Hanalei History Part 3

Part 3

Royal Visits and the Story of Princeville

(18501900)
 

Princess Ruth Visits Hanalei

Princeville Plantation—Rhodes, Wundenberg, Wyllie, and Kikiula

The Hanalei Sugar Mill

Wyllie’s Broadside Distributed to Natives of Hanalei

Princeville Plantation House—Walter Foss Sanborn

Hanalei’s First Catholic Chapel

Roman Catholic Chapel, Belfry, and Rectory

The Stranded Crew of the U.S.S. Saginaw (1870)

King Kalākaua Visits Hanalei

Princess Lili‘uokalani Visits Hanalei

The Deverill House—Hanalei Hotel

By the mid-1800s, visits to Hanalei Bay by sandalwood traders and whalers decreased significantly, and the Hanalei region returned to relative isolation.

The peak years of the sandalwood trade were from 1810 to 1840 as sandalwood forests were logged at a rapid pace to meet China’s growing market. By 1840, nearly all of Hawai‘i’s sandalwood trees of marketable size had been cut down.

The whaling era began in 1819 when the Equator and the Balena became the first whaling ships to stop in the Hawaiian Islands. The peak year for whaling ship arrivals was 1846 when at least 596 whaling ships crowded Hawaiian ports, including Kōloa on Kaua‘i’s south side.

Whale populations were diminishing rapidly in the 1840s due to over-harvesting. In 1849 oil was discovered in Pennsylvania, and became the new source of lubricants for industry, bringing an end of the whaling industry and Hawai‘i’s whaling era.

Hanalei’s increasing isolation after the sandalwood and whaling eras caused problems for anyone needing off-island products. A steamer named West Point had established a profitable trade by stopping in Hanalei Bay as it made regular trips around the Hawaiian Islands, but the untimely sinking of the ship ended its visits to Hanalei.

Various crops were grown to provide products with a local demand including cotton grown at Wai‘oli in 1848 to supply a small cloth factory run by Joseph Gardner.

An 1857, a Pacific Commercial Advertiser article stated: “The trade of the port [Hanalei Bay] is now very limited and is confined to a few coasting vessels, which supply the wants of the natives and the coffee plantations. Whale ships seldom visit the port now.”[i]

The newspaper also mentioned Hanalei’s agricultural and cattle ranching endeavors: “The two largest coffee plantations on the islands are located here [Hanalei], producing annually 150,000 to 200,000 lbs. of coffee. In the neighborhood of the port several thousand head of cattle run wild, and in former years considerable quantities of beef were packed here, but owing to the poor and irregular facilities for sending it to market, it has been entirely broken up.”[ii]

Many fruits and vegetables were grown in the Hanalei region throughout the 1800s, including significant quantities of oranges, lemons, peaches, pineapples, tamarinds, mulberries, guavas, and plantains.

Species introduced by the Polynesians before Western contact also continued to be grown, including mai‘a (bananas), ‘ulu (breadfruit), and niu (coconuts).

Samuel Whitney Wilcox recalled that during his childhood in the mid-1800s “we did have oranges at Waioli! Right there on our own place, and hundreds of trees in the valleys. Wainiha was full of such oranges, the sweetest and juiciest I’ve ever tasted.”[iii]

Princess Ruth Visits Hanalei

The Hawaiian monarchy paid numerous visits to Hanalei in the 1800s. King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) came in 1852. King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] came to Hanalei in 1856 and returned in 1860 with their two-year-old son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), inspiring Hanalei plantation owner Robert Crichton Wyllie to name his growing estate “Princeville.”

Princess Lili‘uokalani sailed into Hanalei Bay in 1881 and returned as Queen Lili‘uokalani in 1891.

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani arrived in Hanalei in 1867 on the U.S.S. Lackawanna, which was under the command of Captain Reynolds. Reynolds first came to Kaua‘i with the Wilkes Expedition in 1840. In 1852, Reynolds grew corn on 100 acres he leased at Malumalu. Rejoining the Union Navy in 1861, he served in the Civil War and then was given command of the Lackawanna in 1867.

Also on board with Reynolds arriving at Hanalei were Reynold’s wife, Mrs. Dudoit, and Emily Corney, the wife of Hudson Bay Company employee Peter Corney who wrote The Early Voyages of Peter Corney.

Princess Ruth was renowned for her appeasing of the volcano goddess Pele during the 1880 eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawai‘i Island. When the eruption threatened the town of Hilo, Princess Ruth supplicated Pele with chants and gifts, and the lava flow stopped at the edge of town.

During her 1867 visit to Hanalei, Princess Ruth stayed at the Wai‘oli home of Judge Wana. Josephine Wundenberg King, who was a child at the time, recalled seeing Princess Ruth “lounging on the beach with her retainers and her two little white poodle dogs of whom she was very fond.

The other ladies visited at Princeville, and John Low the manager entertained the party quite extensively, getting up a large picnic and fish or ‘Kahe’ drive on the Hanalei river near Kuna.”[iv]

“ The Kahe was built in the middle of the river near the rapids by a fine kukui grove where the ahaaina [‘aha‘aina] or feast was spread. When school was out Julia Johnson and I rode up the river bank to the rendezvous, and as we neared the spot where the fish were being driven down and caught, we saw [Princess] Ruth in a pink Muumuu having a bath and finally getting into the ‘Kahe’ [run of fish] and catching the mullet herself, beheading and enjoying the tid-bits that she found. When she emerged later from her dressing room in the guava bushes in her black silk holoku[v] she looked quite regal and happy as she embraced her lady friends and saluted them in the usual Hawaiian manner.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[vi]

The Lackawanna engaged in several days of target practice in north shore waters, and invited prominent local persons aboard “to luncheon and to witness the exercises which I [Josephine] certainly did not enjoy. The reports from the guns were deafening and the smell of the powder and smoke sickening.”[vii]

When Princess Ruth passed away in 1883 she bequeathed to Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884) the ahupua‘a of Waipā. As the great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, Princess Pauahi was the potential heir to the throne. When she passed away in 1884 Princess Pauahi left her land in perpetual trust to assist in the establishment of Kamehameha Schools.

Today Kamehameha Schools include the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006.

In that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands.

The trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Princeville Plantation—Rhodes, Wundenberg, Wyllie, and Kikiula

Today, the sprawling resort at Princeville is a major economic force on Kaua‘i. The journey from the area’s humble beginnings through its incarnations as a plantation and ranch to its present grandeur is a long and interesting one.

The estate that would one day become “Princeville” began on September 8, 1842 when British subject and sea captain Godfrey Rhodes along with Frenchman John Bernard obtained a 50-year Government lease of 90 acres of land on the east side of the Hanalei River and 60 acres on the west side of the river. On this Hanalei land, Rhodes and Bernard began the first commercial coffee plantation in the Hawaiian Islands.[viii]

In 1843-1844, Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg and Archibald Archer leased a portion of the Bernard/Rhodes land and also grew coffee in an area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna. Wundenberg was an agriculturalist from Hanover, Germany. Before arriving in Hanalei, Wundenberg had been the secretary of Robert Crichton Wyllie, the Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Rhodes left for Australia in 1844, selling his interest in the coffee operation to Bernard. The following year, Bernard traveled to Honolulu to deal with his financial troubles.

When he left Honolulu to return to Kaua‘i on April 18, 1845, he boarded the schooner Paalua (which he had built) and sailed for Hanalei. Tragically, on April 19, 1845 the Paalua sank just a few hundred yards offshore of Hanalei, killing Bernard and several others.

“She was first struck by a heavy squall and then shipped a heavy sea which carried her under. The following persons were unfortunately drowned: Captain Bernard, Mr. Popelwell, and Mr. Higginbotham with his wife and two children. All the Hawaiians succeeded in reaching the land with the exception of a boy.”

The Friend, May, 1845 edition[ix]

On June 16, 1845, Frenchman John Bernard’s estate in Hanalei was bought by John K. Von Pfister and Godfrey Rhodes. Rhodes had just returned from Sydney, Australia, and for a time he was in charge of the bark Clementine owned by Jules Dudoit, who became the French consul in Honolulu.

Rhodes made numerous voyages to South America and the Northwest Coast, and many Hawaiians referred to him affectionately as Kapena Loke (“Captain Rose”).[x]

Rhodes and Von Pfister’s Hanalei estate became known as the Rhodes & Company Coffee Plantation. Rhodes built a home called Kikiula in 1845 on a plateau atop a bluff above a bend in the Hanalei River.[xi]

The two-room, stone plantation home was constructed with thick walls and deep-silled windows, and was plastered on the inside and outside. Notable for its spectacular mountain and valley views, Kikiula was located along the former road that descended into Hanalei Valley.

The sister of Godfrey Rhodes married an expert horticulturalist named Thomas Brown who worked with Rhodes to build a substantial coffee plantation of nearly 1,000 acres.

Josephine Wundenberg King recalled: “Mrs. Rhodes had a beautiful garden and many flowers that we never see any more. She came from Australia and must have gotten her seeds from there.”[xii] Mr. and Mrs. Brown and their four children lived in Wailua on the eastern side of Kaua‘i.

Josephine Wundenberg King recalled a childhood journey in 1852 to visit the Browns in Wailua: “We were carried across country in home-made cots of brown cotton hung on poles between two Hawaiian men who carried them on their shoulders and went at a jog trot, while crossing the Wailua River at the upper ford my sister Anna and I got ducked in the water, the tide was high and the cot not water proof but we were not hurt, only pretty well frightened.”[xiii]

On December 12, 1845, Gottfried F. Wundenberg married Ann Moorea Henry and they settled “in a small house on a little mound ‘makai’ [seaward] of the Kikiula house, and the wedding took place there.”[xiv]

“My mother came to Hanalei late in 1845 on a visit with her sister and brother in law the Joseph Smiths from Tahiti where she was born, she was the daughter of the Rev. Wm. Henry one of a band of English Missionaries who were sent out to Tahiti by the London Missionary Society in 1796, and met and married father on December 12, 1845 at Kikiula where Mr. Godphrey Rhodes lived and planted coffee. Their wedding took place under an orange tree in front of the house that the Joseph Smiths occupied, Mr. Rowell of Waimea, Kauai, performing the ceremony.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[xv]

In October of 1845, Rhodes and Von Pfister formed a partnership with retired English Naval Officer Captain Henry Samuel Hunt. At this time about 750 acres in Hanalei Valley were controlled by Rhodes and Von Pfister, and an estimated 1,000 acres of Hanalei Valley were cultivated in coffee.

The coffee mill of the Rhodes & Co. Coffee Plantation was built on Hanalei Valley’s eastern slope, just above the current site of the Hanalei Bridge.[xvi] Together, the coffee plantation of Charles Titcomb and the neighboring plantation of Bernard and Rhodes had more than 100,000 coffee trees planted by 1846.[xvii]

Von Pfister left the Hawaiian Islands to participate in the California Gold Rush and was later murdered in San Francisco. Rhodes became the sole owner of the coffee enterprise after Von Pfister left. The plantation was hindered by the loss of labor to the California Gold Rush, and floods did extensive damage to the crop in 1847 when “two weeks of heavy rains cut streambeds through the fields. Earth, masses of rock, and uprooted trees were strewn thorugh the orchards.”[xviii] The following years also brought epidemics that killed many Hawaiians.[xix]

In 1851 the coffee plantation suffered the severe effects of “an unprecedented drought in the valley of Laughing Water,”[xx] yet a significant amount of coffee was produced. According to the statistics of the Agricultural Society, between July of 1850 and June of 1851, “Hanalei exported 21,298 pounds of coffee, 39 barrels of Irish potatoes, and 20 head of cattle, at a total value of $27,744.08.”[xxi]

Godfrey Rhodes was vice president of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society in 1851 when he stated in a report: “The coffee plantation of Mr. Titcomb is in excellent order, the trees healthy, and he expects a tolerably large crop from it. The plantation belonging to Mr. Hunt and myself and those of Messrs. Archer and Wundenberg, should, if in good order, yield at least seventy tons of coffee this year, but I am sorry to say that owing to the want of labor they are in a very bad state and the most we can expect from them is one third of that amount; and even this we shall not be able to collect if the Chinamen do not arrive, as the natives will not work.”[xxii]

Rhodes’ partner Henry Hunt, like Von Pfister, also left the Hawaiian Islands, “and was never heard from again. An old letter speaks of his taking his deeds and records...Rhodes appears to have fallen heir naturally to his partners’ shares in the business.”[xxiii]

The importation of Chinese laborers and the end of the drought eventually helped to return the coffee fields of Hanalei to significant production. Unfortunately, a blight caused by the white hairy louse (a species of aphid), “affected the coffee trees on all the islands”[xxiv] and soon ended commercial coffee production in Hanalei.

Gottfried and Ann Wundenberg lived at Kuna on the east side of Hanalei Valley until 1847, when they built a new home at Limunui, “in the valley just below Kikiula and across the river.”[xxv] The region of Hanalei Valley known as Limunui was located just below the cliffs called Kuakea and Ka‘ūpūlehu. The banks of the river in this area, according to Elsie Wilcox, were “lined with weeping-willow trees.”[xxvi]

Gottfried Wundenberg went to California in November of 1848 along with H.A. Wiedemann and Charles Titcomb, all three men seeking riches in the Gold Rush. While Wundenberg was in California, his family stayed with the Dudoits at Lanihuli in the house built by Captain Kellett on a hill overlooking the mouth of the Hanalei River.

Wundenberg’s business operations were run by Archibald Archer, who was “half-Scotch, half Norwegian, and an engineer by profession,” according to Elsie Wilcox.[xxvii] Archer was also put in charge of the coffee milling.[xxviii]

Elsie Wilcox also wrote: “He [Archibald Archer] left the Islands for Australia in 1859, became prosperous sheep-raiser and member of Parliament, and made one visit later in life in the Islands, staying with his old friend Mr. Wiedemann In Honolulu.” [xxix]

Josephine Wundenberg King recalled Archibald Archer’s friendship with her father, Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg: “Mr. Archibald Archer was staying with us at the time, he was a Pokii resident, although he had lived in Hanalei with father at one time previously, he was a part Scotch and part Norwegian gentleman, and engineer by profession and often came to help father with the machinery of the coffee mill. A room in our house [Kikiula] was called Mr. Archer’s room, and was kept in readiness for him at all times. He was a great reader, had many books, and always gave us children books for Christmas and birthday presents. “He went to join a brother of his in Queensland Australia in 1859 and became a sheep-grazer there, also a member of Parliament in Brisbane later in life. He visited Mr. Widdemann in Honolulu about twenty-five years ago and has since died at an advanced age.” [p. 7, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.]

The Wundenbergs returned to Hanalei in September of 1849, and in 1851 Gottfried Wundenberg began to grow tobacco in the area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna. Another tobacco enterprise in Hanalei at this time was run by two men named Bucholz and Gruben.

Gottfried Wundenberg also planted tobacco at Limunui with Archibald Archer on the banks of the Hanalei River. Prospects appeared favorable for about two years, and by 1852 “the Hanalei planters were ready to manufacture 200,000 of the best Hawaiian cigars.”[xxx]

A cutworm then devastated the tobacco crop, dashing hopes for a tobacco industry in Hanalei Valley. Wundenberg moved to Honolulu in 1853, and then returned in 1855 to manage the Princeville Plantation for R. C. Wyllie.

“Two good sized rivers irrigate the valley and at the extreme makai (seaward) end the mission buildings are just visible amidst the surrounding trees. Immediately beneath me on an eminence commanding the finest obtainable prospect of the two divisions of the valley, a good sized house covered with red tiles stands, surrounded by a garden well stocked with fruit trees and flowers...Passing through a gateway, I follow a zigzag path cut in the hillside and after a long descent reach the plateau on which the house stands. This house belongs to Mr. Wyllie, proprietor of the Hanalei plantation, and is occupied by his manager, Mr. Wundenberg, his wife and 7 children...”

Theophilus H. Davies recalling his 1860 visit to Hanalei[xxxi]

Robert Crichton Wyllie

Robert Crichton Wyllie first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1844. A tall, thin Scotsman, Wyllie had abandoned medical studies in Glasgow to make a small fortune as a merchant in Mexico and South America, and was to create the huge Princeville Plantation near Hanalei with a friend who had been designated the British consul general in Hawai‘i.

On March 14, 1853, Scotsman Robert Crichton Wyllie (1798-1865), the Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Hawaiian Kingdom, paid $1,300 for the Government (Crown) lands leased to the Rhodes & Co. Coffee Plantation.

Wyllie was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. He abandoned his medical studies at Glasgow University at the age of 20, leaving Scotland to be a surgeon aboard British ships. After practicing medicine in Chile, Wyllie was a merchant in London and made a large profit in Mexico and South America.

Wyllie’s adventures included sailing to India in a small yacht. In 1830, Wyllie returned to Great Britain “with a small fortune in the bank.”[xxxii]

Living in London, Wyllie “joined a counting house, and became a London clubgoer.” After more than a decade of Victorian life, “Wyllie traveled to Mexico, and in Mazatlan met General William Miller, a friend from his days in Chile, designated the British consul general in Hawai‘i.”[xxxiii]

Wyllie was Hawai‘i’s British proconsul before serving as Hawai‘i’s Minister of Foreign Affairs for 20 years, from 1845 until his death in 1865. This service spanned the reigns of three different kings: Kamehameha III, IV, and V. Wyllie was particularly concerned with having high officials in the kingdom follow proper etiquette, and “was held by a sense of chivalry that was centuries out of date if, indeed, it had ever existed at all.”[xxxiv]

Among his many political accomplishments in the Hawaiian Islands, Wyllie worked to have other countries recognize Hawai‘i as an independent nation.[xxxv] Wyllie also attended many of the functions put on by the Hawaiian royalty, and “their palace was the scene of brilliant receptions and balls, where the tall, red-haired Scot held court dressed in the high style of Beau Brummel.”[xxxvi]

Of Hanalei, Wyllie wrote, “I never saw such a romantically beautiful spot in all my life time. Were I forty years younger...I would throw the Foreign Office with all its musty papers into the King’s hands and spend the remainder of my life here.”[xxxvii]

“We left Hanalei sometime in 1853 and went to Honolulu to live but returned again in two years time. Mr. Wyllie having bought the coffee interests there and given father [Gottfried Wundenberg] the management of the place. We went down on the little sloop Sally with Captain Fountain. There were only two bunks in the tiny cabin so we youngsters had to lay on a mattress on the floor. My sister Mary was born in town and was a baby a year old only at this time, fortunately the trip was not longer than twelve hours. The Sally was a fine little sailer, but we were glad to get on shore and went up to Mr. Kellet’s [Kellett’s] house at Lanehule [Lanihuli] to stay until Mr. Rhodes was ready to give my father possession of the mangers house.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[xxxviii]

[Photograph: Kikiula—Princeville Plantation House]

On September 13, 1855, Robert Crichton Wyllie bought Godfrey Rhodes’ business interest in his Hanalei Valley plantation for $8,000.[xxxix] Wyllie soon purchased more of the surrounding acreage, and eventually expanded his estate to include a great deal of land to the east and above Hanalei Valley.

Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg arrived in Hanalei to manage Wyllie’s plantation. The Wundenberg family stayed at the Kellett house at Lanihuli before moving into Kikiula after the Rhodes family moved out.

Gottfried Wundenberg made significant improvements to the stone house, including adding a wooden clap board structure, as well as a top story covered with lath and plaster.

His daughter recalled that Kikiula, “was painted white and the roof red, as were all the buildings that were shingled on the place. The red material was a clay found in the hills near by, which wore well when mixed with a little lime to make it stick.”[xl]

Bamboo troughs were used to channel a nearby spring to the house. A tin-lined box above the bathroom was filled with buckets of water and served as a shower.

[Photograph: Kikiula]

“Mr. Abner Wilcox had loaned father a cow for his benefit and one of my vivid recollections was seeing her tied up and milked. She was a young black cow and was very wild and hard to manage. Mother said that she was glad if she got a quart of milk a day, or the bucket was not kicked over, and the baby had to be fed on pia made with water only, mother made the pia herself from the arrow root gathered in the hills across the river. She used an old Tahitian ‘Umete’ to prepare it in, one that she had brought from Tahiti.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[xli]

Finding workers for Wyllie’s plantation was an ongoing process for Gottfried Wundenberg. In the early 1850s some Chinese workers were hired, but Wundenberg preferred to hire Hawaiians because they were more readily available. “Many of them lived on the estate,” recalled Josephine, “and their wages were twenty-five cents a day. Our house women were paid three dollars a month...They got their fish from the river and the taro grew on the plantation.”[xlii]

For mechanical and general utility work, Wundenberg hired Charley Griffiths “...an old sea faring man” who “did everything on the place that a mechanic was needed for,” and “lived in a little two roomed cottage on the knoll over the river where the path passes on its way to the sugar mill...it was one of our delights to visit the old man in his den and have him tell us wonderful tales of his sea life.”[xliii] Charley Griffiths came to the Hawaiian Islands with Thomas Brown and his wife (Godfrey Rhodes’ sister), who lived at Wailua until 1854.

“Old Charlie Griffiths gave us a colored picture of the Virgin Mary in a frame that he had made,” recalled Josephine, “we hung it in our school room and shocked the Johnson girls by having a Catholic picture in our house...In 1857, Lizzie Johnson came to stay a few months with us to teach the young ideas, and give us some book learning, none of us had ever been to school.”[xliv]

King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] visited Hanalei in 1860 with their son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), who was also known as Ka Haku o Hawai‘i (The Prince of Hawai‘i).

Prince Albert was born on May 20, 1858, and was a godchild of England’s Queen Victoria. During the Hawaiian royal family’s 1860 visit to Hanalei they stayed with Gottfried Wundenberg and his family at Kikiula.

Wundenberg’s daughter recalled that the royal guests “were both charming people and the little Prince a dear little boy of two years. Madam Namekaha was his nurse. She afterwards married Kalakaua and became Queen Kapiolani in 1875. She was a lovely sweet woman and we became great friends.”[xlv]

As Minister of Foreign Affairs, R. C. Wyllie was involved in the governmental affairs of the Kingdom and was fond of entertaining guests at his Hanalei estate. Wyllie even brought a musician to entertain his royal visitors and provide music for dancing, which was a favorite activity of King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma, who “were delighted with a pretty tyrolese waltz taught to them by Wyllie.”[xlvi]

“She ate her meals with the little Prince at the children’s table, and was with us a great deal. She helped me to make a little Hawaiian flag out of white and blue cotton cloth and turkey-red which I flew on my own flag staff and at the stern of our boat when we went rowing. I used to play tricks on her too, such as putting sand in her private bowl of pink poi and hiding her shoes up in a tree, where she could not get them until I was ready to give them to her, thereby gaining the name of ‘Keike Mahine Kolohe’ [Mischievous Child] which title she was pleased to remember after she became Queen of Hawaii and tease me with.”

Josephine Wundenberg King[xlvii]

Both the King and the Queen were quite social with their hosts, and seemed to enjoy their stay in Hanalei. “Queen Emma went up stairs nearly every evening to have a romp with us girls when we were going to bed,” recalled Josephine, “and loved a pillow fight as well as any of us. The King was a very entertaining man and loved to dress in disguises for the amusement of us children, he dressed up as a ghost once and gave himself quite a shock when he peered into a looking glass, in a partly darkened room.”[xlviii]

King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) was also an avid hunter, and traveled east to the valley of ‘Anini to catch kōlea (plover) birds as well as the non-native quail. The royal party brought their own rowboats as well as boat crews, and during their six week stay they spent numerous afternoons boating up the Hanalei River and enjoying picnics on the river’s banks.

In the summer of 1860, to honor the young Prince Albert, Wyllie changed the name of his estate to the Princeville Plantation and made the young Prince Albert the intended heir. Wyllie planned to petition the government of the Kingdom for his estate to be officially designated Barony de Princeville, and “suggested the heir bear the title, Baron de Princeville.”[xlix]

This never came to be, however, due to the untimely death of Prince Albert in 1862 at the tender age of four. Not long after this tragic loss, the prince’s father, King Kamehameha IV, passed away in 1863 at the age of 29.

Another visitor to the Hanalei region in 1860 was Theophilus Harris Davies[l] who first came to the Islands at age 23 from Britain and later became a prominent Honolulu businessman and founder of the “Big Five” firm of Theo H. Davies & Co.

Davies later served as the guardian of Princess Ka‘iulani when she went to England to attend boarding school. He also accompanied the princess to Washington D.C. after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy so she could request assistance from President Grover Cleveland in restoring Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] to the throne.

During his Hanalei visit, Davies was invited to accompany the royal party to the north shore area of Hā‘ena to explore the large caves there and watch the traditional “fireworks” ceremony known as ‘ōahi (fire throwing), which involved throwing burning logs of the native hau or pāpala into the seaward winds blowing off the cliffs of Makana.[li]

Crowds of people arrived in canoes from as far away as Ni‘ihau, and they took great delight in watching the lighted wood soar through the air and fall into the sea.

Carried by the strong winds, the firebrands soared out over the water and “swirled out with bursts of flame and plunged hissing into the sea far below, where at a safe distance the chiefs and people had paddled their canoes out to see the spectacle.”[lii] People in canoes beneath the cliffs were considered heroic if they were able to catch the burning embers, and would sometimes tattoo themselves with the fiery logs to commemorate the event.

The Hawaiian term pāpala refers to five endemic Hawaiian species in the genus Charpentiera. Pāpala reaches a height of up to 39 feet (12 m), with leaves that are oblong to elliptical in shape and are up to 16 inches (41 cm) long.

The wood of pāpala is light, and when dried the logs burn easily, particularly the pithy centers of the logs. These qualities made pāpala the preferred type of wood to be lit on fire and thrown off the cliffs.

Pulelo ke ahi ha‘aheo i na pali

The firebrand soars proudly over the cliffs.

An expression of triumph. Referring to the firebrand hurling of Kaua‘i,

or to the glow of volcanic fire on Hawai‘i.[liii]

[Illustration: Fire-throwing ceremony]

“Hearing that the Queen was spending the day at Mr. Titcombe’s,” recalled Davies, “Mr. and Mrs. Johnson determined to call on her that afternoon and invited us to accompany them...The Queen asked us what stay we purposed making at Hanalei, and I said we intended going next day to the caves of Haula and back...Her majesty replied that her party were going to the caves the next day...to remain there all night and to have fireworks from the rocks.”[liv]

Davies joined them the next day for the trip when the “Royal Cavalcade” arrived and he “rode with the Queen most of the way,” adding that “various traditions and legends of places we passed were narrated to me by the Queen.”[lv] Other members of the royal party traveled to the event by boat, and a reception met the group at their destination.[lvi]

 

“Mats were laid on the sand and there we sat, hosts of natives grouped near us—the perpetual pulsation of the ocean in its vesper of praise at our feet—the strange falling flakes of fire afar off in the high air—and over all the clear white light of the moon...whilst our voices blended musically in various part songs. The two young ladies sang soprano, Queen Emma alto, the chronicler tenor, and Henry Dimond bass—and though more than a year has gone, I can almost see the group of white people with our young island Queen in the centre, and hear her sweet melodious notes Oft in the Stilly Night...when I saw her next morning sitting on the verandah with her little boy kneeling in her lap, and clasping his hands, whilst she dictated his morning prayer, I thought few sights more beautiful or more holy...”

Theophilus H. Davies, 1862[lvii]

In honor of the visit by the royal family in 1860, Wyllie rechristened his schooner Prince of Hawaii and the vessel “plied for many years between Hanalei and Honolulu. The Hawaiian coat-of-arms was painted on her stern, and again in more elaborate colors and with carving on the side of the cabin.”[lviii]

The Prince of Hawaii “was brought down from the Coast under command of Captain Hatfield,” wrote Elsie Wilcox, “who continued to run her here.”[lix] Captain Hatfield later married Captain Kellett’s daughter, Becky Kellett, and with her had two daughters, Mrs. Makee and Mrs. Birkmyer, who both lived in Hanalei.

Another visitor to the Wundenbergs in 1860 was Reverend and Mrs. S. C. Damon from Honolulu, and their children. Reverend Damon baptized the two youngest Wundenberg girls, Gussie and Lina.[lx]

Wyllie rented half of the Kellett house as a summer residence where he dispensed hospitality “in true English style, and when unable to come himself, sent visitors alone to occupy the house.”[lxi] Wyllie’s cook, Koka, was in charge of the entertainment.

Initially, the Caucasian families of the Hanalei region were on good terms. “Very pleasant visits were exchanged by Lucy [Wilcox] and her children with other Hanalei families,” wrote Ethel Damon. “Besides close neighbor Johnsons there were the Rhodes family at the river, the Dudoits on the dairy farm above, and the Wundenbergs, at first on a coffee ranch up the Hanalei river.”[lxii]

[Photograph: Mountains of Hanalei]

“In the centre a cluster of these peaks forms a basin some thousands of feet high into which perpetual cascades pour from the cliffs around. After a rainstorm almost scores of these waterfalls may be seen glittering against their green slopes...The soft green of the coffee fields and the weird blades of the sugar cane leaf seemed unnaturally stilled in the ghostly light...”

Theo H. Davies, describing the 1860 view from the veranda of the Princeville Plantation House[lxiii]

Eventually some local animosities developed, as noted by Theo H. Davies in 1862: “I must premise this by saying that of the four white households that hold sway in this lovely district of creation, no two are on friendly terms.

From the slumbering sarcastic feuds that obtain in most small places, to the high and mighty eruptions that distract the world’s great powers, we may discover their prototypes in this happy valley. Hence my visit to the mission families was made alone. Any attempt to enter into the various causes of feuds and their sometimes amusing exhibitions would overstep my resolution.”[lxiv]

During Lady Sophia Craycroft’s 1861 visit to Princeville as the guest of R. C. Wyllie, she wrote in her journal that they attended church at Wai‘oli “by boat and on horseback, and were the innocent cause of renewed strife between high contending parties, the Missionary and wife and the Schoolmaster and wife, whose contentions are fierce and of old standing. It would really have been entertaining—if it had not been rather shocking—to witness the struggle carried on between the two ladies in the church, the instant after the service was over, as to which of two persons (who did not speak to each other if it could be avoided) should succeed in getting my Aunt first to her house. Mr. Wyllie effected a compromise, and we visited both for ten minutes. Here of course is a sad subject of scandal among the natives.”[lxv]

“Near the shore of the bay is the village, with its church, school, and mission houses—farther on, a sugar plantation and mill for preparing the sugar-fine grass and trees of many kinds, including oranges—then the whitewashed, red-roofed buildings on Mr. Wyllie’s Estate—and at two miles from the mouth of the stream stands the little flat promontory jutting out from the pali at about half its elevation, on which stands the house and garden of Princeville. We landed under the sweeping shade of weeping willows (descended from those of Longwood) and had a rather toilsome walk up to the house, white and red-roofed like the rest, where we were welcomed by Mrs. Wundenberg and her well-behaved handsome family (all girls save one) between the ages of fourteen and four.”

Miss Sophia Craycroft, 1861[lxvi]

In 1861, Robert C. Wyllie brought two guests—Lady Jane Franklin and Miss Sophia Craycroft—to visit his Princeville estate. Lady Jane Franklin was the widow of renowned explorer Sir John Franklin, and her niece was Miss Sophia Craycroft.

When she came to Hanalei, Lady Franklin was researching a book about the Franklin expedition to the North Pole. She had sailed to California and stopped in Honolulu on her way first to China and then back home to England.

The 69-year-old, gray-haired Lady Franklin had just sailed to Alaska searching for information about her husband, who had been lost in the Arctic more than a decade earlier during his fourth expedition there.

Throughout the 1850s several ships had been sent to find out what happened to John Franklin. Then in 1859 some records and remnants of his expedition were finally found and it was discovered that he had died about twelve years earlier.

Wyllie and his two guests sailed into Hanalei Bay on May 30, 1861 after first visiting O‘ahu and then the volcanoes of Hawai‘i Island. At Hanalei, Princeville Plantation manager Gottfried Wundenberg paddled a long boat out to meet Wyllie and his guests, “and beat back in through a running surf to the delight of his British passengers.

The burly German rowed the trio upstream to a landing shaded by weeping willow trees below Kellett’s hillside house.”[lxvii] The guests were greeted at Kikiula, Wundenberg’s home, by his son and six daughters, whose ages ranged from six to fourteen.

Lady Franklin was an “aristocratic lady, set firm in the belief that English aristocracy and manners were superior to all others. She was intelligent, energetic, adventurous, and most willing to prejudice the Hawaiian monarchy in favor of England. Lady Franklin awakened dreams in Wyllie’s heart.”[lxviii] Wyllie apparently intended to make Lady Franklin Hawai‘i’s first baroness, establishing ties to the monarchies of Europe.[lxix]

While staying with the Wundenbergs at Kikiula, Lady Franklin wrote: “I am unfortunate at Princeville in a social point of view, since Mr. Wundenberg I can with difficulty understand on account of his insufferable German accent, the worst I ever heard; and with Mrs. W. I do not succeed much better.”[lxx]

In a sad connection to her past loss, Lady Franklin visited a mound of earth near Kikiula where one of the men who had been searching for her husband was buried. The burial spot was “marked with an iron tablet, Sacred to the memory of WM. LUXFORD, Late Quartermaster of H.B.M. Ship Enterprise.[lxxi] The ship had been to the Arctic searching for John Franklin in 1850 and was wintering in Hanalei when the Quartermaster died and was buried near Kikiula.

“We passed here twelve delightful days of unbroken repose, free from bustle, interruption, and fatigue—pray don’t imagine that this means in indolence; the very reverse is the fact—we read, wrote, drew, sewed, while drinking in the perfume of the flowers such as are cherished in conservatories at home, revelling in beauty which could never satiate, because ever changing.”

Miss Sophia Craycroft, 1861[lxxii]

Lady Franklin encouraged education and a proper upbringing for the children of the Wundenberg household. Josephine Wundenberg King recalled how Lady Franklin “had much to do with making mother [Mrs. Ann Wundenberg] dissatisfied with her life at Hanalei, and told her that she did wrong to bring her family up in such a lonely ‘out of the world’ sort of place, and urged her to let her have my sister Lina to take to England to educate.”[lxxiii]

Lady Franklin was known to have some eccentricities, including insisting on sleeping in her own bed, “which she took about with her, a sort of a cot, and used in spite of the trouble it often made to find room for it.”[lxxiv]

Lady Franklin also took long walks with the Wundenberg children. Josephine noted that Lady Franklin, “let her skirts get full of ‘kukus’ which we had to pick out for her while she told us stories of the Norman Kings.”[lxxv]

Wyllie was impressed by his sophisticated guests, writing: “Of all the ladies that I have ever met with, they are just the ladies that suit me. They are of high mettle and breeding—not Prudes, humdrum and Pernickatenackate.”[lxxvi]

[Photograph: Kikiula]

Lady Jane Franklin loved to hike each day to the top of the hill behind Kikiula and enjoy the expansive view of the mountains and sea, which perhaps made her think of her husband who disappeared during his ocean journey. “There she would remain for hours...lost in contemplation of the glorious scene spread out before her, with thoughts wandering often no-doubt to distant icy seas, and scanning mayhap the horizon again and again with eager eyes for the white sail she knew could never come.”[lxxvii]

Lady Franklin’s daily hike to the top of the hill near Kikiula was likely one of the reasons Wyllie decided to give her that piece of land overlooking the bay, called Crow’s Nest, where she had previously proposed that a high-church Episcopal chapel be built to complement Wyllie’s estate.[lxxviii] Wyllie also apparently believed that Lady Franklin would someday build a castle there.

About the Crow’s Nest land, Elsie Wilcox wrote: “ For many years a wooden sign about three feet long marked the place. Upon Lady Franklin’s death about 1873, her residuary legatee wrote to Bishop Willis of the Anglican Church in Honolulu that she would donate ‘Crow’s Nest’ to the church as the site for a chapel.”

Bishop Willis responded that the site was not suitable for a church location as it would be too inconvenient for parishioners to climb the hill to attend services. The Bishop’s request for an exchange for land at a better location was approved, but then it was discovered that Lady Franklin actually had no claim to the land since no conveyance had ever been documented, and so the site remained a part of the Princeville Plantation.

Apparently the name “Crow’s Nest” was later “applied to the Transit of Venus Station at Pooku, as being an easier name for ‘malihinis’ to master. The real ‘Crow’s Nest’ is, however, some distance makai [seaward] of Pooku, and should not be confused with it.”[lxxix]

After Lady Franklin left, Wyllie wrote to her: “I must confess I felt very lonely after you were gone, and scarcely a night has passed since that I have not been dreaming about Princeville and our tour on Kauai.”[lxxx]

Seeking to entice the two ladies back to Hanalei from their journeys in California, Wyllie added: “It appears that you and that romantic niece of yours have been roaming about in the interior, examining grizzly bears, big trees, deep mines, gulches and ravines, where I hope neither you nor she will find such a pleasing spot as the ‘Crow’s Nest,’ or as beautiful and healthful a valley as that which it overlooks.”[lxxxi]

Wyllie was clear in his intentions that Lady Franklin return to Hanalei, writing: “I begin to fortify myself in the belief that your occupancy of the Crow’s Nest will become more of a reality than of a romantic speculation.”[lxxxii] But alas, it was never to be, and Wyllie’s dreams remained unfulfilled.

“Mr. Wyllie’s sugar mill is expected here in Aug. or Sept. He says he will have a mill so large as to grind all the cane that can be raised in Waioli and Hanalei”

Abner Wilcox, June 19, 1862[lxxxiii]

The Hanalei Sugar Mill

Robert Crichton Wyllie constructed the Hanalei Sugar Mill in 1861-1862, with $40,000 worth of machinery purchased from Glasgow, Scotland. The steam-powered mill was built on the east bank of the Hanalei River just down from the Hanalei Bridge, and at the time it was the most modern and productive sugar mill in the Hawaiian Islands. The mill’s chimney rose to 110 feet in height, and the mill’s rollers were able to express 600 gallons of cane juice in 20 minutes.

Gottfried Wundenberg oversaw the construction of the new sugar mill as well as the plantation’s transition from coffee to sugar.[lxxxiv] The Hanalei Sugar Mill became the center of a small but busy factory village that included a post office, storage buildings, camphouses, and a butcher shop.[lxxxv]

Eleven scows (flat-bottom boats) were used to bring sugarcane from the Hanalei Valley fields down the Hanalei River to the mill. A conveyor belt then carried the cane into the mill to be processed. After the juice was extracted, conveyor belts transported the bagasse (leftover plant material) out of the mill.

“Often in the days gone by have we rowed our boat o‘er the still waters of that beautiful river,” recalled Anna S. Wundenberg Wright, “singing our songs as we passed by the old sugar mill which stood near its bank, and we could see the cane as the mill slowly ground it in its rollers.”[lxxxvi]

[Photograph: Hanalei Sugar Mill]

Wyllie continued to expand his land holdings from 1860-1863, first purchasing the region above the eastern side of Hanalei valley as far as Kalihiwai, and then on April 17, 1862 purchasing the ahupua‘a (watershed valley) of Kalihikai from A. Keali‘iahonui, the son of Kaumuali‘i, the former ruler of Kaua‘i.[lxxxvii]

Wyllie bought the ahupua‘a of Kalihiwai at public auction from J. W. Austin and Charles Kana‘ina on October 5, 1862.[lxxxviii] Kana‘ina was the father of William Charles Lunalilo (later King Lunalilo) with Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea]

. At the time of Wyllie’s purchase, the sugar mill was supervised by Mr. Heuck, a German who was also “a partner in a mercantile business in town with Mr. H. von Holt Sr..”[lxxxix]

In a personal letter to Lady Franklin, Wyllie mentioned his motivations for purchasing more land above his Hanalei Valley coffee plantation: “I intend, if I can procure it, acquiring the fine upland plains on the northern side touching the sea, so that your Ladyship may extend your carriage drives and enjoy your sea bathing without trespassing on the domain of our neighbours. Besides, I require the land for the pasture of the oxen, mules, and horses, that I must keep and for the firewood that I shall want of in [operating] my steam machinery.”[xc]

“The valley was rich with verdure-coffee trees, sugar cane, meadowland (such grass!-a fine texture, long, thick, and soft as the thickest moss), taro of brilliant green, peach trees, oranges, bananas in such enormous profusion that the fruit cannot be consumed...”

Lady Sophia Craycroft, 1861[xci]

Wyllie’s large land acquisitions continued in 1863 when he paid $29,000 to purchase about 750 acres of Charles Titcomb’s “Emmasville” property in Hanalei Valley, extending the Princeville Plantation estate from Kalihiwai to Pu‘u Pehu above Hanalei Valley to the east, on the “flat kula lands on the plateau,” to the “rich bottom land along the meandering Hanalei River.”[xcii]

Wyllie sent the queen a letter informing her of the designation of the land as “Emmasville.” Titcomb retained ownership of his coffee and sugar mills and other machinery. Wyllie took ownership of four separate land parcels, including “750 acres at Emmaville [Emmasville], 1 acre at the landing, Kanoa pond, 10 acres, and Kukia [Kikiula] on the opposite side of the river.” [xciii]

The Princeville lands also included Po‘okū Heiau, a Hawaiian sacred area, as well as the loko ‘ia (fishpond) known as Kamo‘omaika‘i, located near the mouth of the Hanalei River. A huge grove of the native hala, said to be the largest in the Hawaiian Islands, grew from the heiau area all the way to the current site of the Princeville Hotel terraced into the oceanfront hillside of Pu‘upōā Ridge.

Wyllie’s first crop of sugar was harvested in 1863. He moved to Honolulu in 1864,[xciv] and a few months later the management of Princeville Plantation was taken over by H. A. Wiedemann, a friend of Gottfried Wundenberg from their hometown of Hildesheim in Hanover. Wiedemann managed the Princeville Plantation until the spring of 1865 when John Low arrived.

Wyllie’s was not the only sugarcane plantation in the area. Other sugarcane ventures in the Hanalei region at this time included “Mr. Friedenberg, a Portuguese named Antone Brooks, the two Markall brothers, who, with Captain Hatfield planted cane across the river from the Titcomb place, and a man named Hansen, from whose early efforts Waipa Plantation developed, and possibly others. There was a cooper named Neumann and another named Bruns, for in those days sugar was shipped in casks and a cooper was a necessary hand on a plantation.”[xcv]

Wyllie’s Broadside Distributed to Natives of Hanalei

“By apprenticing your sons to carpenters, masons, blacksmiths and coopers, they would in a few years become carpenters, masons, blacksmiths and coopers themselves, and earn much higher wages than 25 cents a day. You know that such mechanics are paid much higher than mere field laborers, porters, boatmen and cart drivers. Why should some of your sons not learn these arts, and by their industry, get as high wages as the foreigners, who now are, with few exceptions, the only men who practice them? If your sons, after learning these arts, work for me as well, and as many hours every day, and as many days in the month as the foreigners, I shall not only pay your sons the same wages as to the foreigners, but prefer your sons to them.”

Robert Crichton Wyllie, 1860s[xcvi]

Robert Crichton Wyllie passed away at his Rosebank estate on O‘ahu on October 19, 1865, just two years after he had consolidated the plantation at Princeville. He was buried at Honolulu’s Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[xcvii]).

Wyllie’s principal heir was his nephew, Robert Crichton Cockrane, who had come to Kaua‘i just three months earlier from Waltham, Illinois to learn the sugarcane business. As a condition of taking over the Princeville estate, Cockrane was asked to change his name to Wyllie, which he agreed to do.

But Cockrane—or Wyllie, as he was now known—had inherited a plantation plagued with ills, including labor shortages, costs associated with irrigation and milling equipment, fires, droughts, vandalism, and damage caused by an agricultural pest called the cane borer. The plantation was in grave financial condition.

In addition to Princeville’s other problems, labor troubles occurred in November of 1865 between two groups of workers from two different China provinces. The feuding workers included 30 men in one of the groups and 80 in the other, and they were apparently continuing a quarrel that had existed between them in China before they came to the Islands. Plantation manager John Low moved workers from one of the provinces across the Hanalei River after fighting among the workers led to a man’s death.

For the next several years there continued to be a general fear of an uprising among the Chinese laborers at Princeville Plantation. Due to these problems Low placed rows of bayonets in the hallway at Kikiula, and they “presented a very warlike appearance indeed, but were never used, although Mr. Conradt also had trouble with his Chinese labor.”[xcviii]

[Photograph: Hanalei Valley]

[Photo Caption:]

The beauty of [Hanalei] valley was exotic, subtly blended, at once lush and serene.”

Alfons L. Korn, 1866[xcix]

The plantation’s financial problems would soon lead to more misfortune. In early 1866, R. C. Wyllie (the former R. C. Cockrane) was engaged to be married to Ida Von Pfister (daughter of John Von Pfister), and he was in Hanalei preparing to welcome his bride-to-be. On February 4, 1866, just eight days before the marriage was to take place, several men gathered to listen to a musical performance at the Princeville Plantation House, the home of plantation manager John Low.

Wyllie went to get a jug of water to help Low make some limeade, and Low went to pick some limes. When Wyllie didn’t return for some time, Low became concerned. “Where’s Wyllie,” said Low, “we must find him. He’s been off his head for some weeks.”[c] Low went to look for Wyllie and discovered him in the outside privy where he had cut his own throat with a razor and was bleeding profusely from the large gash. The bloody Wyllie fell into Low’s arms.

“Dr. Smith, the nearest physician, was summoned from Koloa, and made a record-breaking ride with relays of horses, covering the forty-five miles in three hours,” recounted Elsie Wilcox. [ci] “An attempt was made to sew up the wound, which Abner Wilcox estimated “was big enough to insert four fingers and a thumb.”[cii]

For the next several days, Wyllie slipped in and out of consciousness. With assistance, the young Wyllie “prepared a will, giving Princeville, in equal shares, to his mother and his fiance, Ida von Pfister, of Honolulu. Dated Princeville February 4, 1866, the bloodstained document carries a wavering signature...”[ciii]

Wyllie struggled to stay alive, writing “I will live” on a piece of paper, and requesting that Wai‘oli Church pastor Reverend Johnson be summoned. Doctors also arrived from Honolulu. He survived for several days before dying on Wednesday evening, February 7, 1866. Wyllie, the former R. C. Cockrane, was buried in the Wai‘oli Church cemetery where an iron fence surrounds the unmarked grave.

The financial difficulties of the Princeville estate were said to have been a major cause of Cockrane’s despair. Apparently the depression had first set in after he examined the plantation’s books.

The sale of Princeville Plantation for about $40,000 took place on September 19, 1867. Since the first R. C. Wyllie had invested about $200,000 in the property, the sale of the estate was a large loss to his heirs. Just the steam-powered machinery at the sugar mill alone had cost $40,000 when it was imported from Glasgow, Scotland.

“After reading the schedule of the property, the leases and contracts involved in the sale, it was stated that the two mortgages on it with interest amounted to $38,150.00 and that the property would be offered over and above that amount. The bidding was commenced at $50.00 and rose rapidly to $1900.00, at which figure it was knocked down to Mr. E.P. Adams, the real purchaser being his Honor E. H. Allen. The plantation therefore realized $40,050.00, with the prospect of a crop of 500 tons of sugar to come off during the next ten months.”

The Advertiser, September 23rd, 1867 edition.[civ]

The management of Princeville Plantation changed hands several times before retired American naval officer Captain John Ross took over the position on July 9, 1872. More changes in shares of ownership took place during the following years.

John Ross purchased a one-eighth interest in the Plantation from Judge E. H. Allen, the plantation’s new owner,[cv] who then sold one-quarter interest in the plantation to the company of Walker & Allen (John S. Walker and Samuel C. Allen). This one-fourth share was subsequently sold to E. P. Adams and then to Andrew Welsh. Three other sugarcane mills on Kaua‘i at this time were located at Kōloa, Līhu‘e, and Kīlauea. [cvi]

In his 1875 Hawaiian Guide Book for Travelers, Whitney described the Princeville plateau: “Between this valley [Kalihiwai] and Hanalei, the rolling upland is covered with a lauhala forest, reaching to the old silk works of Mr. Titcomb, which were located near the river. Some of these upland tracts, where water can be brought on to them from the neighboring streams, furnish the best of cane land, and will eventually be cultivated with sugar cane or tobacco.”[cvii]

Whitney also described the well-landscaped grounds of Kikiula, the Princeville Plantation House, noting that “its gardens contain the olive, pomegranate, orange and grape, and among roses and shrubbery, the magnificent magnolia grandiflora scatters the exquisite fragrance of its snowy blossoms.”[cviii]

“The crystal Hanalei flows placidly to the sea for the last three or four miles, tired by its impetuous rush from the mountains, and mirrors on its breast hundreds of acres of cane, growing on a plantation formerly belonging to Mr. Wyllie, an enterprising Ayrshire man, and one of the ablest and most disinterested foreigners who ever administered Hawaiian affairs.”

Isabella Bird Bishop, 1873[cix]

On October 6, 1875, the Princeville Plantation was incorporated. At the time ownership of the plantation was divided among several parties, including E. H. Allen (5/8); Andrew Welsh (1/4); and John Ross (1/80).[cx]

In the first years of the 1870s, the 1000-ton capacity sugar mill was processing a crop that averaged about 400 tons annually.[cxi]

Captain Ross managed the Princeville Plantation until 1876, when he went into partnership with E. P. Adams to plant sugarcane in Kīlauea after purchasing the interests of Charles Titcomb. Taking over the management of the Princeville Plantation was Mr. August W. Conradt, who had previously worked at Kōloa and had also managed the cotton-growing enterprise of Hoffschlaeger & Co. at Keālia.

Conradt became one-sixteenth owner of Princeville Plantation, as did Charles Koelling, who ran the mill. August W. Conradt died about one year later, and the management of the Princeville Plantation was taken over by Charles Koelling, with Brewer & Co. becoming the agents.

By 1877 the Princeville Plantation had 700 head of sheep to provide manure for the sugarcane fields after the crop was harvested. Within two years the sheep began dying off, and the ranch manager attempted to sell them.

[Photograph: Hanalei Valley]

[Photo Caption:]

“Hanalei has been likened by some to Paradise...every one who sees it raves about it. [Hanalei] has every element of beauty, and in the bright sunshine, with the dark shadows on the mountains, the waterfalls streaking their wooded sides, the river rushing under the kukuis and ohias, and then lingering lovingly amidst lively greenery.”

Isabella Bird, 1875[cxii]

Princeville Plantation’s sugarcane enterprise employed about 200 laborers by 1880. About 100 acres (40 ha) of sugarcane were cultivated on the upper slopes and about 200 acres (81 ha) of sugarcane grew in Hanalei Valley. The growing ranch also had 900 breeding stock, 400 head working stock, and at least 150 steers.[cxiii]

The Hanalei Sugar Mill Company was organized by Charles Koelling who “leased the place from them [Brewer & Co.] for eleven years at $3,000.00 per year, organized a stock company...and put in the Diffusion System.”[cxiv]

The late 1800s, under the management of Charles Koelling, were years of struggle for Princeville. The sugarcane did not grow well in Hanalei’s extremely wet and relatively cool climate, and the Diffusion System was a costly enterprise. Much of the sugarcane “rotted in the lower fields, the upper fields were, it is said, not plowed deeply enough,” wrote Elsie Wilcox, “and at times there was not water enough to flume the cane down to the mill.”[cxv]

Further problems arose when a bovine anthrax outbreak infected Princeville’s cattle in 1890, and the herd had to be destroyed.[cxvi] The sugar mill’s continual failure to make a profit led to the imminent demise of efforts to grow and mill sugarcane in the Hanalei region. After the last crop was planted in 1892, Koelling ended sugar production at Princeville Plantation.

When Koelling left, the ratoon crop was sold by Brewer & Company “to a Chinaman, Wong Fun, who took off the last crop, 497 tons, in 1893.”

Elsie Wilcox noted that “Mr. Riedel, who had been the engineer for many years stayed until the end, as did also Mr. Radway, the book-keeper, who remained in charge for some little time thereafter.”[cxvii] The Hanalei Sugar Mill was shut down in 1894.

Princeville then changed hands again, this time to Albert Spencer Wilcox, who first bought an interest in the Princeville Plantation in 1892. By 1895 Wilcox controlled all but one-eighth ownership.

Mr. C. M. Willis assumed management responsibilities of Princeville Plantation in 1896. The upper plateau lands from Kalihiwai to Hanalei were planted with imported grasses and used for cattle ranching, and the lower lands in Hanalei Valley were rented to Chinese rice farmers.

By May of 1899, Wilcox had secured complete ownership of the Princeville estate, and continued the conversion of much of the land from sugar production to cattle ranch. In June of 1916, Wilcox sold his Princeville lands to the Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation, but maintained ownership of his Hanalei beach house as well as the Wai‘oli Mission House “and some kuleanas along the beach.”[cxviii]

The Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation was particularly interested in obtaining rights to divert water from the Hanalei River. In 1915, J.M. Lydgate wrote a report to Princeville Plantation’s manager Walter Foss Sanborn regarding the diversion of water in the Hanalei River to the south side of the island “where it could be disposed of at lucrative rates.”[cxix]

A second outbreak of bovine anthrax occurred in 1917 at the Princeville Ranch, which initiated a program of serum and vaccine administration.[cxx] Silver oak trees were planted over the cattle burial sites from both the 1890 and 1917 outbreaks.

In 1919, the Hanalei Sugar Mill on the banks of the Hanalei River was demolished. The bricks from the 110-foot smokestack of the mill were sold to the Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Company.

“The Princeville plantation brick chimney, for years an outstanding landmark at Hanalei, is a thing of the past. It was demolished on Saturday last by means of dynamite administered at the base, which brought it down with a great crash, that was heard all over the Valley. The bricks are to be sold to Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Company—there are about 90,000 of them, and they are a very superior, well made brick, imported ‘round the Horn’ in the early days when there were not bricks to be had nearer at hand.”

The Garden Island newspaper, September 23, 1919.[cxxi]

[Photograph: Kikiula—Princeville Plantation House/Princeville Ranch House]

[Photo Caption:]

The house that was known as Kikiula when it was the residence of Godfrey Rhodes was later called Princeville Plantation House and then Princeville Ranch House.

Princeville Plantation House—Walter Foss Sanborn

Walter Foss Sanborn served as the manager of Princeville Ranch until 1927, first working for Albert Spencer Wilcox, and then for the new owner, the Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation. Sanborn came to Kaua‘i in 1901, serving as the U.S. District Commissioner for Kaua‘i and Federal Court Representative.

After becoming manager of the Princeville Ranch, Sanborn lived in the Princeville Ranch House with his wife, Lena Deverill Sanborn, who was raised on Kaua‘i. Lena’s father was Alfred Palmer Deverill who came to the Islands with his brother William as part of a contingent to present a christening gift to the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) from his godmother, Queen Victoria.[cxxii]

Alfred Deverill married Emma Lindsey and gave birth to Lena and three other children that he later abandoned. Lena was adopted by William and Sarah Deverill, and grew up in Hanalei as part of their family.

Alfred Deverill married Emma Lindsey and they would have four children in Waimea on the island of Hawai‘i, before Alfred abandoned his family and moved to Maui. On Maui, Alfred Deverill worked on the ranch of Captain Makee and married a Hawaiian. Lena’s mother Emma later remarried and had a daughter and son with George Thomas William K. Bell. [cxxiii]

Walter and Lena married in September of 1906, and the next year gave birth to their first child, Helen, and then three boys: Walter F. Jr., Percy, and John (Jack). Helen grew up in the Princeville Ranch House with her three brothers, and during this time the house served as the center of operations for the large Princeville cattle ranch. The Sanborn children “rode with the cowboys, drove cattle, and watched the roping and branding.”[cxxiv]

“The old dairy is now used as a fernery, and there have been minor changes, such as the rearranging of partitions, extending of verandas, etc., but the old original shell of the house [Kikiula] still remains. It commands a marvelous view of the valley and mountains. Captain Rhodes had a beautiful garden, with many rare trees...the garden-walks were all edged with pineapple plants, then rather rare in the Islands.”

Elsie Wilcox, 1917[cxxv]

The Sanborn children delighted in going to movies shown in Hanalei at Wai‘oli Mission Hall (the old Wai‘oli Church). A Packard car parked outside the church building provided electricity to run the movie projector “which continually broke down or had to be stopped to rewind the old reel before going on with the next.”[cxxvi]

The Sanborn children were taught by Hawaiians how to fish for mullet on the Hanalei River at the first rapids at the kahe, “..a small homemade bamboo raft stacked with honohono grass on one side.”[cxxvii] The raft was “anchored in a narrow stretch...men had scooped out a pond nearby to hold the trapped fish.”[cxxviii]

After the fish trap was ready, they all hiked about three miles upriver and begin to swim downstream to drive fish toward the bamboo trap. Note: The Hawaiian names for mullet (Mugil cephalus) range from ‘ama‘ama (finger-length) to ‘anae (30 cm or more).

A downstairs storeroom of the Princeville Ranch House held flour and other supplies that were sold to cowboys working on the ranch, and a nearby building housed the Princeville Ranch Office. The Ranch’s branding corral, blacksmith’s shop, and a home for the blacksmith were located near what is now the intersection of Kūhiō Highway and Ka Haku Road.

Other ranch operations buildings were also located in this area, including milking pens and a stable with corrals.[cxxix] Helen Sanborn Davis recalled “slaughter day,” when “the butcher passed through the village peddling meat in his beef car.”[cxxx]

Homes for the cowboys, who were mostly Hawaiian, were built on both sides of the highway near the current site of the Princeville Shopping Center.[cxxxi] The ranch’s mules and horses were taken down to the shore at ‘Anini once a week. A wagon path lined with plum trees led from the Princeville plateau down to the shore.[cxxxii] (The path can still can be seen along Ka Haku Road.) Helen Sanborn Davis recalled that “on Saturday, the riding pace picked up, for that was when they galloped bareback along the beach, herding the horses and mules to ‘Anini Beach to bathe them.”[cxxxiii]

During the 80 years that the Princeville Ranch House (Kikiula) was used as a dwelling, it was home to many different Princeville Plantation and Ranch managers, including the Wundenberg, Low, Conradt, Koelling, Willis, and Sanborn families. The Sanborns also had a house on the shoreline of Hanalei Bay, which they built in 1910 and referred to as the Mauka (Mountain) House.

Numerous additions were made to the Princeville Ranch House by its different owners. For example, Gottfried Wundenberg built a second story, Charles Koelling put an addition on the second story, and C. M. Willis removed the old kitchen and stone out-buildings.

At the turn of the century the Sanborns modernized the Princeville Ranch House and the grounds included stables, flower and vegetable gardens, fruit trees, and “outbuildings for Walter’s office, the servant’s quarters, a warehouse, chicken coops, pig-pens, and a building for small-animal supplies.”[cxxxiv]

In a separate building constructed of corrugated iron, “laundry was boiled in huge pots over a fire before being scrubbed by hand on wooden washboards in large cement tubs, then rinsed and hung out to dry.”[cxxxv]

The Princeville Ranch House eventually became dilapidated. Honeybees that enjoyed the flower gardens and fruit trees during the days nested in the home’s walls at night. Unable to eradicate the bees, Walter was said to have told his children “Sit still and they won’t sting.”[cxxxvi]

As the bee infestation grew worse, the walls of the Ranch House dripped with honey, and finally the structure had to be abandoned.[cxxxvii] The old home, which was originally known as Kikiula when it was built by Godfrey Rhodes in 1845, was torn down in the fall of 1918. The Sanborn family moved to their beach home in Hanalei.

[Photograph: Princeville Ranch House]

As the years passed, the Princeville Ranch saw changes in personnel and many new structures were built. Before his retirement in 1927, Walter Foss Sanborn served as the north shore’s tax assessor and collector. Sanborn also built and operated a poi mill in Hanalei.[cxxxviii]

Fred Conant replaced Walter Foss Sanborn as the Princeville Ranch manager in 1927. Conant built a ranch office just to the east of the current entrance to Princeville “near the pink plumeria tree which was the inspiration for the Princeville Resort logo.”[cxxxix]

Princeville’s cattle were exported to Honolulu on freighters that arrived in Kalihiwai Bay and Hanalei Bay. A corral was built near the Hanalei Pier to hold the animals as they awaited being loaded onto the ships. Because the nearshore waters of Hanalei Bay are quite shallow, freighters had to anchor farther offshore in deeper waters. This required the cattle to be “roped, dragged into the water and swum out to whaling boats. Five cattle were tied by their horns to each side of a boat.”[cxl]

Up to five cattle were tied to each side of the long and narrow whaleboats. This made rowing difficult, so a cable was rigged and the cattle-laden whaleboat was pulled out to the freighter. Straps were then slung beneath the belly of each animal, and one by one the cattle were hoisted aboard the freighter.[cxli]

Fred Conant was instrumental in the creation of the Hanalei Valley Lookout. Also under Conant’s direction, a new home for the Princeville Ranch manager was built in Hanalei on Weke Road. The Princeville Ranch Manager’s House later became the home of Larry and Jeanie Ching (see Chapter 5). The lands of the Princeville Ranch continued to be used for cattle in the 1930s, and an area of the upper slopes was planted with pineapples.

“Hanalei is one of the most tropical districts on the island, because of the many mountain streams which traverse it. The view from the plateau is unsurpassed. The wide Hanalei valley, with its beautiful river of the same name, can scarcely be equated for loveliness. The mountains in the distance noted not so much for their height as for their peculiar formation, and their distinctive, broken, curved and jagged peaks, throw their weird shadows over a vale luxurious with forest growths.”

Whitney, 1890[cxlii]

Hanalei’s First Catholic Chapel

Though a Protestant mission was established in the Hanalei region in 1834, Hanalei’s first Roman Catholic church was not established until 1864. The Catholic Chapel was built on the western bank of the Hanalei River near the rivermouth. Behind the Chapel was Hanalei’s first trading store, called Hubertson’s Store, run by an Englishman named Hubertson who arrived in the 1840s with a shipload of goods.

Hubertson’s Store was eventually closed after an auction sale of the products. Hubertson had a Chinese wife, and when he left the island he left behind “some minor children for whom Henry Rhodes, a brother of Godfrey Rhodes, was guardian.”[cxliii] The old Hubertson’s Store building near the rivermouth was later used as a packing house for the large quantities of oranges grown in Wainiha, Lumaha‘i, and Hanalei.[cxliv]

The Catholic Chapel was built on land purchased on October 10, 1849 by Frenchman John Brosseau, who secured a grant for the land from King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

Brosseau died at Moloa‘a on January 21, 1850, and the land was bought by Henry Rhodes, who then willed it to his brother, sea captain Godfrey Rhodes. Godfrey and his wife Anna Louisa then deeded the Hanalei land to Father Maudet in 1860 for the Catholic chapel.

Hanalei’s first Catholic Chapel was blessed on the site near the Hanalei River on October 3, 1864. The chapel was dedicated to Saint Maxime, the Patron Saint of a friend of the Rhodes family, M. Desnoyers, who was the French consul at Honolulu and also a friend of the Rhodes. The Chapel and a Rectory, a small house for the priest, were built by Brother Arsene Bernat and blessed by Father Maudet.

[Photograph: Roman Catholic Chapel and Rectory]

[Photo Caption:]

Roman Catholic Chapel, Belfry, and Rectory

Built: 1864.

Location: West bank of Hanalei River, near rivermouth.

Wooden bell tower added around 1899.

Status: No longer standing.

A tall and slender wooden Church Belfry was built on the Hanalei Catholic Chapel site around 1900 by Father Sylvester, who had long served the Hanalei area. The Belfry was added because Father Matthias “declared that the rectory stood out rather more than the church itself.”[cxlv]

“On the river bank,” wrote Ethel Damon, “stands a modest little wooden church attended by its high, slender belfry. This is the Roman Catholic chapel.”[cxlvi] Eventually the Catholic Chapel was outlasted by the Rectory, which was used to hold mass after the church was gone.

[Photograph: Catholic Chapel]

[Photo Caption:]

“The blessing of a chapel at Hanalei took place on October 3rd [1864]. Hanalei is the finest bay of the Sandwich Islands. There, near a river, on a charming site, on a piece of land given by a Catholic Englishman, our new little chapel has been erected.”

Church record, sent to the Holy Father in Rome (originally written in French).[cxlvii]

Godfrey Rhodes’ wife Anna Louisa was a Catholic, and Rhodes himself, who “had a fluent command of French,” was converted to Catholicism, “on board the schooner which transported Catholic fathers, under edict of banishment, from the Hawaiian Islands in 1837.”[cxlviii]

In 1829, Protestant convert and Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu ordered that practicing Catholics be punished and sent to the island of Kaho‘olawe, which became a penal colony. In 1831, Ka‘ahumanu expelled from the Island Catholic priests, including Reverends Bachelot and Short, and strongly discouraged believers in the Catholic religion.

Reverend Bachelot returned to the Islands in 1837. On December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion, leading to a controversy with France.

The British Royal Navy ship Sulphur arrived in Honolulu on July 8, 1837. The French naval vessel Venus also arrived, and there was controversy regarding Catholic priests in the Islands, resulting in a treaty assuring equal treatment for French residents.

On June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta. On June 17, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism.

The June 7, 1839 Declaration of Rights was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble (see French/Catholics, Chapter 12.) Catholic presence in the northern Kaua‘i region was initially most prominent to the east of Hanalei in the nearby community of Moloa‘a.

“Hanalei was never much of a Catholic mission center,” wrote Damon, “but at Moloaa, the meandering valley some twelve miles to the east of Hanalei, a school was conducted where the Hawaiian children were taught to spin while reciting their lessons.”[cxlix] A 62-foot by 21-foot stone church named St. Stephen’s was completed in Moloa‘a by 1854.

The Stranded Crew of the U.S.S. Saginaw (1870)

Kaua‘i was often the first stop for ships returning from trips to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. On the evening of December 19, 1870 a small boat foundered in winter seas off Hanalei Bay. The tiny vessel carried five exhausted crew members of the U.S.S. Saginaw, which had become shipwrecked a thousand miles to the northwest on Kure Atoll with 93 people on board.

At 2:30 A.M. offshore of Hanalei Bay, the small boat was rolled by the rough ocean swell. Two of the crew members, Peter Francis and John Andrews, were swept away by waves and drowned. Lieutenant Talbot, drenched in his heavy clothing, briefly held onto the hull before he lost hold and perished.

By sunrise the tiny craft had drifted down the coast to Kalihiwai, where crew member and coxswain William Halford made it to shore. James Muir, the other surviving crew member, was pulled to shore by Halford. Muir was delirious and died on the beach.

The Saginaw had crashed into a reef at Kure a month earlier while doing a good deed. The Saginaw was not scheduled to pass Kure Atoll, but the ship’s captain decided to go about 60 miles out of his path to the atoll to see if anyone was stranded there. The captain misjudged the ocean current and the Saginaw ran aground on Kure’s eastern reef. Waves smashed the ship in two, and the 93-person crew crawled over the fallen main mast to Kure’s lagoon.

The stranded crew of the Saginaw eventually made their way to nearby Green Island, just a few acres of coral and sand near the edge of the reef. There the crew survived by eating seals and birds and drinking rainwater. The stranded men eventually decked-over the Saginaw’s 22-foot gig (a captain’s boat), and fitted and provisioned the small vessel to sail for help.

Five of the crew members left Kure on the small boat on November 18, 1870 in an attempt to reach the main Hawaiian Islands and get help. They first sailed north and east, and then caught the tradewinds south.

The storm-tossed and weather-beaten crew lost their oars, and their provisions were ruined by ocean water. The captain of the tiny vessel, Lieutenant John G. Talbot, caught dysentery before finally arriving off Hanalei where the boat swamped in the rough seas.

On Kaua‘i, Halford conveyed his tragic story to Sheriff Samuel W. Wilcox, who assisted him in sailing to Honolulu where he informed the United States Consul about the stranded crew of the shipwrecked Saginaw on Kure Atoll. King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] promptly dispatched the Kīlauea, which arrived at Kure on January 3, 1871 to rescue the stranded Saginaw crew. William Halford was later given the Medal of Honor for his heroic efforts.

King Kalākaua Visits Hanalei

On March 17, 1874 the Kilauea carried the newly elected King Kalākaua into Hanalei Bay where he was greeted by a royal “21-gun salute. The guns were actually large logs of ‘ōhi‘a lehua bored out and packed with gunpowder.

These improvised cannons were set up on a hillside near where the boat was anchored, beneath a sign on the Kilauea that read Hookahi Puuwai (“One Heart”). (Note: Proper spelling includes diacritical marks (e.g., Kīlauea; Ho‘okahi Pu‘uwai).) The log cannons were fired one after another, each in turn bursting apart the charge was released.

Masses of people greeted King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] as he rowed to the wharf and walked beneath an arch that read “God Save the King,” which was written with ferns placed over a white background. The national anthem was played by the Royal Band. Children scattered flowers in the King’s path, which was lined with the yellow and red blossoms of ‘ōhi‘a lehua. King Kalākaua was then led to a nearby area thatched with ferns and fragrant native maile, and a grand lū‘au commenced.

King Kalākaua’s party later journeyed up the Hanalei River, some riding horseback while others were rowed up the river in boats. Kalākaua stayed the night at the home of Kaukaha, and in the morning the royal party left Hanalei Bay and sailed around the Nāpali Coast to Waimea.[cl] Hanalei was the first stop on the newly elected monarch’s royal tour of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Princess Lili‘uokalani Visits Hanalei

Princess Regent Lili‘uokalani, the future Queen of Hawai‘i, arrived in Hanalei Bay on September 23, 1881. King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] was away from the Islands on a world tour at the time, and Lili‘uokalani (his sister) was serving as Regent in his absence.

The day after arriving in Hanalei, Princess Lili‘uokalani traveled to Kīlauea, where she had been invited by one of the Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Plantation’s owners, R.A. Macfie, Jr., to commemorate the Kīlauea Sugar Corporation’s purchase of a railroad engine as well as three miles of track and 24 railroad cars to carry the sugarcane. With two hard blows of the hammer, Princess Lili‘uokalani drove in the first ceremonial spike.

In 1910 the Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Plantation became the first in the Hawaiian Islands to use gasoline-powered tractors to cultivate the fields. The plantation was eventually shut down by C. Brewer in 1972. In 1942, the 2-foot (.6-m) narrow gauge track and railroad cars were replaced by trucks.

Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] visited Hanalei again ten years later, arriving at Nāwiliwili Bay in the pre-dawn hours of July 8, 1891. The Queen was taken by carriage to Hale Nani, the home of William Hyde Rice, where hundreds of children greeted her. Ho‘okupu (gift-giving ceremonies) took place, and the Royal Band performed under the direction of conductor Heinrich “Henry” Berger.[cli]

Two days later, after a visit to the Makee Plantation in Keālia, Queen Lili‘uokalani and her party rode by carriage to Hanalei where more receptions were held. On July 12, the queen boarded the James Makee intending to sail to Ni‘ihau, but was forced to endure tumultuous ocean conditions that night off the northern coast of Kaua‘i before sailing on to Ni‘ihau the next day.

After returning to Kaua‘i, Queen Lili‘uokalani’s party was welcomed at Waimea by a salute fired from the fort. Following a visit to Kōloa, the queen was honored with a traditional lū‘au (Hawaiian feast) attended by about 2,000 people in Kalapakī at the home of the Rice family.

Queen Lili‘uokalani was accompanied on her Kaua‘i tour by Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi], the grandson of Kaua‘i’s former ruler, Kaumuali‘i. Prince Kūhiō was the nephew and adopted son of Queen Kapi‘olani. Born on Kaua‘i in 1871, the prince had been named as heir presumptive to the throne by Queen Lili‘uokalani after she ascended to the throne in 1891.


The Deverill House—Hanalei Hotel

A prominent structure in Hanalei at the end of the 1800s and well into the 1900s was the Deverill House, also known as the Hanalei Hotel. The Western-style, timber-framed home was originally constructed in 1838 about ¾-mile away, near the Wai‘oli Mission House where it was built for Protestant teachers Mr. and Mrs. Edward and Lois H. Johnson. The Johnsons arrived at the Wai‘oli mission station in 1837 and lived in the home until 1867 at its original site.

Around 1890, the former Johnson home was rolled on logs of ‘ōhi‘a lehua to a site closer to the beach and to the east, where it became the home of William and Sarah Deverill. Sarah had lived in the home as a child when she was a ward of the Johnson family.[clii] The home, which is no longer standing, was located across from the current site of the Hanalei Pavilion.

William Edward Herbert Deverill (1848-1904) came to the Islands from Lancashire, England, arriving at age eighteen with his brother Alfred Palmer Deverill.

The Deverill brothers were part of a contingent sent by Queen Victoria to present a christening gift to her godson, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862). Sadly, the young prince had succumbed to sickness and passed away at age four.

After the Deverill brothers presented the gifts to the queen, William and Alfred remained in the Islands. William Deverill had studied in France, and after arriving in the Hawaiian Islands he worked at Kohala Ranch on Hawai‘i Island. He also worked in Hilo and Honolulu, including a job with Chase and Dickson photographic galleries where he learned photographic skills he later put to use in Hanalei.

William Deverill moved to Kaua‘i in 1875, initially living in Līhu‘e where he served as deputy sheriff under Samuel Wilcox. William married Sarah Benson Fredenberg, who was part Hawaiian and had grown up in Hanalei. Sarah was the daughter of Mary Kau Kellett Fredenberg, a daughter of Captain Kellett, Hanalei’s former Pilot of the Port.

William and Sarah Deverill had six children, including Edward, Percy, Florence, Stanford, Anne, and Herbert. The latter three were born 19 years after the first three. Also raised at the house was the Deverills’ niece Lena.

In 1887 the Deverills moved to O‘ahu, where William ran the Lunalilo Home. Then in 1890 William and Sarah moved to Hanalei where they ran the Hanalei Hotel out of their home just west of Hanalei Pier. Sarah and William Deverill had three children—Edward, Florence, and Percy—and then more than fifteen years later had three more children—Anne, Herbert, and Stanford.

[Photograph: Hanalei Hotel]

[Photo Caption:]

Hanalei Hotel

Also called: The Deverill House.

Built: 1838—No longer standing.

Former Johnson Home—Moved from near Wai‘oli Mission House around 1890.

Over the decades, many changes were made to the Deverill House, including extensive remodeling and additions. The home site eventually became somewhat of a community center, with a lānai walkway connecting the main building to a separate structure that housed a Hawaiian Kingdom post office and general business place, including a tax office.[cliii]

The main part of the Deverill House was two-stories, with five bedrooms upstairs and verandas on both levels facing Hanalei Bay. Extending out from the back of this part of the home was a structure containing the kitchen and pantry as well as the dining room.

Rooms on the western side of the Deverill House were used by the family for sleeping when guests were staying in the main quarters. After phone service was installed in 1891, a phone call from Līhu‘e would alert the Deverills of arriving guests so they could begin making preparations.

A separate building near the Hanalei Hotel housed a dispensary where a medical clinic was offered twice a week by a Kīlauea doctor. The dispensary building also had an ironing room, and for many years was the quarters of Kateyama, the head helper, cook, and baker.

On the back side of the Deverill House were tanks to catch rainwater, and also a hale li‘ili‘i (outhouse). Other structures on the site included a chicken house and a barn. Various vegetables grew in the garden and rice paddies grew in the back yard. Behind the home and beyond the rice paddies was the Deverills’ boat house, on the banks of the Hanalei River.

The Deverill children sometimes escorted guests to local scenic spots. Prominent artists of the time who painted Hanalei landscapes included Otto Wix, Robert Barnfield, and D. Howard Hitchcock.

[Photograph: William Deverill]

William Deverill had a multitude of jobs, serving as district sheriff, tax assessor, road supervisor, and property manager for Albert Spencer Wilcox. As an agent for the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company, William was in charge of all steam freight arriving or being sent from Hanalei Bay.[cliv] He also started a coffee plantation on leased land in Hanakāpī‘ai Valley on Kaua‘i’s Nāpali coast.

Sarah Deverill’s many roles included serving as manager of the Hanalei Hotel where she charged guests $3.00 a day for room and board. Sarah was also a midwife, and she was known as a gracious and dependable hard worker. In the early 1890s, Sarah operated a butcher shop, slaughtering animals and selling beef.

William Deverill was an avid photographer and used his darkroom at the Hanalei Hotel to develop his own pictures as well as those of his guests. Japanese residents often called William “Deverill Man,” and many Hawaiians called him “Kepolo.”[clv]

William Deverill died in 1904, and his grave site may still be seen alongside Wai‘oli Mission Hall (the former Wai‘oli Church) in Hanalei. The gravestone reads: W. E. H. Deverill, Burnly Lancashire, Eng., September 6, 1848-May 24, 1904, Hanalei, Kauai.

After William’s death, Sarah assumed many of his former duties, including serving as the region’s tax assessor and postmistress. The Hanalei Hotel remained in operation until 1920 when the automobile became popular, road improvements allowed faster access to Hanalei from Līhu‘e, and visitors no longer needed to stay the night in Hanalei. Sarah Deverill passed away in Honolulu in the 1930s.

One of the daughters of William and Sarah Deverill was Florence K. Deverill, who taught grades one through four at Hanalei School. Florence was much older than her younger siblings, who were among her students at Hanalei School. Also working at Hanalei School was Florence’s aunt, Elizabeth Fredenberg Lindley, who taught grades six through eight.

Another child of William and Sarah Deverill was Edward Deverill, who was born in 1881 and attended ‘Iolani and Punahou Schools in Honolulu before returning to Hanalei where he worked as the tax assessor. Edward later worked various other jobs in the Islands and married Barbara Ella Lee of Los Angeles, who worked as a school teacher in Makaweli.

After Edward’s retirement, Barbara and Edward moved to Hanalei where they built a house on the shore of Hanalei Bay. Barbara Deverill worked as a teacher at Hanalei School until 1952, and lived to age 100. Edward Deverill died on May 6, 1940, and was buried next to his father in the Wai‘oli Church Cemetery.

Edward and Barbara’s two sons were E.G.K. Deverill, Jr. and Herbert Spencer Deverill. Herbert worked for Universal Studios in Los Angeles as a motion picture art director before passing away in 1984. Barbara Ella Deverill’s sister, Etta Lee Brown, was a movie star who played roles opposite Rudolph Valentino and Douglas Fairbanks Sr.



[i] Pacific Commercial Advertiser 2/19/1857, p, 2)

[ii] Pacific Commercial Advertiser 2/19/1857, p, 2)

[iii] p. 272, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[iv] pp. 16-17, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[v] A holokū is a loose dress (e.g., mu‘umu‘u).

[vi] pp. 16-17, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[vii] pp. 16-17, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[viii] p. 272, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[ix] p. 272, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[x] p. 341, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xi] Kikiula was later known as the Princeville Plantation House and then the Princeville Ranch House.

[xii] p. 3, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xiii] p. 3, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xiv] p. 272, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xv] p. 237, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xvi] p. 344, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xvii] p. 334, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xviii] p. 149, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[xix] p. 350, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xx] p. 350, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xxi] p. 334, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xxii] Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society 1851:52-4.

[xxiii] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxiv] p. 350, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xxv] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxvi] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxvii] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxviii] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxix] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xxx] Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[xxxi] p. 52, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[xxxii] p. 10, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[xxxiv] p. 181, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[xxxv] p. 181, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[xxxvi] p. 11, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[xxxvii] The Legacy of a Young Hawaiian Prince. Na Leo ‘O Princeville: A publication of Princeville Corporation & Princeville Utilities Company, Inc., Spring, 2003.

[xxxviii] p. 4, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xxxix] p. 277, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xl] p. 4, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xli] p. 2, King, Josephine Wundenberg. Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xlii] p. 15, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xliii] p. 5, King, Josephine Wundenberg. Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xliv] p. 6, King, Josephine Wundenberg. Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xlv] pp. 9-10, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917

[xlvi] pp. 9-10, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xlvii] pp. 9-10, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917

[xlviii] pp. 9-10, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xlix] p. 182, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[l] Theophilus Harris Davies (1833-1898).

[li] The ‘ōahi (fire throwing) ceremony also took place at the cliffs of Mākua and Kāmaile.

[lii] Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[liii] p. 300, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2735.

[liv] p. 57, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[lv] p. 57, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[lvi] Davies noted: “At about two o‘clock we arrived at Haula, the royal flag being hoisted over the grass house prepared for our reception. The Prince of Hawaii, the Queen’s mother, and the Governor of Hawaii with numerous servants had come around by boats, bringing our provisions etc. with them. We gladly alighted, amongst a troop of native spectators.” [P. 58, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.]

[lvii] p. 59, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[lviii] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lix] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lx] p. 12, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[lxi] p. 279, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxii] p. 257, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxiii] p. 54, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[lxiv] p. 52, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[lxv] p. 139, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxvi] pp. 137-138, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxvii] pp. 17-18, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[lxviii] pp. 183-184, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[lxix] p. 17, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[lxx] Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxxi] p. 183, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[lxxii] Korn

[lxxiii] p. 13, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[lxxiv] p. 13, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[lxxv] p. 13, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[lxxvi] pp. 183-184, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[lxxvii] p. 279, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxviii] p. 279, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxix] pp. 280-281, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxx] p. 177, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxxxi] p. 177, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxxxii] p. 178, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[lxxxiii] p. 377, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[lxxxiv] Elsie Wilcox noted that the mill was “set up by Mr. John Webster, who came out for the purpose.” P. 280, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxxv] p. 4, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[lxxxvi] Personal letter of Anna S. Wundenberg Wright, 1921, entitled “The Hanalei Valley.” On file at Kaua‘i Historical Society.

[lxxxvii] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxxviii] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[lxxxix] p. 14, King, Josephine Wundenberg, Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[xc] p. 178, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[xci] p. 138, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[xcii] p. 6, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[xciii] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xcv] p.. 280, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xcvi] p. 9, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[xcvii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xcviii] p. 280, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[xcix] p. 126, Korn, Alfons L. The Victorian Visitors; An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958.

[c] p. 185, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[ci] p. 281, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cii] p. 186, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[ciii] p. 22, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[civ] p. 281, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cv] p. 282, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cvi] p. 733, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cvii] p. 103, Whitney, Henry M. The Hawaiian Guide Book for Travelers. 1875. Reprint. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle, 1970.

[cviii] p. 104, Whitney, Henry M. The Hawaiian Guide Book for Travelers. 1875. Reprint. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle, 1970.

[cix] Bird, Isabella L. Six Months in the Sandwich Islands. 1875, Reprint. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press for Friends of the Library of Hawaii, 1964.

[cxi] p. 282, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxii] Bird, Isabella L. Six Months in the Sandwich Islands. 1875, Reprint. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press for Friends of the Library of Hawaii, 1964.

[cxiii] From a report by the Princeville Plantation manager. [p. 5, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.]

[cxiv] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917. Wilcox notes: “The company was as follows: Colonel Spalding one-eighth, S. G. Allen one-eighth, Carl Tuch one-eighth, C. Koelling five-eighth.”

[cxv] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxvi] Princeville Ranch. p. 2, Na Leo ‘O Princeville. Princeville Corporation & Princeville Utilities Company, Inc., Summer, 2003.

[cxvii] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxviii] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxix] p. 72, Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[cxx] Princeville Ranch. p. 2, Na Leo ‘O Princeville. Princeville Corporation & Princeville Utilities Company, Inc., Summer, 2003.

[cxxi] p. 23, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu: Hawai‘i, 2002.

[cxxii] Prince Albert passed away before the gift could be presented.

[cxxiii] Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxiv] National Register of Historic Places: United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[cxxv] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxxvi] p. 39, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cxxvii] p. 27, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxviii] p. 27, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxix] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxxx] p. 13, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxi] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxxxii] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxxxiii] p. 31, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxiv] pp. 16-17, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxv] pp. 16-17, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxvi] p. 21, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxvii] p. 21, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxxxviii] National Register of Historic Places: United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[cxxxix] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxl] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxli] p. 14, Helen Kapililani Sanborn Davis: Reminiscences of a Life in the Islands, as told to Maili Yardley. Honolulu, Hawaii, Native Books, 2000.

[cxlii] Whitney 1890: 107-8.

[cxliii] pp. 276-277, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxliv] pp. 276-277, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxlv] p. 5, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cxlvi] p. 340, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxlvii] p. 341, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxlviii] p. 341, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cxlix] p. 340, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[cl] p. 232, Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[cli] Joesting, Edward. Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press, 1984.

[clii] p. 243, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cliii] p. 8, The Hanalei Hotel. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[cliv] p. 8, The Hanalei Hotel. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[clv] p. 8, The Hanalei Hotel. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.