparently allowed the lender to foreclose without notice then buy the land in a rigged auction.



[i] p. 239, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[ii] Polynesian settlement of the Hawaiian Islands is thought to have occurred sometime between 200 and 700 A.D. (See Timeline c.200-500 A.D.)

[iii] The estimated date of Polynesians first reaching the Hawaiian Islands is c.200-700 A.D.

[iv] Population estimates of the Hawaiian Islands at the time of Western contact range from less than 300,000 to more than 700,000.

[v] Ka‘ie‘iewaho means “Outer Ka‘ie‘ie,” in reference to the ‘ie‘ie vine. Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vi] During Kamehameha’s 1796 attempt to invade Kaua‘i, a few advance troops apparently made it to Kaua‘i, but were killed when they reached shore.

[vii] p. 62, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[viii] p. 61-62, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[ix] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[x] p. 4, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[xi] p. 128, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[xii] p. 240, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xiii] p. 184, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xiv] p. 2, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934. Mary C. Alexander is the daughter of William DeWitt Alexander.

[xv] p. 2, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xvi] p. 2, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xvii] p. 183, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xviii] p. 190, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xix] p. 325, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931. The area was also referred to as Betelema by Reverend Johnson in 1853.

[xx] p. 181, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxi] Riznik, Barnes. Digging Down under Wai‘oli Mission Hall. Historic Hawai‘i News, 1980; and Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxii] Riznik, Barnes. Digging Down under Wai‘oli Mission Hall. Historic Hawai‘i News, 1980; and Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxiii] p. 2240, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xxiv] p. 183, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxv] p. 15, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxvi] p. 190, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxvii] pp. 183-184, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxviii] p. 184, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxix] p. 184, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxx] p. 182, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxxi] p. 191, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxxii] The population estimate decreased to 1,641 by 1860. P. 5, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[xxxiii] p. 12, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xxxiv] p. 325, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xxxv] p. 184, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxxvi] p. 2, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xxxvii] p. 195, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxxviii] p. 195, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xxxix] p. 190, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xl] p. 190, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xli] p. 8, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xlii] p. 328, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xliii] p. 188, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xliv] p. 191, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[xlv] p. 12, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xlvi] p. 12, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xlvii] p. 43, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xlviii] p. 3, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[xlix] p. 3, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[l] p. 10, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[li] p. 11, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lii] p. 242, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[liii] p. 196, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[liv] p. 199, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[lv] p. 245, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lvi] p. 245, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lvii] p. 245, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lviii] pp. 243, 244, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lix] pp. 12-13, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lx] pp. 12-13, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxi] p. 329, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[lxii] p. 329, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[lxiii] p. 14, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxiv] p. 199, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[lxv] p. 197, Alexander, Mary Charlotte. William Patterson Alexander: In Kentucky, the Marquesas, Hawaii. Honolulu, Privately Printed, 1934.

[lxvi] p. 12, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxvii] p. 12, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxviii] p. 15, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxix] p. 10, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[lxx] p. 15, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxxi] LeaseKamehameha III, To William P. Alexander, October 12, 1841 (Translation). On file at Grove Farm Museum, Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i.

[lxxii] p. 9, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxxiii] p. 247, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxiv] p. 19, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxxv] p. 247, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxvi] p. 247, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxvii] Waioli Mission DistrictNational Register of Historic Places: InventoryNomination Form. United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service. Also: Waioli ChurchNational Register of Historic Places: Statement of Architectural and Historical Significance. United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service. Also: A Brief History of the Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church. Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church Bulletin, 2003.

[lxxviii] p. 9. Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[lxxix] Waioli ChurchNational Register of Historic Places: Statement of Architectural and Historical Significance, United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service, citing Alexander, James M.—Mission Life in Hawaii. Memoir of Rev. William P. Alexander. Pacific Press Publishing Co., 1888.

[lxxx] p. 248, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxxi] Historic Waioli Church. Waioli Hui‘ia United Church of Christ, brochure.

[lxxxii] p. 19, Alexander, Mary C. Notes of the Early Life of William Patterson and Mary Ann Alexander (1834-1843). Kaua‘i Historical Society, 10/22/1934.

[lxxxiii] p. 38, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[lxxxiv] p. 278, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxxv] pp. 43-44, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[lxxxvi] p. 150, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[lxxxvii] p. 249, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxxviii] p. 276, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917; citing p. 169, Thrum’s Annual, 1903.

[lxxxix] p. 258, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xc] p. 259, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xci] p. 262, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xcii] p. 261, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xciii] p. 271, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xciv] p. 5, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, May 29, 1930. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[xcv] p. 6, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xcvi] p. 235, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xcvii] p. 235, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xcviii] p. 35, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xcix] p. 263, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[c] p. 12, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, Feb. 14, 1921. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[ci] p. 1, Report of Waioli Select School for 1848. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cii] p. 213, Alexander, William DeWitt. Private Journal of a Tour of Kauai (Written by William DeWitt Alexander, when a boy of sixteen, in 1849). Read to the Kauai Historical Society, May 8, 1933.

[ciii] p. 271, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[civ] p. 32, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[cv] p. 49, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[cvi] pp. 4-5, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, May 29, 1930. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i. George Norton Wilcox was the on of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox, who served as missionaries at Wai‘oli from 1846 to 1869.

[cvii] Report of the Committee on the Support of Mr. Wilcox and the Waioli Select School, 1861. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cviii] The Hanalei English School became a public school in 1881.

[cix] Report of Waioli Select School From July 16th, to May 12th, 1863. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cx] Report of Waioli Select School From July 16th, to May 12th, 1863. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxi] Report of Waioli Select School From July 16th, to May 12th, 1863. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxii] Report of Waioli Select School From July 16th, to May 12th, 1863. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxiii] King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxiv] pp. 15-16, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxv] p. 6, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, March 8, 1932. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxvi] p. 390, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cxvii] p. 393, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cxviii] pp. 7-8, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[cxix] p. 8, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[cxx] Bird 1964: 194-5.

[cxxi] pp. 221-222, Bingham, Hiram. A Residence of Twenty-One Years in the Sandwich Islands. Hartford: Hezekiah Huntington; New York: Sherman Converse, 1848.

[cxxii] pp. 221-222, Bingham, Hiram. A Residence of Twenty-One Years in the Sandwich Islands. Hartford: Hezekiah Huntington; New York: Sherman Converse, 1848.

[cxxiii] pp. 221-222, Bingham, Hiram. A Residence of Twenty-One Years in the Sandwich Islands. Hartford: Hezekiah Huntington; New York: Sherman Converse, 1848.

[cxxiv] Cited on pp. 321-322, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxxv] p. 5, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, March 12, 1932. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxxvi] p. 5, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, March 12, 1932. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxxvii] p. 112, 113, Wichman, Frederick B. Nā Pua Ali‘i O Kaua‘i: Ruling Chiefs of Kaua‘i. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003.

[cxxviii] p. 113, Wichman, Frederick B. Nā Pua Ali‘i O Kaua‘i: Ruling Chiefs of Kaua‘i. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003.

[cxxix] p. 105, Moffat, Riley M., and Fitzpatrick, Gary L. Surveying the Māhele. Honolulu: Editions Limited, 1995.

[cxxx] p. 7, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[cxxxi] p. 2, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxxxii] p. 109, Wichman, Frederick B. Kaua‘i: Ancient Place-Names and Their Stories. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1998.

[cxxxiii] p. 67, Narrative of a Voyage Round the World, Performed in Her Majesty’s Ship Sulphur, During the Years 1836-1842, Including Details of the Naval Operations in China, From Dec. 1840, to Nov. 1841. Published under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Captain Sir Edward Belcher, Commander of the Expedition, Volume I, London: Henry Colburn, Publisher, Great Marlborough Street, 1843.

[cxxxiv] p. 335, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

pp. 278-279, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxxxv] p. 334, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxxxvi] Elsie Wilcox spells his name Koka in: Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917, but Josephine Wundenberg King spells the name Goka in: King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxxxvii] p. 5, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxxxviii] p. 279, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxxxix] pp. 10-11, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cxl] p. 281, Narrative of a Voyage Round the World, Performed in Her Majesty’s Ship Sulphur, During the Years 1836-1842, Including Details of the Naval Operations in China, From Dec. 1840, to Nov. 1841. Published under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Captain Sir Edward Belcher, Commander of the Expedition, Volume I, London: Henry Colburn, Publisher, Great Marlborough Street, 1843.

[cxli] p. 271, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917, citing Alexander’s History.

[cxlii] p. 332, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxliii] pp. 332-333, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxliv] p. 13, Ethel Damon’s Interviews with G. N. Wilcox, March, 1921. On file at Grove Farm, Kaua‘i.

[cxlv] p. 186, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxlvi] p. 278-9, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cxlvii] p. 271, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxlviii] p. 277, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxlix] p. 14, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[cl] pp. 176-177, Dorrance, William H., and Morgan, Francis S. Sugar Islands: The 165-Year Story of Sugar in Hawai‘i. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2000.

[cli] pp. 176-177, Dorrance, William H., and Morgan, Francis S. Sugar Islands: The 165-Year Story of Sugar in Hawai‘i. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2000.

[clii] p. 347, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cliii] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cliv] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[clv] Charlton served as British Consul for Hawai‘i in Honolulu from 1825 to 1846.

[clvi] Princeville Ranch. p. 2, Na Leo ‘O Princeville. Princeville Corporation & Princeville Utilities Company, Inc., Summer, 2003.

[clvii] p. 270, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[clviii] p. 275, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[clix] Damon 1931:335.

[clx] p. 275, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[clxi] p. 275, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[clxii] The 28,600 acres of land granted to maka‘āinana (commoners) was less than 1% of the land total of about 4.5 million acres, but much of it was located in prime agricultural areas.

[clxiii] See Timeline: 1848.