Hanalei History Part 4

Part 4

The Rice Era and the Beach Houses of Hanalei

(19001950)
 

Roads and Bridges

Hanalei Bridge

Wai‘oli Bridge

Waipā Bridge

Waikoko Bridge

Wai‘oli Mission in the 20th Century

Wai‘oli Mission House

Wai‘oli Mission Hall

Wai‘oli Church Belfry

Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church

Wai‘oli Church Parsonage

Hanalei Today—Restoring Wai‘oli Mission

The Hanalei River

Ka‘āpoko Tunnel

Hanalei Tunnel

The Rice Era

Growing and Milling Rice

Hanalei Pier

The Haraguchis—A Tradition of Farming

Map: Hanalei in the Rice Era

Hanalei in the Early 1900s—A Journey through Old Hanalei

Ah Hoy Store (later called Ching Ma Leong)

Haraguchi Rice Mill (on site of old Man Sing Rice Mill)

The Haraguchis—A Tradition of Farming

Man Sung Wai Rice Mill

Chinese Temple

Yee Hing Society Community Home

Chinese Language School

Japanese Hongwanji

Hanalei Chinese Cemetery

Ah Goong San (Grandfathers’ Mountain)

Chong Hing Store

Hamamura Store

Pā‘ele—Shing Kon Sung Rice Plantation (formerly Soy Sung Wai), now site of Hanalei Gardens Farm and Bison Ranch

Trader Building

Mrs. Shiraishi’s Barber Shop

I. Nakatsuka General Store

Hanalei Museum and Snack Shop

The Ching Youngs

Ching Young Store / Ching Young Rice Mill

Kodama Barber Shop

Chinese Christian (Congregational) Church

Parsonage

Say Dock House

See Tai Wai Rice Mill

T. S. See Wo Store (now site of Church of Latter Day Saints)

Katayama Store

Takenaka Auto Repair [Takahashi’s Garage and Repair Shop]

Nagaoaka Restaurant and Bakery

Gas Station

Hanalei Shingon—Japanese Shingon Temple

Japanese Language School (now site of St. Williams Catholic Church)

Chock Chin

Chock Chin Residence

Chock Chin Store (later called C. Akeoni Store, Lau Store, Hanalei Store)

The Lily Pond

Tasaka Residence & Saimin

Kenichi Tasaka

Lily Pond House

The Hanalei Post Office

Old Hanalei Post Office Boxes

District Courthouse

Jail

Hanalei School

Old Hanalei School Building

Nakatsuji Rice Mill (formerly Hop Chong Wai Rice Mill)

Hiramoto Rice Mill (formerly Hee Fat Rice Mill)

Chock Chin Rice Mill

Weke Road and Beach Houses of Hanalei

Black Pot Beach Park and the Hukilau/ Lumaha‘i Hula

Kauikeōlani—Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House

Kanoa Pond

Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond

Old Hanalei Pavilion

Sanborn Beach House

Reed House

Sanborn Poi Mill

Fayé Beach House

Princeville Ranch Manager’s House

The Bounty House

Mahamoku—Mabel and Charles Wilcox House

Roads and Bridges

The current road down into Hanalei Valley (Route 560) came into use around 1900. The new road replaced a steeper, winding route with three switchbacking S-curves that wound its way down the hill to a ferry that carried passengers over the Hanalei River.

The original road down into Hanalei Valley passed a post office as well as the home known as Kikiula, later known as Princeville Plantation House and then Princeville Ranch House. The road reached the valley floor just upriver from the current site of the Hanalei Bridge (built in 1912) at a place where several buildings associated with Princeville Plantation were located.[i]

Kaua‘i’s road system underwent a gradual improvement beginning around 1850, and in 1851 a report by Godfrey Rhodes, the vice president of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society, stated: “The condition of the roads under the superintendence of foreigners is wonderfully improved, and the amount appropriated by government for their further improvement will render them tolerably good and easy for traveling on horseback. It is hoped that in the course of a very few years the whole of the distance between Hanalei and Waimea will be traversed by a good carriage road.”[ii]

According to Theophilus H. Davies, the founder of the “Big Five” firm of Theo H. Davies & Co., there was an alternate route into the valley when he visited in 1860. “My companion not being on as intimate terms with the proprietors, and moreover not wishing to be recognized by the ladies in our rough travelling dress, resolutely refused to take this private road,” recalled Davies, “and we descended by another path, half a mile lower down. Just as we reached the river-side, the royal barge containing the two young ladies and Mr. Wyllie passed, and notwithstanding Henry’s anxiety to avoid a recontre, we exchanged salutes.” [p. 56, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.]

[Photograph: Road to Hanalei—pre-1900.]

[Photo Caption:]

“It is quite possible to drive in a light vehicle from Hanalei to Mana point, a distance of 65 miles.”

Henry Whitney, 1875[iii]

Sometime around 1885, the main route into the valley was realigned to where it is today. An 1893 government survey map shows both the old and new routes down into Hanalei Valley. In his 1895 journal, Eric Knudsen noted that the wagon trail extended only as far as Hanalei, and after that point travelers stayed near the shoreline where it was easier to cross the numerous rivers.

Until about 1900, the newer route into Hanalei Valley was more of a trail than a road. By 1904, the new alignment of the road was labeled as the primary route,[iv] and the former route came to be known as the “old road.”[v]

Not far from where the road reached the valley floor it intersected the Hanalei River where a ferry was constructed to carry travelers across. “The winding road by which I descended before is a private road,” wrote Davies, “and at its foot the Hanalei river runs and has to be crossed by a raft that always lies there, belonging to the plantation.”[vi] According to an 1899 publication, the ferry was “supported by government and the Princeville Plantation jointly.”[vii]

Ferries were not quite as sturdy as bridge crossings, and sometimes led to precarious situations. In the mid-1800s, “there were no bridges in Wainiha,” recalled Josephine Wundenberg King, “although there were ferry scows at Lumahai and at Hanalei and Kalihiwai, I never liked crossing on them, for I was pushed off one at Princeville once by a kicking horse and never got over the fright. Most horses were nervous on them, and they were often leaky and tipped too much for comfort, mentally and otherwise. In the very old times natives paddled people over the rivers in canoes and swam our horses over for us, which was the safest if not the most convenient method.”[viii]

The hand-pulled ferry over the Hanalei River operated until about 1895, when an iron-truss bridge was erected. Before about 1900, the wagon road extended past the Hanalei Bridge to Hanalei town, and beyond that point there was only a trail. Around 1904, wooden timber bridges were constructed over the streams flowing from the valleys of Waipā, Waikoko, Wainiha, and Lumaha‘i.

The early 1900s were a time of building, but they were also a time of letting go of some of the old places. An iron-truss bridge had replaced the ferry over the Hanalei River, and in 1912 it was replaced by the current steel bridge. For several years, pieces of the old bridge’s iron structure remained in the river, but these hazards were eventually removed by the government.

By 1917, the old coffee mill and Kikiula were gone. Elsie Wilcox wrote: “No signs of the house and garden are now to be found. Mr. Rhodes Coffee Mill was a little further up the river, on the opposite side from Limunui, above the present bridge, where the old scow used to be.”[ix]

[Photograph: Hanalei Bridge]

[Photo Caption:]

Hanalei Bridge

Built in 1912, replacing previous bridge built around 1895.

Maker: Hamilton and Chambers Company; New York, New York.

County Engineer: Joseph Hughes Moragne.

Repairs, Reinforcements: 1934; 1959-60; 1967; 1989; 2002-2003.

Hawai‘i and National Register of Historic Places: 1978.[x]

Hanalei Bridge spans the Hanalei River at the bottom of a long hill that descends into Hanalei Valley from Princeville. The bridge spans 113 feet (34 m) over the Hanalei River, and is Hawai‘i’s oldest American-made, steel, through-truss bridge.

The structural type of the Hanalei Bridge is a through-truss (Pratt-truss) steel bridge, constructed on reinforced concrete abutments, with a timber deck. The vertical clearance from the timber deck of the bridge is 15 feet (4.6 m), and the horizontal clearance (width) at the deck is 17 feet (5.2 m).

The Carnegie Steel truss pieces were prefabricated in New York City by the firm of Hamilton & Chambers for the Territory of Hawai‘i. The connections were riveted at the bridge site and then the bridge was erected over the Hanalei River.

The 1912 bridge had a twelve-ton load limit until repair work in 1934 strengthened the super-structure. The Hanalei Bridge was damaged by the 1957 tsunami, and reinforcements were added in 1959. Warren trusses were added in 1967. (See Part 5: Hanalei Today.)

In 1912 and 1913, concrete bridges were erected at Wai‘oli, Waipā, and Waikoko[xi] by County Engineer Joseph Hughes Moragne (and later R. L. Garlinghouse), who undertook an extensive bridge building program. Also undertaken was the construction of a Kaua‘i “Belt Road,” a road paving project that was completed by about 1920 and extended from Mānā to Hā‘ena.

The construction of new bridges on Kaua‘i’s north shore was given impetus by the collapse of three of the region’s wooden bridges in the summer of 1912. The bridge failures were caused by heavily loaded wagons being used to move large amounts of crushed rock for road construction.

“Three bridges in the Hanalei District which are to be replaced with new ones, had collapsed. One bridge had been but fairly cleared by a loaded wagon, when it fell and crashed into the stream, while a second bridge went down carrying a part of the wagon with it. Fortunately, the team had secured sound footing and were able to withstand the strain. A third bridge collapsed with no great loss, as the timbers were useless.”

The Garden Island newspaper, 1912[xii]

The new bridges built on Kaua‘i’s north shore were part of the effort to create the County Belt Road linking the north and west shores of Kaua‘i with a series of new bridges and a paved, improved road, making Kaua‘i’s modern road system the envy of the Islands.[xiii]

In the first issue of 1913, The Garden Island newspaper reported “new concrete bridges now under construction are assuming a finished appearance. A new steel bridge has also replaced the old structure across the Hanalei River.”[xiv]

The Wai‘oli Bridge, located just past Hanalei town, is a concrete, cast-in-place, multi-span structure with pointed cap railings. Just past Wai‘oli bridge is Waipā Bridge, originally built in 1912. An additional span was added in 1946, lengthening the bridge to accommodate the new course of Waipā Stream after it was altered by the 1946 tsunami. The original portion of Waipā Bridge is double span, and cast-in-place, with pointed cap railings and beveled trim. The newer (1946) part of the bridge is also cast-in-place.

Waikoko Bridge, originally a concrete, cast-in-place structure built in 1912, partially collapsed during the 1946 tsunami. To make the bridge passable after the tidal wave, rocks were stacked up atop the fallen structure to make the bridge functional again. This repaired bridge remains in use to the present day, with low rock walls along the sides of the bridge serving as railings.

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Bridge]

[Photo Caption:]

Wai‘oli Bridge

Built: 1912

Hawai‘i and National Register of Historic Places: 1978.[xv]

[Photograph: Waipā Bridge]

[Photo Caption:]

Waipā Bridge

Built: 1912; Lengthened: 1946.

Hawai‘i and National Register of Historic Places: 1978.[xvi]

[Photograph: Waikoko Bridge]

[Photo Caption:]

Waikoko Bridge

Built: 1912; 1946.[xvii]

Wai‘oli Mission in the 20th Century

As Hanalei moved into the 20th century, the descendants of pioneering Wai‘oli missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox restored the old mission buildings and also built a new church building.

In 1912, Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church was built by Sam, George, and Albert Wilcox in honor of their parents, Abner and Lucy Wilcox. The new church, which is now one of the most photographed buildings in Hanalei, was constructed just east of the former Wai‘oli Church, which was built in 1841.

Albert Spencer Wilcox in particular was a leader in the effort to build the new Hanalei church, which became known as Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church Sanctuary. The green, spired building cost about $10,500 to build, including furnishings.

An article in The Garden Island newspaper on October 22, 1912 stated: “a corner store service preceded the dedication in connection with which Reverend W. B. Oleson gave a brief resume of the history of the church. A hermetically sealed copper box containing the current newspapers of the day including The Garden Island was placed in a recess in the corner stone and cemented in by Mrs. S. W. Wilcox...a generous luau hot from the imu followed the dedication service.”[xviii]

Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church was designed in the American Gothic style with a Roman Doric.[xix] The front gable “is largely filled with an immense stained glass window with a pointed arch.”[xx] The church is also notable for its bell tower. The bell placed in the bell tower came from the adjacent Wai‘oli Belfry where it had sounded its tones to the congregation since 1843.

The October 29, 1912 edition of The Garden Island stated: “The New Church Building just dedicated at Hanalei is one of the most artistic and graceful churches on the Islands. But even more important, perhaps, it is an exceedingly well-built church...acoustically the best type of building with a charming gothic finish of steep roof and pointed windows.”[xxi]

The structure’s fine stained glass windows were said to be “works of art upon which the eyes ever delight to feast.”[xxii] The windows were said to reflect “all the colors of the rainbow intensified.”[xxiii]

Albert Spencer Wilcox considered the Mission House at Wai‘oli to be in hopeless disrepair in the early 1900s, and he contemplated burning the structure down. After Albert passed away in 1919, the Wai‘oli Mission House as well as the adjoining mission lands were sold to Elsie Wilcox, Mabel Wilcox, and Lucy Etta Wilcox Sloggett (the children of Samuel and Emma Wilcox). The three sisters then undertook an extensive restoration of the Wai‘oli Mission House and Wai‘oli Mission Hall (the former Wai‘oli Church).

Prominent Honolulu architect Hart Wood (1880—1957) was chosen to oversee the restoration project, and his plan encompassed the whole of the 20-acre site, including landscaping, fencing, and “draining and leveling of the common for the park.”[xxiv]

“I hope to restore everything to its former condition,” wrote Wood, “and to retain the simplicity and unpretentiousness of the original.”[xxv] Wood took great care to retain the original features of the house, including the uneven widths of the original floorboards, and the lath and plaster of the interior walls.[xxvi]

Some of the home’s original furnishings still remained in 1920, including Abner’s upholstered rocking chair as well as “a whale oil metal lamp, candlestick, the bookcase, many of Abner and Lucy Wilcox’s books and—remarkably—all the letters of Abner and Lucy Wilcox.”[xxvii]

Once the Wai‘oli Mission House restoration was completed, the Wilcox sisters brought many of the original items owned by their grandparents (Abner and Lucy Wilcox) back to the house, including furniture, bedspreads, and shells. “Pitchers, a mantel clock, inkwells, Shaker boxes, the Chinese work basket and ceramics were returned to Waioli. George Wilcox brought back his mother’s Connecticut album quilt, and Lucy Etta Sloggett brought back her grandparent’s center table.”[xxviii]

In 1921, a rosewood table was returned “to its place in the beautiful front room at Waioli,” recalled Ethel Damon, “and as, for the first time in many years, the feet of guests again trooped over the low moss-green sandstone steps and through the broad, window-paneled front door, Etta Sloggett welcomed us all to the old house. That was a beautiful November day.”[xxix]

The restoration was also celebrated with a church service that “reconsecrated its stately walls to the service of the community.”[xxx] Samuel Whitney Wilcox spoke to the gathering, and “told in flowing, beautiful Hawaiian of boyhood days at Waioli. His grandson and namesake gave over the old church keys to the Hawaiian leaders of the community. And afterward a great feast, a true paina luau, was there spread out for the visiting multitude.”[xxxi]

In 1922, Elsie and Mabel Wilcox along with Ethel Damon visited the East Coast of the United States to purchase objects for the restored Mission House, including a chest of drawers that had been used by Abner Wilcox’s parents at their home in Harwinton, Connecticut.[xxxii]

In 1926, the Territory of Hawai‘i constructed a new Wai‘oli schoolhouse, a “spacious new six room building to further meet the needs of the Chinese and Japanese rice and taro farmers, storekeepers, the remaining Hawaiians and other families in the Hanalei valley.”[xxxiii] The restored church building was used for “well-baby clinics” sponsored by the Territory’s traveling Public Health nurses who were directed by Mabel Wilcox.[xxxiv]

Medical assistance was generally not available locally in the early 1900s. “In the early Twenties,” recalled Frank Kurihara, “you couldn’t afford to get sick, as there were no doctors or hospitals in Hanalei. There used to be a dispensary near the court house that tended to minor cuts and bruises. The nearest hospital was...at Kilauea Plantation. So most of us used traditional Hawaiian remedies for our sprains, cuts, colds etc. The Japanese had a traditional medicine peddler who came once a month to replenish the depleted stock. The horse doctor also came to treat all the ailing horses. All the babies were born with the aid of the midwives, as no one was rich enough to go to the hospital.”[xxxv]

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Mission House]

[Photo Caption:]

Wai‘oli Mission House

Cookhouse Built: 1834.

Main House Built: 1836-1837.

A dining room/pantry connected the Mission House to the cookhouse in 1840. In 1843 a rear lānai was constructed. In 1849 a lean-to bedroom was built (and later removed). In 1860, Edward Payson Wilcox added an upstairs bedroom over the dining room and pantry area of the Wai‘oli Mission House.

Restoration: 1921; Restoration Architect: Hart Wood; Contractor: Sam B. Goss.

National Register of Historic Places: 1973.

Extensive repairs were completed on the Wai‘oli Mission House in 1976.

The Mission House at Wai‘oli was the residence of the Alexanders from 1836 to 1843, then home to Mr. and Mrs. George B. and Malvina Rowell until 1846. The Wilcoxes lived in the Wai‘oli Mission House from 1846 to 1869.

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Mission Hall]

[Photo Caption:]

Wai‘oli Mission Hall

Also Called: Church Hall; Old Wai‘oli Church.

Built: 1841

New Shingle Roof: 1851; Pulpit, board floor, and seats added: 1861; Galvanized iron roof installed: 1883.

Restoration: 1921.

Restoration Architect: Hart Wood.

A kitchen wing was added to Wai‘oli Mission Hall in 1934.

National Register of Historic Places: 1973.

Archeological excavation of interior floor: 1979.

A second Wai‘oli Mission Hall restoration took place in 1979-1981.

The 1841 Wai‘oli Church served the congregation until 1912 when the new Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church was built. In 1921 the old church building was restored, and is now known as Wai‘oli Mission Hall, or Church Hall.

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Church Belfry]

[Photo Caption:]

Wai‘oli Church Belfry

Built: 1841; Restored: 1921.

Restoration Architect: Hart Wood.

The Wai‘oli Church Belfry underwent a second restoration in 1986-1987.

National and State Registers of Historic Places: 1973.

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church]

[Photo Caption:]

Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church

Built: 1912.

Architect: Ripley and Reynolds.

The head carpenter in the construction of Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church was C. E. Haynes.

Architectural Style: American Gothic with a Roman Doric.

National and State Registers of Historic Places: 1973.

Extensive repairs were completed on the church in 1976. The church’s location is 5-5393A Kūhiō Highway (Route 560). Phone: 808-826-6253.

In 1934, a century after the arrival of the Alexanders at Wai‘oli, a lū‘au feast was held to celebrate the Wai‘oli Mission Centennial, the 100th year since the founding of the Wai‘oli mission station by pioneering missionaries William Patterson Alexander and his wife Mary Ann.

About 1,000 people, including many Alexander descendants, attended the Centennial along with seven different choir groups from Kaua‘i churches. A memorial address was given by Mary Alexander, the granddaughter of William and Mary Ann Alexander. The church choirs sang classics including “Hawaii Aloha and Na Molokama,” which “brought back the old days.”[xxxvi]

“On Sundays, you could hear their glorious voices, singing the old Hawaiian songs and hymns, and also the songs composed by the famous Hawaiian composer, Alfred Alohikea, at the Waioli Hui Congregational Church in Hanalei...with the Reverend Akiona presiding, the beauty of Hanalei must have inspired Mr. Alohikea to compose all of those songs.”

Frank Kurihara[xxxvii]

Also in 1934, to commemorate the Mission Centennial, a wing was added to Wai‘oli Mission Hall to house a kitchen. By 1945, Wai‘oli Church, Hā‘ena Church, and ‘Anini Church had joined to form the Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church, which was a Congregational Church until 1957 when it became a United Church of Christ.

The Wai‘oli Mission House was incorporated as a museum in 1952, and Elsie and Mabel Wilcox along with Lucy Etta Wilcox Sloggett established an endowment to guarantee the continued preservation of the historic home, which was opened to the public free of charge.

In the 1950s, Wai‘oli Park was leased to the community and became a public park.[xxxviii] The Wai‘oli Church Parsonage was built in 1966.

[Photograph: Centennial Group Photo]

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Mission House.]

“In 1934 mission descendants, especially of Father and Mother Alexander, celebrated at Waioli Church and home the hundredth year since the founding of that remote Mission station. Hawaiian congregations from all Kaui-nei gathered to share and contribute to the church services. Nor will any there ever forget those Hawaiians as they stood on the front verandahs of the old home and sang and sang, one beautiful Hawaiian hymn after another, till the very trees echoed back the sacred sounds.”

Ethel Damon[xxxix]

Hanalei Today—Restoring Wai‘oli Mission

Extensive repairs to the historic Wai‘oli Mission House were completed in 1976, and a celebration of the event included a program of Hawaiian hymns and songs.

An archaeological excavation of the floor of Wai‘oli Mission Hall (the former Wai‘oli Church) took place in the summer of 1979. Analyses of artifacts and midden as well as bone and shell remains revealed an area of adze and fishhook construction that included prehistoric tool forms being used as late as 1832.

Also found during the excavation of the church floor were basalt sinkers, evidence of woodworking done with stone adzes, and an area where food preparation and consumption was centered around five separate hearths.[xl] After the archaeological work was completed, repairs of the 1841 Wai‘oli Mission Hall took place to stabilize the building.

A restoration of the Wai‘oli Mission Belfry took place in 1986-1987 and included excavating and re-setting the foundation stones and replacing the original ‘ōhi‘a lehua beams and structural members that had been used to construct the bell tower in 1841.[xli] Wood for the restoration came from ‘ōhi‘a lehua trees that had been knocked down in Kōke‘e State Park by Hurricane ‘Iwa in 1982.

Hurricane ‘Iniki struck Kaua‘i on September 11, 1992 causing severe structural damage to Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church and lifting the building off its foundation. Hurricane ‘Iniki caused more than $3 billion in property damage on Kaua‘i, including damage to more than 70% of the island’s homes, and completely destroying 1,421 homes.

The hurricane also damaged the church’s precious stained glass windows. After the hurricane, Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church underwent an extensive restoration, including the replacement of the historic windows with custom made replicas indistinguishable from the originals. Dedication ceremonies for the restored church took place in April of 1994.

Congregational hymns at the Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church Sunday service are still sung by the Wai‘oli Church Choir in the Hawaiian language. The hymn versions used by the choir singers were originally translated by the early missionaries.

[Photograph: Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church, showing Wai‘oli Mission Hall (old Wai‘oli Church) in background.]

[Photo Caption:]

The Wai‘oli Mission has been serving the local congregation continuously since 1834: originally at a meetinghouse structure (no longer standing); from 1841 to 1912 at the first Wai‘oli Church (now Mission Hall); and from 1912 to the present day at Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church.


 

The Hanalei River

Hanalei Valley’s agricultural productivity is largely due to the plentiful water supply provided by the Hanalei River. The watercourse flows some 16 miles through Hanalei Valley and drains a watershed of about 19 square miles.

Flow rates on the Hanalei River range from 20 million gallons per day to more than six billion gallons per day.[xlii] The Hanalei River is one of the five largest rivers in the Islands, and drains into one of the state’s largest bays, Hanalei Bay.

[Photograph: Hanalei River.]

“The landing is within the mouth of a small river, which carries, for a considerable distance up, from one to three quarters of a fathom, into fresh water, and is further navigable for boats or canoes (drawing three feet) several miles...The scenery is beautiful, and my surprise is that such a favourable situation should so long have been overlooked.”[xliii]

Captain Edward Belcher, 1843[xliv]

As the Hanalei River winds its way across the coastal plain, some of its water is diverted into the taro patches of Hanalei Valley. This water is channeled to and from the fields through a series of canals and ditches that eventually return the water to the river.

Water diversions from the Hanalei River were being considered as early as 1915, when Princeville Plantation manager Walter Foss Sanborn received a report by John Mortimer Lydgate saying that the water “now going steadily to waste on the north side of Kauai may be conveyed to the South side, where it could be disposed of at lucrative rates.”[xlv]

Attempts to grow sugarcane in the Hanalei region had been unsuccessful, but sugarcane continued to thrive on the rest of Kaua‘i. The increasing size of the sugarcane plantations led to the need for more water, and Kaua‘i’s north shore had abundant water sources.

Large-scale water diversions of the Hanalei River for use on distant sugarcane plantations began in the early 1900s, in part due to the work of Joseph Hughes Moragne, who was an engineer for the Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation from 1919 to 1937.

Moragne supervised “the development of a complex water collection and transfer system, one that spanned and connected several watersheds from Hanalei to Koloa.”[xlvi] In 1925, the Ka‘āpoko Tunnel was constructed to bring water from the Hanalei River to Wailua.

In 1926, Moragne engineered and built the 6,028 foot Hanalei Tunnel at a cost of $294,261 to divert water from the Hanalei River to Līhu‘e. Beginning at the 1,250-foot elevation of the Hanalei River basin, the Hanalei Tunnel carried water through to the Wailua River basin and down into the Maheo stream, which flows into the north fork of the Wailua River at an elevation of about 700 feet.[xlvii]

From the Maheo stream the Stable Storm Ditch carried the water west to a south fork tributary, and then finally to the sugarcane fields of Līhu‘e.[xlviii] In 1928, a 3,558-foot tunnel was built at a cost of $150,000 to divert water into the Hanalei Tunnel from the Ka‘āpoko tributary of the Hanalei River.[xlix]

[Photograph: Hanalei River]

“Hanalei river is lined with luxuriant foliage, and a boat ride on its smooth bosom, in a bright moonlight, rivals the Arabian Nights enchantment.”

Whitney, 1875[l]

The Rice Era

Many of the historic homes and buildings that stand in Hanalei today were built during the rice era, which began in the Hanalei region in the 1860s. The rice era followed various failed agricultural attempts in the valley, including crops of mulberry trees (to raise silkworms), coffee, tobacco, and sugarcane, as well as attempts to raise cattle.

By 1870 rice had become a significant agricultural product throughout the Islands and soon would dominate the Hanalei landscape. In 1879, five Chinese farmers became the first Chinese to lease land from the Princeville Plantation, leasing 42 acres[li] of Hanalei Valley land for $15/acre/year.[lii]

In 1880, an established Chinese rice factoring company, the Chulan Company, leased 300 acres of Hanalei Valley land from the Princeville Plantation for $20/acre/year. The Chulan Company had originally attempted to lease 700 acres, but Princeville Plantation manager Charles Koelling was concerned that Princeville’s upper plateau lands might be less fertile than the lower valley lands, and so he would not grant such a large lease.[liii]

By 1882, sugarcane had all but disappeared in Hanalei’s lower valley in favor of rice, and just a small parcel of the valley was still planted in sugarcane. Other nearby valleys were also planted with rice along with virtually all suitable land along Hanalei’s coastal plain.

[Photographs: Rice Era]

In 1884, the Chinese population of Hanalei had grown to 459, increasing to 689 by 1896.[liv] In 1895, Eric Knudsen wrote in his journal: “Rice field and taro patches covered the flat bottom lands as far as the eye could see...many Chinamen were working in the fields.”[lv]

By the end of the 1800s, rice was a primary agricultural crop in Hawai‘i, second only to sugarcane. In 1892, about 750 acres of the 7,321 acres of rice grown in Hawai‘i were in Hanalei and Wai‘oli valleys. Mokulē‘ia in O‘ahu was the second largest rice producing area in the Islands, with 738 acres in cultivation, followed by Waikīkī, which had 542 acres planted in rice.[lvi]

Ninety percent of Hawai‘i’s rice came from Kaua‘i and O‘ahu. In the 1920s, Hanalei was the top rice-producing region, and “every flat area of Hanalei was cultivated in rice.”[lvii] Though Chinese were the predominant ethnic group working in Hawai‘i’s rice industry during its early years, by the 1920s there were about equal numbers of Chinese and Japanese rice growers and millers.[lviii] The 1930s saw an influx of Filipino rice farmers in the Hanalei area.

“Opium was legal, and sold in small vials. When we were kids, we used to watch the addicts smoke it with their opium pipes, over a small lantern, and all the Chinese bachelors smoked their tobacco with water pipes.”

Frank Kurihara[lix]

Changes in the ethnicity of the immigrant population in the early 1900s led to changes in what types of rice were grown. The Japanese population increased by about 30% as the Chinese population steadily decreased.

“Hanalei Town in the early twenties,” recalled Frank Kurihara, “was predominately Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, some whites, and some other mixed races. It was a small rural town, as laid back as can be.”[lx]

As the Japanese population increased, they soon became the principal rice consumers. The Japanese generally preferred the shorter grained Japanese varieties of rice, which were softer, more glutinous, and more flavorful than the Chinese varieties, which had a harder, starchier grain.[lxi] Rice imports from Japan also increased, rising from about 9½ million pounds in 1905 to nearly 30 million pounds in 1910.[lxii]

The rise of rice as an agricultural product in Hawai‘i was due to several causes that began with the arrival of Captain Cook in 1778 and the subsequent Western influencesincluding sandalwood traders, whalers, missionaries, and foreign diseaseswhich caused a severe decline in traditional Hawaiian food production.

New governmental structures and land laws enacted by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) in the mid-1800s allowed non-Hawaiians to buy land. These and other political events led to the availability of many traditional taro farming areas with good irrigation, and in Hanalei these lands were more suitable for growing rice than sugarcane.

Immigrant laborers who came to work on Hawai‘i’s sugarcane plantations often finished their contracts after three years, and then were free to start their own enterprises. Rice farming was a logical choice among the many Chinese and other Asian workers in the Islands since there was a strong demand for rice among the Asian community, and rice-growing land was available.

Growing and Milling Rice

The time it takes to grow a crop of rice, from planting to harvest, is about four months. The rice farmers of Hanalei were kept busy year round, however, by all of the other tasks involved in rice farming, including milling, equipment repair, field preparation, ditch clearing, ditch maintenance, and growing food to eat.[lxiii]

Hanalei’s wet climate allowed just one rice crop per year (planted in May), while drier areas on Kaua‘i, such as Hanapēpē, could produce two crops per year.[lxiv] In the early years of Hanalei’s rice era, oxen and water buffalo were used to plow the fields.

When the fields were ready, usually in May, the farmers planted seed that had gone through a lengthy process that included being soaked in a stream for two days. The seed was germinated on a threshing floor for up to three days, and during this time the seed was covered with wet bags that were lifted and replaced several times daily to provide aeration.

The rice seed was then planted in seed beds that were immersed in about two inches of water. Peanut meal or sodium nitrate was added when the plants reached a height of about two inches. After about three weeks the seedlings were tied into bundles. This was generally done in the evening and into the night, and then the next day the seedlings were transplanted into the rice paddies.[lxv]

Small farmers helped each other plant their fields, while large plantations hired many extra workers, known as “planting gangs.” Planters usually walked backwards while holding a bundle in one hand and using the other hand to poke the plants into the ground, planting up to six rows at once.

About one week after a field was planted it was flooded to about four inches deep, then harrowed to root up weeds and level the ground. About every three weeks the paddies were drained and weeded.

After the second weeding, fertilizer was applied to the dry ground, and after about two weeks the ground would start to crack. Then the fields were flooded again, the grain began to form, and the plant’s green husks filled with a sweet, milky fluid that gradually solidified as the grain turned a golden color. Within a few weeks the fields were drained and the rice was harvested.

Introduced Chinese sparrows known as nutmeg mannikins, also called rice birds,[lxvi] had to be constantly scared away from the fields because they drank the milky rice as it matured and also ate the kernels. To deter the birds from damaging the rice crop, poles were set up throughout the fields to hold a system of rock-filled cans and other noise-making devices. These noise makers were all linked together by a cord that was repeatedly pulled to scatter the birds.

Motono Haraguchi shot the birds with “old muskets that she filled with powder and stuffed with rags or paper. She did this carrying one child on her back and pregnant with another.”[lxvii] “In the early Twenties,” recalled Frank Kurihara, “you could buy gunpowder, B-B shot, sticks of dynamite in the stores. Even the rice bird guns that looked like a Daniel Boone musket, which we used to chase the rice birds away.”[lxviii]

Thousands of rice birds would attack the crop as the grains ripened. “If left alone,” recalled Kurihara, “they’ll wipe out a patch in no time. To chase them away, we’d fire our rice bird guns, or rattle tin cans, strung all over the fields. We also ordered silk nets from Japan, which were about ten by thirty feet in area, and strung them all over the fields, like a volleyball net, wherever those pesky birds congregated.”[lxix]

When the rice was ready to harvest, the stalks were cut with a serrated sickle and allowed to dry before being bundled with cord made from the native hau tree.[lxx] The bundles of stalks were brought to the threshing floor and laid out in concentric circles in three layers totaling up to 500 bundles.

Threshing took up to five days, and was done by horses attached to ropes tied to a pole at the center of the threshing floor. The horses walked around and around trampling the grain to separate the seed from the stalks, which were raked away as each successive layer was threshed. The horses were eventually replaced by tractors.[lxxi]

Winnowing separated the chaff and dust from the grain. The rice was raked into rows aligned with the wind and repeatedly sieved and sifted, and then dried by repeated spreading and raking. Finally, the rice was placed in 100 pound sacks that were sewn closed and stored in a granary. The end of the harvest was celebrated with elaborate banquets held by the rice plantations.[lxxii]

“It was the Prohibition era, so revenue agents made their periodic raids for contraband liquor. Contraband sake was made by most of the farmers for their hired hands. So before the revenue agents came to search the premises, it was us kids’ job to take it out into the fields and hide it before they came. Of course, they could never find it, as the rice was about three feet tall, and after they left we’d bring it back to the house. Word always came from someone preceding the raid, so no one ever got caught.”

Frank Kurihara[lxxiii]

By 1893, there were at least five rice mills in the Hanalei region, including one near the Hanalei River about midway between the Hanalei Bridge and Hanalei town. The earliest rice mills usually consisted of two large mill stones that raised a pestle-shaped stone and dropped it into a stone bowl.

One of these old style mills was the See Tai Wai Rice Mill located in Hanalei town near the Say Dock House. Other early rice mills were located at Wai‘oli, Waikoko, and Wainiha.[lxxiv]

Rice mills operated for up to three months after harvest, and the smaller rice farms brought their rice to the mills run by the larger plantations, such as Shing Kon Sung (Soy Sung Wai), located in the bend in the Hanalei River near the rivermouth.[lxxv] Chinjiro Tasaka farmed rice on the east side of Hanalei Bay at Pu‘upōā Marsh (Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond) and took his rice by horse to the Hanalei River where it was carried across by boat and then hauled in Chock Chin’s wagon to the Chock Chin Rice Mill at Waikoko.[lxxvi]

Rice milling was done to clean and shell the threshed rice, removing the hulls and bran. The mills’ wheels were usually powered by water, so the rice mills were usually located near a river or other water source.[lxxvii] The rice was husked and polished, then graded and bagged for shipment to market. An adjacent granary held paddy rice and bran rice middling used for animal feed.

The waters of the Hanalei River were an integral component of rice growing and milling, powering the mill’s machinery and driving the network of belts and conveyor systems. Runoff also provided hot baths that soothed the sore muscles of the rice workers. At the Haraguchi Rice Mill on the Hanalei River, workers were “treated to a traditional Japanese furo bath following their workday.”[lxxviii]

In 1910, 503 farms in the Hawaiian Islands grew rice on 9,435 acres of land. A major boost in Hawai‘i’s rice production occurred between 1910 and 1917. Total acres farmed in rice then began to decrease rapidly due to increased production in California where rice acreage climbed from 1,400 to 80,000 acres between 1912 and 1917.

By 1919, there were 546 rice farms in the Hawaiian Islands, but total acreage had dropped to 5,801 acres. California rice producers continued to dominate the rice industry in the early 1920s, when hired hands on Hanalei’s rice farms were paid about a dollar a day and worked six days per week.[lxxix]

“By the Thirties,” recalled Frank Kurihara, “wages came up to one dollar and fifty cents. [Rice farm workers] had a place to sleep, four meals a day, breakfast at six, lunch at ten, coffee break at two, and supper at five, plus all the sake to drink at supper with their meal.”[lxxx]

Total rice acreage in Hawai‘i in 1930 was 2,045 acres on 227 farms. By 1933 just 825 acres in the Islands were farmed in rice.”[lxxxi]

Diesel engines eventually replaced the region’s water-powered rice mills. The leather-type wheels of the new hullers caused less breakage of the rice than the stone rollers of the earlier Chinese stone mills. In the 1930s, the Haraguchis ordered a Japanese-made huller as well as hulling equipment from New York’s Englebert Huller Company.[lxxxii]

“The great stretch of lowland between the Hanalei and Waioli rivers, now planted to rice fields,” wrote Ethel Damon in 1931, “was in the old days an undrained swamp.”[lxxxiii] This swampland, however, may have actually been former taro lands that had been abandoned after the rapid decline of the native Hawaiian population throughout the 1800s.

Living quarters for workers on larger rice plantations usually included a bath house, an outdoor area for cooking, a kitchen and dining room, and a central living area where the workers slept on cots. At the center there was usually a shrine to Kwan Ti, the Chinese God of war.[lxxxiv]

When the Japanese became the predominant workers in the rice industry, a Japanese Hongwanji would often be constructed near the plantation. As Hawai‘i’s rice market declined, some Hanalei farmers began to grow specialized mochi rice, which was sold and consumed locally.

Hanalei resident Frank Kurihara remembered visits by Hawaiian friends “bringing fish, laulaus, or kalua pig. The Chinese friends came with roast pork manapuas and other Chinese delicacies. The Portuguese friends came over with malasadas, sweet bread and wine. In turn, our Mom would give them mochi, sushi, and other delicacies she’d prepared, also a bottle of sake for everyone.”[lxxxv]

Hanalei Pier

Today one of the most scenic views anywhere is from the end of the Hanalei Pier. The pier is surrounded by the turquoise waters of Hanalei Bay and the waterfall-lined mountains wrapping around the crescent-shaped shoreline. On the grass lawn near the base of the Hanalei Pier is Black Pot Beach Park, the site of many local gatherings.[lxxxvi]

People of all ages surf the waves that break alongside the pier and all down the beach. Hanalei Pier is also a favorite place for local kids to play, and they often jump from the pier into the water. Swimmers should be extremely careful, however, as the water around the pier is often very shallow, particularly at low tide, and serious injuries have resulted from people diving from the pier.

[Photograph: Rivermouth; upper Hanalei Valley.]

“Its mouth, where [Hanalei Bay] opens on the Pacific, is from two to three miles wide, but the boundary mountains gradually approach each other, so that five miles from the sea a narrow gorge of wonderful beauty alone remains.”

Isabella Bird Bishop, 1873[lxxxvii]

The first Hanalei Pier was constructed of wood in 1892 on the eastern side of Hanalei Bay near the mouth of the Hanalei River. In 1911, when the rice industry in Hanalei was thriving, construction began on a longer, more substantial pier at the same location.

The new Hanalei Pier was completed in 1912, using the relatively new technique of reinforced concrete. The architectural design was provided by the firm of Conney and Morris, and the pier had a wooden deck.

Hanalei Pier was built primarily for use by rice farmers needing to load their cargo on ships to get it to market. The milled rice was brought down the Hanalei River on small, flat-bottom boats. After being transported downriver, the rice was offloaded at a landing near the rivermouth so that the small river boats didn’t have to enter the ocean bay.

The mouth of the Hanalei River is just adjacent to Hanalei Pier, and provided easy access to the rice plantations of Hanalei Valley. Much of the valley’s rice “arrived at the pier area on the black barges of the rice plantations up the river.”[lxxxviii] From the mauka landing, the milled rice was shuttled to the end of the pier on a set of iron railroad tracks and then loaded onto boats.[lxxxix]

Small whale boats known as “lighters” carried rice to steamers anchored out in Hanalei Bay.[xc] At the foot of Hanalei Pier was a freight storage warehouse also connected to the pier by railroad tracks.[xci] Freight transferred to and from the boats in Hanalei Bay included farm supplies and food, such as tinned products.

Some freighters bringing cargo to Hanalei had to wait outside the bay, particularly when the ocean was rough. Interisland steamers docked in the deeper waters of Hanalei Bay while cargo was rowed to and from the pier.

[Photograph: Hanalei Pier]

[Photo Caption:]

Hanalei Pier

Originally Built: 1892.

Rebuilt: 1912. Architectural Design: Conney and Morris.

Concrete Deck and Extension: 1921.

Shed Built at End of Pier: 1940s.[xcii] Re-Roofed 1973.

Hawai‘i and National Registers of Historic Places: 1979.

Pier Rebuilt after Hurricane ‘Iniki: 1992-1993.

Walter Foss Sanborn, the manager of the Princeville Plantation, also served as Hanalei’s Wharfinger, supervising the loading and unloading of vessels at Hanalei Pier and checking freight and bills of lading. Eventually a derrick was installed at the end of the pier to load and unload cargo going out to, or coming in from, the freighters. Just once each month these freighters would come up to the northern part of the island, stopping at Ahukini, Anahola, Kīlauea, and Hanalei.[xciii]

Community members would gather at the pier when ships arrived in Hanalei Bay with cargo. On these “boat days” local children sometimes swam out to the ships and “merchants from all the stores arrived to sort out their goods, farmers loaded theirs, and individuals came to pick up special orders...Arriving provisions included huge redwood boxes with ice packed in rice husks.”[xciv]

The children of Walter Foss Sanborn enjoyed trying to catch a ride on a whaling boat, and were sometimes rewarded with fresh United States Mainland fruit including peaches and plums. The mischievous kids once swam out to the freighter, which was considered dangerous, and led to admonishments by their parents.

The interisland steamer brought freight to Hanalei about once a month, and store owners and rice planters headed for the pier with their horse-pulled carts and wagons. The daughter of Walter Foss Sanborn recalled hiding along the road in front of the Deverill house on the beach road, and “hooting and hollering when the wagons went by,” and then suppressing their laughter as the drivers cursed “while they struggled to keep their shying horses under control.”[xcv]

The wooden deck of Hanalei Pier was replaced with reinforced concrete in 1921, and the pier was extended. Princeville Ranch soon began shipping cattle from Hanalei Bay, and in 1927 a temporary corral was built on the beach near Hanalei Pier.[xcvi]

In the early 1930s, a breakwater was built at Nāwiliwili Bay, which then became a preferred loading and unloading point for freight on Kaua‘i. The rice industry, which had thrived in the valleys of Hanalei and Wai‘oli since the late 1800s, was in decline. Significant rice exports from Hanalei fell off sharply, as did the commercial use of Hanalei Pier.

Hanalei Pier has been seen in many Hollywood movies, often as a backdrop. Scenes from Bird of Paradise were filmed on Hanalei Bay in 1950, and South Pacific was filmed there in 1957. During the 1960 filming of Wackiest Ship in the Army, starring Jack Lemmon, the filming barge at Hanalei came loose twice, causing damage to Hanalei Pier. Repairs to the pier were later financed by the film studio and the barge company.

[Map: Hanalei in the Rice Era]

Hanalei in the Early 1900s—A Journey through Old Hanalei

The Hanalei region was particularly prosperous from about 1890 to 1925 due to the rice industry. This wealth led to the opening of numerous stores and mills that dotted the landscape from Hanalei Bridge to Hanalei town and beyond.[xcvii] Also constructed during this period were many places of worship, including Christian churches and Buddhist temples, as well as Japanese and Chinese language schools.

Local stores were central to the rice farming community’s social life, particularly on Sundays when residents gathered to exchange news and make business deals. Stores provided items for sale that could not be grown or produced locally, including “canned goods, staples like flour and sugar, butchered meat, baked goods, kerosene, and later gasoline, yardage and sewing supplies, hats, clothing, watches, and some farm supplies.”[xcviii]

The 1914 Polk-Husted Directory of Honolulu and the Territory of Hawaii listed eight general merchandising stores (seven Chinese-owned) and twelve Chinese rice planting companies in the Hanalei region.[xcix]

Some Chinese-owned stores in Hanalei in the early 1900s were: Ah Hoy Store (later called Ching Ma Leong Store); Chong Hing Store; T. S. See Wo Store; Ching Young Store; Katayama Store; and Chock Chin Store (later called C. Akeoni Store, Lau Store, and Hanalei Store[c]). There was also “a Chinese store about half-way up the valley,”[ci] and the Japanese-owned Hamamura Store.

Ah Hoy Store, located just above Hanalei Bridge on the Hanalei side of the road, was a general merchandise store and auto livery. Ah Hoy was later renamed Ching Ma Leong Store and relocated to the Trader Building (rebuilt after Hurricane ‘Iniki, now the site of the Dolphin Building) on the banks of the Hanalei River just before Hanalei town.[cii] Across the road from Ma Leong was the Takahashi rice farm.

After crossing over the Hanalei Bridge, turning up the river road (now ‘Ōhiki Road) led to the rice farms of the Haraguchi family and the Atuck Wong family. Also on the river road was the Haraguchi Rice Mill,[ciii] built in 1930 on the site of the Chinese-owned Man Sing Rice Mill,[civ] which had burned down earlier that year.

[Photograph: Haraguchi Rice Mill]

[Photo Caption:]

Haraguchi Rice Mill

Built: 1930, on site of Man Sing (“Million Success”) Rice Mill.

Restored: 1982 (after Hurricane ‘Iwa); 1992 (after Hurricane ‘Iniki).

Hawai‘i and National Register of Historic Places: 1983.

The Haraguchis—A Tradition of Farming

The initial founders of the Haraguchi rice farming operation in Hanalei were Tomijiro and Ine Haraguchi. They came to Hawai‘i from Asa Kura Maru in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan more than three-quarters of a century ago. Tomijiro and Ine had four sons: Kahyohei (Kahei), Sueji, Fujio, and Fusao.

Along with farming rice, the Haraguchi family also fished the waters of Hanalei Bay. Fusao had a fishing sampan built at Kukui‘ula and used it for commercial fishing based out of Hanalei Bay. The boat was named Asa Kura Maru after the Haraguchi’s home village in Japan.[cv]

Kahyohei Haraguchi, whose name was “shortened to Kahei because people had difficulty pronouncing his full name,”[cvi] worked as a contract laborer for the Gay & Robinson sugar plantation and then worked in the pineapple industry in Kapa‘a while supplementing his income by growing rice in Hā‘ena near the current site of the Hanalei Colony Resort.[cvii]

Kahyohei and his Japanese-born wife Motono had one daughter, Thelma Matsuo, and three sons: William, Isami, and Tsutomu. Motono passed away on December 14, 2002 at the age of 99, and at the time had thirteen grandchildren, 24 great grandchildren, and one great great grandchild.

William Haraguchi, the first son of Kahei and Motono, was born in Kapa‘a in 1922 and grew up on Kaua‘i’s north shore. William worked for many years at the Haraguchi Rice Mill, milling rice for farms as far away as Kapa‘a.

The Haraguchi family continued their Hanalei rice farming operation during a time when many other farms and rice mills throughout the Islands were forced to shut down. In the 1930s the Haraguchis farmed about 75 acres of rice. In 1949 they modified a gasoline-powered, ¾-horse, clipper tractor and later purchased a combine.[cviii]

When the Haraguchi Rice Mill finally shut down in 1960, it was the last rice mill operating in the Hanalei region. The Haraguchi’s Hanalei rice farm, like many other rice farms throughout the Hawaiian Islands, had become unprofitable due to United States Mainland competition, damage to the crops in the fields by rice birds,[cix] and other problems.

Some rice farms switched to other crops and some rice mills were converted to other uses, including the Haraguchi Rice Mill building, which was later used to mill taro.

The Haraguchi family’s tradition of farming in Hanalei Valley is now on its fifth generation and counting. Today the Haraguchis continue to farm large expanses of taro in Hanalei Valley (see Part 5).

[Photograph: William Haraguchi.]

[Caption:]

William Haraguchi has been honored as one of Kaua‘i’s “Living Legends.”

Just upriver from the Haraguchi Rice Mill on the west bank of the river across from the Man Sung Wai Rice Mill,[cx] the rice farmers of a Chinese fraternal society built a Chinese Temple as well as a clubhouse and social hall known as the Yee Hing Society Community Home.[cxi]

The Yee Hing served various functions for the charitable association called Yee Hing Hui, and was a place where “bachelor Chinese men and travelers found a ready welcome to live there or spend a few days gossiping or gambling, playing ma jong or rolling dice.”[cxii]

A large room on the upper floor of the Yee Hing was used for dinners and banquets. Rooms on the lower floor were rented to older Chinese workers,[cxiii] and “vegetables pigs, chickens and ducks were grown and raised.”[cxiv] The Yee Hing also served as a Chinese Language School for children.

Sundays in particular drew large crowds at Yee Hing, which for a time was also the home of Chinese school teacher Wong Lee Yau.[cxv] After the decline of the Chinese population in the Hanalei region, Princeville Ranch manager Fred Conant had the Yee Hing building torn down.[cxvi]

Another rice era structure located along ‘Ōhiki Road was a Japanese Hongwanji used by Japanese Buddhists of the rice farming community. Altar shrines from the Hongwanji were later relocated to a newly built Hongwanji in Kapa‘a.[cxvii]

On the lower western slopes of Hanalei Valley is the Hanalei Chinese Cemetery, also known as Ah Goong San (Grandfathers’ Mountain) and often referred to as the Community Cemetery.[cxviii] The Chinese Cemetery covers a piece of land about 525 feet north to south, and about 200 feet from east to west, with at least 75 tombstones.

A semi-circular cement altar at the Cemetery serves as a “mass grave monument for single Chinese men,”[cxix] and was erected in 1906 by the Chinese fraternal society known as Yee Hop Tong.

When the mass grave monument in the Hanalei Chinese Cemetery was built in 1906, the Manchu Emperor still reigned in China. Most other similar monuments in the Islands were built after the Chinese Republic was established in 1912. [cxx]

After ten years of burial at the Chinese Cemetery, according to tradition, “the body is exhumed and the bones are carefully collected, cleaned, arranged in certain order, and reburied in a large urn in the reserved section.”[cxxi]

Chinese Society members met at the cemetery the day before Ching Ming Day (Decoration Day) every April to clean up the gravesites and maintain the general area. On Ching Ming Day food was placed at the center of the altar for the departed souls.

Typical offerings included “five bowls of rice, five cups of whiskey, a platter of cooked chicken (male), cooked pork, cooked bean curd, cooked tofu, a platter of Chinese pastries, five oranges and five tangerines and a Chinese roast pig.”[cxxii] Fire crackers were set off, and incense was burned as well as candle punks. After the ceremony everyone went to the Yee Hing where the food items were consumed.

Gravesites in the Chinese Cemetery date to at least the 1930s. The site is shown in an 1848 Land Court Awards map created before significant Chinese immigration to Hawai‘i took place, and thus was likely previously used by Hawaiians.

Most of the tombstones at the Chinese Cemetery are inscribed with Chinese characters. Past advisors and caretakers of the Chinese Cemetery included “Mr. Chong Hing, Mr. Wong Wo Tuck, Mr. Say Dock, Mr. Sam Kent Ho, Mr. Larry Ching, Mr. Ma Leong, and Mr. Harry Ho.”[cxxiii]

Further up the river road (now ‘Ōhiki Road) past the Chinese Cemetery was the home of a Spanish family named Pisante. In this general area upriver from Hanalei Bridge on both sides of the river, some rice era buildings are still standing, including: the Mal Quick House (1925); the Wong House (on a 1910 rice mill site); the Haraguchi House (1930s); the Mike Fitzgerald House (1925); and the Jed Mamaril House (1930s).[cxxiv]

Back on the Government Road (Route 560) and proceeding toward Hanalei town there were a series of rice farms and rice era stores. About ¼-mile from Hanalei Bridge on the mountain side of the road was Chong Hing Store, a general merchandise and grocery store owned by the grandfather of Kaua‘i County Council member Kaipo Asing.

Past Chong Hing were the rice farms of the Ueda, Takenaka, Liu, and Miiki families, and further in toward the mountains was the Lum farm.[cxxv] Seaward (makai) of the main road between Chong Hing and the Trader Building[cxxvi] was the Japanese-owned Hamamura Store.[cxxvii]

The land on the other side of the Government Road is enclosed within the great bend in the Hanalei River. In ancient times this land was called Pā‘ele, which means “Black” or “Dark.”[cxxviii]

During the rice era this area between the Hanalei Bridge and the Hanalei rivermouth was the site of the Shing Kon Sung Rice Plantation (formerly Soy Sung Wai). Today on this land is the Hanalei Gardens Farm and Bison Ranch, which may be seen from the roadside pullout on the hill descending toward the bridge. After crossing over the Hanalei Bridge and heading toward Hanalei town, the area may be seen across the river on the right.

On the seaward side of the road at the eastern end of Hanalei town was the Trader Building (site of Ching Ma Leong Store (formerly Ah Hoy Store), and Mrs. Shiraishi’s Barber Shop.

Just west of the barber shop was I. Nakatsuka General Store,[cxxix] which operated from about 1900 until the 1950s. The Nakatsuka family lived behind the store, which later became part of the Tahiti Nui building (see Part 5).

Near the eastern end of Hanalei town lived the Shak, Tasaka, and Hoe families as well as Alfred ‘Alohikea. On the mountains side of the road was the home of the Ho Pak Yet family. During the second half of the 1900s this was the residence of Harry Ho, a school teacher and principal on Kaua‘i’s north shore at Hanalei School and Hā‘ena School.[cxxx]

Harry Ho was a respected local historian, and in the 1960s the Ho residence was known as the Hanalei Museum and Snack Shop. Harry Ho passed away in 1989 at the age of 83.[cxxxi] The museum was destroyed by Hurricane ‘Iniki in 1992. After the death of Harry Ho, the Hanalei Museum was run by Wayne Harada.

[Photograph: Harry Ho]

[Photograph: Hanalei Museum]

The Ching Youngs

One of the most prominent and successful early rice farming families living in the Hanalei region was the Ching Young family. Descendants of the original Ching Youngs continue to play influential roles in the Hanalei community today.

Around 1900, Ching Yuk Hom (Ching Young) came to Hawai‘i from China’s Chung San District. Ching Young initially settled in Kapa‘a on Kaua‘i’s east side where he ran a restaurant (a Chop Suey House) and mercantile store called Kwong Chong Kee with his brother and other partners (the Tam family).[cxxxii]

Ching Young and one of his brothers later leased a piece of land in Hanalei from the Wilcox family[cxxxiii] and opened a rice mill and store. The store building was constructed in 1905-1906. According to Lawrence Ching, the store “may have been operated by a Mr. Chu (or Chew) before the Ching family took over in 1907.”[cxxxiv]

Ching Young married Dang Ha Ching, who was born in Hanapēpē, Kaua‘i, and their union arranged by a traditional Chinese matchmaker. Dang Ha Ching was “the third and youngest child of Dang Dat Po and Dang Chang Shee.”[cxxxv] Dang Ha Ching’s (Mrs. Ching Young’s) wedding dress was shipped to Hawai‘i from Hong Kong, and is now in the collection of the Kaua‘i Museum.

The newlyweds lived in Kapa‘a where they gave birth to Florence and Ellen, the first two of their eight children.[cxxxvi]

The Ching Young family moved to Hanalei in 1911 to work full time at Ching Young Store and Ching Young Rice Mill. In 1914, the Ching Youngs became the sole owners of the enterprise when they bought out co-owner Tam Kee of Kapa‘a. Supplies such as dry goods and denim that were needed to stock the Ching Young Store were brought by the steamships that came to Hanalei to transport the valley’s rice.[cxxxvii]

While living in Hanalei, Mr. and Mrs. Ching Young gave birth to six more children: Dora, Laura, Lawrence, Douglas, Calvin, and Janet. The Great Depression of 1929 caused financial hardship for the Ching Youngs, and in the early 1930s Mr. Ching Young was debilitated by a major stroke. He passed away in October of 1933 when his youngest child was just four years of age.

After the death of Mr. Ching Young, Mrs. Ching Young continued to run the store and rice mill, and raise her eight children. A deeply religious person, Mrs. Ching Young maintained a Taoist altar in her home and faithfully practiced her Chinese traditions.

In the 1930s, competition from California along with other factors caused a steady decline in Hawai‘i’s rice market. This brought continued hardships for the Ching Young Store and Ching Young Rice Mill. Supplies to stock the store were cut off in 1936 by a west coast shipping strike, and 5,000 bags of rice were stored at the mill to help supply the Hawaiian Islands with rice.

The Ching Young Rice Mill was closed in the mid-1940s, but the Ching Young Store remained in business. After the 1941 bombing of Pearl Harbor, which entered the United States into World War II, Hawai‘i’s business climate changed. The war created a demand for products, and helped insure the survival of the Ching Young Store, which again supplied rice statewide.

Mrs. Ching retired in 1950 but remained active in the Kaua‘i community. Her eldest son, Lawrence L.T. “Larry” Ching and his wife Jeanie took over the family business, which prospered throughout the 1950s and 1960s when sugarcane was a driving force of Hawai‘i’s economy. A post office was opened at the Ching Young Store in the 1950s.

Mrs. Ching passed away in 1967 at the age of 80. Larry Ching continued the operation of the store as tourism became a major part of Kaua‘i’s economy. In the 1960s and on into the 1970s, and Larry began to develop the Ching Young Village Shopping Center. In 1975 a new Hanalei Post Office was built on the land next to Ching Young Store, which was owned by Mrs. Clorinda Nakashima.

The Ching Young Store was sold to the locally owned Big Save Family of Markets, and the Chings continued to develop the Center’s many shops and businesses. Larry Ching passed away on September 7, 1997.[cxxxviii]

Today the Ching Young Center continues to be run by the Ching family. The original Ching Young Store building is located on the eastern side of the expanded Ching Young Village Shopping Center. The old store building is now occupied by two art and gift stores called Evolve Love and On the Road to Hanalei.

[Photograph: Ching Young Store]

[Photo Caption:]

Ching Young Store

Built: 1905-1906 by Mr. Chu [Chew].

Status: Still standing, in commercial use.

The Kodama Barber Shop was located just west of Ching Young Store in the area between the current Hanalei Post Office and Big Save Market.

A Chinese Christian (Congregational) Church was located across the road from Ching Young Store, in the area where the Hanalei Center (Wailele Building) is now located. Frank Kurihara referred to the Chinese Church building as “Mr. Low’s Chinese School and Temple.”[cxxxix]

Reverend Tsui Hin Wong was the church minister in 1930.[cxl] Next to the church was a Parsonage, which later became the office of Ironwood Realty before the building was destroyed by Hurricane ‘Iniki in 1992.[cxli]

The Say Dock House is located just west of where the Chinese Church and Parsonage were located, and is today one of the few remaining rice farmer homes still standing in the Islands. A concrete threshing floor, though quite aged and broken, still remains in front of the Say Dock House. Two other rice farmer homes in Hanalei had concrete threshing floors, but neither remains standing.

[Photograph: Say Dock House]

[Photo Caption:]

Say Dock House

Built: 1895.

Restored: 1988. National and State Registers of Historic Places: 1988

Private Residence-Please Do Not Go On Property.

One of Hanalei’s earliest rice mills was the See Tai Wai Rice Mill, located near the Say Dock House. See Tai Wai was an old style mill that used large mill stones to lift a pestle-shaped stone that was dropped into a stone bowl.[cxlii]

The T. S. See Wo Store was located just west of the Say Dock House and across the road, at the current site of the Church of Latter Day Saints.[cxliii] Also on the makai (seaward) side of the main road in this area was Katayama Store, and Takenaka Auto Repair [Takahashi’s Garage and Repair Shop]. West of the Auto Repair shop was Nagaoaka Restaurant and Bakery, considered by some to be “the best eatery in town.”[cxliv] Just past the restaurant was a Gas Station.

Some of the families living in Hanalei town during the rice era were the Matsuda, Ah To, Say, Homma, Lee, Kam, and Au families, according to Frank Kurihara.[cxlv]

The 1914 Polk-Husted Directory listed some rice plantations and stores of the Hanalei region included: Ah San, Ah Ching, Chock Lung, Chong Sing, Chong Wai, Hop Sing, Man Sing Co, Sing Fat Wai Co. Sing Yick Co, Soy Sung Wai Co., Tai Kan, Tai Sing Wai, and Sing Wai Co.[cxlvi]

Located at Mālolo Road and Route 560 was the Hanalei Shingon, a Japanese Shingon Temple that began operating as early as 1903. Next to the Shingon was a Japanese Language School[cxlvii] built in 1934. The Shingon Temple became a popular gathering place that served as the site for various local functions and celebrations, including weddings and funerals as well as the Obon dori celebration held each July.[cxlviii]

The north shore community looked forward to the traditional Bon Dance, which included a carnival with food and games. Eventually the event became so popular it had to be held across the street in Wai‘oli Park.[cxlix]

Things changed quickly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The United States entered World War II, and many of the most influential Japanese and Japanese-Americans[cl]—including community leaders, ministers, Buddhist priests, and principals of Japanese schools—were detained and sent to internment camps.

Initially the Japanese and Japanese-Americans detainees were taken to Sand Island, which began its use as an internment camp on December 8, 1941. About 1,500 residents of the Hawaiian Islands were part of about 115,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry interned in ten internment camps on the United States Mainland. (Note: The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 provided restitution for the internment, allocating $1.6 billion to 82,000 people in 1999.)

The forced internments of the Japanese teachers and ministers of the Hanalei Shingon brought an end to the use of the Temple for religious purposes. The building was later moved across the main road to a site behind the Lily Pond House where it was used as a clubhouse for the community’s young Japanese men.[cli]

Despite the harsh and often racist treatment Japanese residents received after the Pearl Harbor attack, many Japanese-Americans throughout the Hawaiian Islands still wished to show their loyalty and volunteered to join the war effort. They formed the 100th Infantry Battalion and 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team, which became the most decorated units in United States history, earning more than 18,000 total awards for their valorous fighting (despite suffering high casualty rates) in Italy, Germany, and France.

In June of 1944 in Italy, the 100th Infantry Battalion joined ranks with the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team. The 442nd/100th fought in Italy before participating in the invasion in southern France. For their heroic efforts despite heavy losses in Italy, France, and Germany, the 442nd became known as the “Purple Heart Battalion.”

The motto of the 442nd was “Go For Broke,” a Hawaiian slang term referring to risking everything. In October of 1944 they broke through German forces and liberated the French town of Bruyeres from the Nazis, and then rescued 211 members of the “Lost Battalion” (1st Battalion, 141st Infantry Battalion, 36th Infantry Division), in Biffontaine, losing more than half of their own soldiers in the process—800 soldiers in a one month period.

The “Lost Battalion,” known as the “Alamo Regiment” was trapped behind enemy lines for five days, surrounded by Germans and out of food and ammunition. The rescue of the “Lost Battalion” was considered a pivotal battle in the war, and one of the most famous battles of military history. Awards given to the 442nd included 9,486 Purple Hearts, 52 Distinguished Service Crosses, 8 Distinguished Unit Citations, and 21 Congressional Medals of Honor.

[Photograph: Japanese Shingon Temple]

[Photo Caption:]

Hanalei Shingon—Japanese Shingon Temple

Built: 1934.

Moved: Around the start of World War II.

Original Site: Behind current site of St. Williams Catholic Church on Mālolo Road and Route 560.

[Photograph: Japanese Language School]

[Photo Caption:]

Japanese Language School

Operating as early as 1903.

Status: No longer standing.

In 1955, St. Williams Catholic Church was built on the original site of the Shingon Temple and Language School. This was made possible due to a land trade between the Catholic Church and Gaylord Parke Wilcox, the son of Emma Washburn Lyman and Samuel Whitney Wilcox, the fifth son of missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox.

The former Japanese Language School building was moved to a lot on the shoreline of Hanalei Bay, where the former Sloggett Beach House once stood, and became part of the Sasaki home complex. [clii]

The church bell now suspended between two poles in front of St. Williams is the bell from the former Catholic Chapel that was built near the Hanalei rivermouth in 1864 (see Part 3).

[Photograph: St. Williams Catholic Church]

[Photo caption:]

St. Williams Catholic Church

Built: 1955.

Chock Chin

Chock Chin was a prominent Chinese rice farmer and store owner in Hanalei. The father of twelve children from three different wives, Chock Chin built a home on leased land on the mountain side of the Government Road (Route 560) near the current site of Wai‘oli Park.[cliii]

Across the street from the Chock Chin Residence was the Chock Chin Store, established in 1901.[cliv] The site included a bakery, restaurant, butcher shop, tailor, blacksmith, and saloon, as well as a general store.

The whole Chock Chin family worked at the family business. Mr. Chock Chin managed the store and was the baker. His wife Chun Shee (Mrs. Chock Chin) was the cook. The children worked the cash register and delivered bills. One of the sons had the job of “driving the freight wagon pulled by two white mules.”[clv] Chock Chin also engaged in various other entrepreneurial activities, including selling small dishes of ice cream at the Kīlauea Ballpark.

Chock Chin’s bakery sold bread with guava jelly for ten cents a loaf, and it was a favorite lunch item of local children who walked to the store from nearby Hanalei School. Chock Chin also raised “papayas, mango, avocado and loquat, mulberry, bananas, cows, chickens and pigs. There was a garden for sweet potato, corn, sugar cane and string beans and also a grove of bamboo.”[clvi]

The name of the Chock Chin Store was later changed to C. Akeoni, Lau Store and then Hanalei Store in 1931 after Chock Chin died and Mrs. Chock Chin sold the store to Charles Lau, a rice farmer who later farmed taro. The Hanalei Store remained open as a restaurant, meat market, and general store until 1941.[clvii]

Chock Chin dug a lotus pond (now called The Lily Pond) alongside the main road in Hanalei town where it may still be seen today. A freshwater spring replenished the pond, which Chock Chin stocked with edible lotus roots and fish.[clviii]

The lotus plants failed to grow, and later Mrs. Chock Chin planted water lilies in the pond. Later the Tasakas planted lilies in the pond and stocked it with carp. Unfortunately the fish were washed away by the 1946 tsunami.[clix]

[Photograph: Lily Pond and Tasaka Residence]

[Photo Caption:]

The Lily Pond and the Tasaka Residence & Saimin

The Lily Pond was dug by Chinese rice farmer Chock Chin. The Lily Pond House and the Tasaka Residence are Private Residences—Please Do Not Go On Property.

[Photograph: Kenichi Tasaka]

[Photo caption:]

Kenichi Tasaka

Kenichi Tasaka was born in 1896, the second of eight children of Chinjiro and Kiyo Tasaka. Chinjiro worked at Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Plantation before leasing land near Pu‘upōā Marsh (Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond), where he farmed rice for nearly two decades.

As a child Kenichi helped his father on the rice farm, worked for the Birkmyres, Deverills, and Sanborns, painted cars in Honolulu, worked as a mechanic for the Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Plantation, painted houses, and worked for the County of Kaua‘i Water Works Division.[clx]

In 1927, Kenichi married Asayo Kodama and they would have four children. Around 1940, the Tasakas built a home next to Wai‘oli Park and began farming rice nearby. Kenichi eventually took over his father’s rice farm at Wai‘oli, and then later farmed taro, as did his brother Bobby Tasaka.

During World War II the two front rooms of Kenichi and Asayo Tasaka’s home was used as a store and saimin stand.[clxi]

“Kenichi Tasaka became a well-known grass slipper maker in his later years. He made them from rushes growing in the swamps. He lived to a ripe old age of one hundred.”

Frank Kurihara[clxii]

The Lily Pond House is a small, two-story structure that was originally located on the shoreline of Hanalei Bay[clxiii] where it was used as a caretaker’s quarters for the manager of Kaua‘i Electric.[clxiv] The house was later moved on coconut palm rollers to its current site next to Wai‘oli Park.[clxv]

[Photograph: Lily Pond House]

[Photo Caption:]

Lily Pond House

Built: 1933.

Private Residence—Please Do Not Go On Property.

The Hanalei Post Office

The location of the Hanalei Post Office changed many times over the years depending upon who was postmaster or postmistress. It was “a peripatetic institution, its changing location primarily determined by who ran the post office.”[clxvi]

Serving as postmaster from 1846 to 1856 was Captain John Kellett, who was also Hanalei’s Pilot of the Port and customs collector. Succeeding Kellett as postmaster was Wai‘oli missionary Abner Wilcox, who served at the post until 1863.

Other early postmasters of the Hanalei region included “Capt. A. White (1865-1866), Judge H. J. Wana (acting PM from September, 1867 to 1870), Wm. Kellett (1870-?, with Rev. Wilcox, Capt. John Ross (1870?-1876), A Conradt (1876-1878), C. Koelling (1878-1883), Jas. M. Gibson (1883-1885), J. C. Long (1885-1889), C. Koelling (1889-1892), J. M. Radway (1892-1893), A. B. Scrimgeour (1893) and C. H. Willis (1894-1900).”[1] Many of these individuals were associated with the Princeville Plantation.[clxvii]

In the late 1800s, the Hanalei Post Office was located along the former road down into Hanalei Valley. The steep, winding route had three switchbacking S-curves going down the hill and passing the Princeville Plantation House (Kikiula), and a succession of Princeville Plantation managers served as postmasters.[clxviii]

The post office was eventually moved down the hill to the small, busy factory village that grew up on the east bank of the Hanalei River around the site of the Hanalei Sugar Mill, which began operating in 1862 just downriver from the current site of the Hanalei Bridge (built in 1912).[clxix]

During the 1870s, mail came to Hanalei by schooner from Honolulu, and irregular weekly steamer service and overland mail were also provided. From the Hanalei post office, carriers brought mail to Lumaha‘i, Wainiha, Hā‘ena, and Kalalau. The Kalalau carrier “wrapped mail in banana leaves to keep it from getting soaked.”[clxx]

Around the turn of the century, the Hanalei Post Office was located near Hanalei town at the site of the Hanalei Hotel, also known as the Deverill House, where Sarah Deverill served as the postmistress. In 1915, the Hanalei Post Office was located on the land of Sheriff James K. Lota on Weke Road, across the street from the home of Charlie Forward.[clxxi]

The gravestone of James Lota (1873-1937) is located alongside Wai‘oli Mission Hall (the old Wai‘oli Church). In the 1920s, the post office was located on the mountain side (mauka) of the Government Road at Mahi Mahi Road.

Sometime around World War II, when the postmistress was Julia Lota (Sheriff James Lota’s sister, who later became Julia Rodriques), the post office was moved to a location near the current Aloha School, on the seaward side of the Government Road (Route 560),[clxxii] where the old post office boxes may still be seen today.

In the 1950s the Hanalei post office was relocated to Ching Young Store. In 1975, the current Hanalei Post Office was built next to the Ching Young Village Shopping Center on the land of postmistress Clorinda Nakashima.

[Photograph: Old Hanalei Post Office Boxes]

[Photo Caption:]

Old Hanalei Post Office Boxes

Status: Boxes still standing alongside Route 560.

At the western end of town near Wai‘oli Church were the Masada and Tadao Nakatsuji families,[clxxiii] and on the seaward side of the road was the District Courthouse and Jail. Behind the Courthouse was the home of Judge Aarona. The jail was always empty, according to Frank Kurihara, “as there was no crime to speak of in those days.”[clxxiv]

Still standing across the street from the Courthouse is the 1912 Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church as well as the old Wai‘oli Church, which was built in 1841 and is now called Mission Hall. Back behind the trees is the old Wai‘oli Mission House, built from 1834 to 1837 (see Part 2).

West of the mission area is Hanalei School, which originated as part of the missionary station founded at Wai‘oli in 1834 to prepare native children to become teachers in Kaua‘i’s common schools (see Part 2). Students were initially taught in the Hawaiian language with the goal of allowing the natives to read the Bible, which was translated into Hawaiian by the missionaries. (The first complete translation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language was completed on May 10, 1839. Entitled Ka Palapala Hemolele, the Bible was published in three volumes, totaling 2,331 pages.)

Initially the school at Wai‘oli also offered vocational training as well as training for teachers who went on to teach at other schools on Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau.[clxxv] In 1862, Hanalei’s first English School was established by Louise Johnson with financial support provided by the Hawaiian Government.

In 1881, the Hanalei English School formally became a government school (public school). Enrollment at Hanalei School in 1904 was 48 boys and 48 girls, and the teachers were Florence and Lena Deverill.[clxxvi] The school’s principal in 1914, according to the Polk-Husted Directory, was Mrs. S. A. Cliffe.[clxxvii]

A new Hanalei School Building was constructed by the Territory of Hawai‘i in 1926, and the Old Hanalei School Building was later moved to the center of Hanalei Town near the Aku Road intersection with Route 560.

The restored schoolhouse building is now home to several businesses including the Hanalei Surf Company, Gourmet Restaurant, and some small art and clothing shops. A new Hanalei School was built very near its former location.

Enrollment at Hanalei School in the 1900s ranged between about 50 and 120 students until about 1970. Today enrollment is about 300 students.[clxxviii]

[Photograph: Hanalei School]

[Photograph: Old Hanalei School Building]

[Photo Caption:]

Old Hanalei School Building

Built in 1926.

Current Use: Commercial Center—Stores, Restaurant.

National and State Registers of Historic Places: 1990.

Just east of the Wai‘oli Bridge once stood the Nakatsuji Rice Mill (formerly Hop Chong Wai Rice Mill), managed by Ah Hoy and located just east of the Wai‘oli Bridge. Across from the Nakatsuji Rice Mill lived retired Kealia Plantation manager Charlie McKee.[clxxix]

Some families in this area in the early to mid-1900s were the Wong, Hashimoto, Kobayashi, Hiramoto, Koga, Morimoto, and Zaima families, as well as the Azeka and Matsuda farms.[clxxx]

Another rice mill of the Hanalei region in the early 1900s was the Hiramoto Rice Mill (formerly Hee Fat Rice Mill), located at Waipā. Chinese rice farmer Hee Fat was among the largest of Kaua‘i’s rice farmers, cultivating about 600 acres of rice in Hanalei and Kapa‘a.[clxxxi] At the far end of the coastal plain in the ahupua‘a of Waikoko was the Chock Chin Rice Mill.

Weke Road and Beach Houses of Hanalei

Weke Road was a dirt road until the early 1920s when rock was quarried from the eastern side of the Hanalei rivermouth. Mules brought the rock over a floating bridge constructed across the Hanalei River and held by cables. The rock was then crushed near the pier and then used to pave Weke Road.

Mahi Mahi Road is located about ½-mile from Hanalei Pier, and was also paved around 1920. Mahi Mahi Road provides access from Route 560 (formerly known as the Government Road) to Weke Road and the beaches of Hanalei. Frank Kurihara recalled some of the “beachfront families” of the early to mid-1900s, including the Birkmyre, Conant, Gardner, Lota, Morishige, Nakamura, Kealoha, Kai, Pa, Kuehu, Nakea, and Pauole families.[clxxxii]

[Photograph: Hukilau in Hanalei Bay]

[Photo Caption:]

“Few foreign craft entered the wide bay which had been first surveyed, and that under difficulties of contrary winds, by Captain George Vancouver in 1794. During winter months tumultuous northerly gales often gather up ocean swells and sweep them into the confines of the bay itself where relentless undercurrents suck them out to sea again. During summer months, to this day, the kilo watches the sea from a height, and catching sight of ripples and shadows betokening a school of fish, hastens word to waiting fishermen on the beach who row out beyond the speeding fish and drop their long net around them, then, often up to their necks in the sea, and strung out along both sides of the net back to the shore, all stand ready for the hukilau, the hauling in of loaded net, sparkling with the silver flash of leaping fish”

Ethel Damon[clxxxiii]

[Photograph: Black Pot Beach Park]

Black Pot Beach Park and the Hukilau

Black Pot Beach Park is located between Hanalei Pier and the Hanalei rivermouth. The name of the park hearkens to the big black pot that was used to boil the day’s catch of fish, which was shared among everyone. The tradition of the hukilau involved a group of people working together to entrap fish using a seine net.[clxxxiv]

During the mid-1900s the tradition of the hukilau was still commonly practiced in Hanalei Bay. A kilo (spotter) stood atop a high spot overlooking the bay waters and used hand signals to tell the konohiki, or local leader, where the school of fish was located.

Fishermen in the water then surrounded the school of fish with a net and pulled it toward shore. The co-operative effort of spotting, netting, and gathering the fish brought the community together, and they all shared in the catch.

One konohiki was Alfred ‘Alohikea, the Hawaiian composer of the well-known song Hanohano Hanalei and many other popular local songs.

Hanohano Hanalei

Hanohano Hanalei i ka ua nui

E pakika kahi limu o Manu‘akepa

I laila ho‘i au i ‘ike iho ai

I ka hana hu‘i konikoni i ka ‘ili

Aloha kahi one o pua rose

I ka ho‘ope ‘ia e ka hunakai

‘Akāhi hoi au a ‘ike i ka nani

Hanohano Hanalei i ka ua nui.

Translation

The glory of Hanalei is its heavy rain,

[And its] slippery seaweed of Manu‘akepa

There I felt

A cool, tingling sensation on my skin

Greetings to the sand and the roses

Drenched by the sea spray

Never have I seen such splendor

The glory of Hanalei is its heavy rain.

Song by Alfred ‘Alohikea

Elbert and Mahoe, 1970[clxxxv]

Frank Kurihara remembered ‘Alohikea as “a big man with a sunny disposition, and a smile for all the young ladies,” noting that, “the songs he composed are still sung at all the Hawaiian get-togethers.”[clxxxvi]

[Photograph: Lumaha‘i Beach and Valley]

Lumaha‘i Hula [Translation by Kimo Alama.]

“Grand is Hanalei in the pouring rain,

Slippery is the limu of Manu‘akepa.

Swim in the waters of Lumaha‘i,

The misty-faced lehua of Lulu‘upali.

Heated is Hā‘ena in the sea spray,

What does Lohi‘au, the lover do?

The story is told,

Slippery is the limu of Manu‘akepa.”

From a chant to Queen Kapi‘olani entitled Hanohano Hanalei.

Alfred ‘Alohikea wrote the melody.[clxxxvii]

The original Hawaiian language version of Lumaha‘i Hula:

“Hanohano Hanalei i ka ua nui

He pakika i ka limu o Manu‘akepa.

‘Au‘au i ka wai o Lumaha‘i

Ka lehua maka noe o Lulu‘upali.

‘E‘ena Hā‘ena i ka ‘ehu kai

A he aha la o ka hana o Lohi‘au ipo.

Ha‘ina ‘ia mai ana ka puana

He pakika i ka limu o Manu‘akepa.”[clxxxviii]

Note: According to Lumaha‘i Hula. [Kimo Alama, Keaulana Collection, Bishop Museum Archives MS GRP 329 Box 5.37]: “The limu...is a slippery grass referred to as “ka limu ka kaha kanaka o Manu‘akepa” or “the man throwing moss at Manu‘akepa.” “Hā‘ena” means “red hot” and alludes to the passion of Lohi‘au, Pele’s legendary lover. Lohi‘au came from Hā‘ena that is also famous for its sea spray (said to cool down the passion that’s so hot);” “The limu...is a slippery grass referred to as “ka limu ka kaha kanaka o Manu‘akepa” or “the man throwing moss at Manu‘akepa.”

The renowned host at Black Pot Park in the 1950s and 1960s was local fisherman Kalani Tai Hook.[clxxxix] Today his daughter Cathy Ham Young is a prominent and beloved local resident of the Hanalei region along with many other Tai Hook descendants.

Two frequently caught species during the hukilau were akule (bigeye scad) and ‘opelu (mackerel scad). “In akule, or halalu,[cxc] or ‘opelu season,” recalled Frank Kurihara, “the fish came into the bays by the hordes to spawn.”[cxci]

Many Hawaiian fishermen observed certain rituals and practices, including maintaining kū‘ula (stone-carved gods used to attract fish) with offerings of mai‘a (banana plant) or the root of ‘awa (Piper methysticum, kava).

Also said to help was “clean living.” A Japanese fishing temple was located along the riverbank below the “pine tree road” that led up to the Birkmyre home, which was seen in the 1957 movie South Pacific.

Another “fishing temple” was located on the opposite side of the Hanalei River just up from the former site of the Catholic Church. Local fishermen often visited the shrines and also held annual celebrations attended by friends and family.[cxcii]

As the Hanalei region moved into the 20th century, prominent individuals and families—including the Sanborn, Fayé, and Wilcox families—constructed second homes along Weke Road on the shoreline of Hanalei Bay. Several of these beach homes still stand today as reminders of Hanalei’s storied past. Some of these historic structures are detailed below, beginning at the eastern end of Weke Road.

[Photograph: Kauikeōlani—Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House]

[Photo Caption:]

Kauikeōlani—Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House

Built: 1899

State Register of Historic Places: 1987.

National Register of Historic Places: 1993.

Albert Spencer Wilcox (1844-1919) built the main house of his estate Kauikeōlani on Hanalei Bay in 1899. The son of pioneering missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox, Albert lived in the house with his wife Emma Kauikeōlani Napoleon Mahelona, who was the widow of Samuel Mahelona.

Albert and Emma named their Hanalei home after Emma’s namesake, Kauikeōlani, which means “Beautiful vision in the morning mist,”[cxciii] and is also translated as “Place in the skies [of] heaven.”[cxciv]

Albert Wilcox had purchased an interest in the Princeville Plantation in 1892, and he secured complete ownership by 1899. He sold the Princeville lands in June of 1916, but maintained ownership of Kauikeōlani as well as “the old Mission Home, and some kuleanas along the beach.”[cxcv] Albert had grown up in the Wai‘oli Mission House, and in 1912 he led the effort to build Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church in honor of his parents.

Kauikeōlani is also known as the Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House. Kauikeōlani was originally comprised of three bedrooms but has grown in size over the years. The home is now divided into seven bedrooms and six baths, and serves as a vacation rental that is often used for weddings and other occasions.

The outside of the historic beach home is covered with sand, a technique that was used at the time to provide termite protection. A twelve-foot wide verandah wraps around part of the home.

Kauikeōlani Estate is currently owned by Patsy Wilcox Sheehan [Alice Patricia Kuaihelani Wilcox Sheehan], the great great granddaughter of Abner and Lucy Wilcox. Today the central parlor portion of Kauikeōlani remains somewhat of a living museum.

[Photograph: Kanoa Pond]

[Photo caption:]

Historic Kanoa Pond is located on the western side of Hanalei River near the rivermouth, on the property of the Albert Spencer Wilcox House. The pond once covered about ten acres, and in the mid-1800s it was owned by agricultural entrepreneur Charles Titcomb who sold it to Princeville Plantation owner R. C. Wyllie in 1863.[cxcvi]

Helen Sanborn Davis, who grew up in Hanalei in the early 1900s, recalled that the pond “was stocked with fish and Sāmoan crabs for the dining table.”[cxcvii] Kanoa Pond was also a lilypond where locals caught bass and blue gill.

[Photograph: Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond]

[Photo caption:]

Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond, also known as Pu‘upōā Marsh, was located on the east side of the Hanalei River near the rivermouth, near where the Princeville Hotel is now located. The historic fishpond dates to ancient times, and was placed on the National and State Register of Historic Places in 1982.

[Photograph: Old Hanalei Pavilion]

[Photo Caption:]

Old Hanalei Pavilion

Original wooden building was destroyed by the 1957 tsunami.

A new Hanalei Pavilion was constructed in 1960 using concrete and hollow tiles.

The Sanborn Beach House, which still stands today, was built in 1910 on the shoreline of Hanalei Bay. Thatched homes of native Hawaiians had been located along Hanalei Bay for many centuries before Western contact, but the Sanborn house was the first Hanalei shoreline home built using Western-style materials, and thus is often called Hanalei’s first “beach house.”

Numerous other Western-style homes were built along Hanalei Bay in the early 1900s, but most were later torn down due to damage caused by tsunamis, hurricanes, and the general aging of time.

The Sanborn Beach House remains as one of the last of the old beach homes of Hanalei. Built in the plantation style, the Sanborn home features a hip roof and wide window frames, single wall board and batten architecture, and trim balustrade posts.

[Photograph: Sanborn Beach House]

[Photo Caption:]

Sanborn Beach House

Built: 1910.

Architect/Builder: Walter Foss Sanborn.

Architecture: Craftsman/Plantation Style.

Walter Foss Sanborn first came to Kaua‘i in 1901, serving as the U.S. District Commissioner for Kauai and Federal Court Representative, and working for McBryde Sugar Company.[cxcviii]

Sanborn was later hired as the manager of Princeville Ranch and remained in the position until 1927, initially working for Princeville Ranch owner Albert Spencer Wilcox and then for the new owners, the Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation.

After becoming manager of the Princeville Ranch, Sanborn lived in the Princeville Ranch House, which the Sanborn family referred to as the “Mauka House” because the Princeville Plantation House was mauka (toward the mountains) from the Sanborn’s beach house on Hanalei Bay.[cxcix]

Walter Foss Sanborn lived in the Princeville Ranch House with his wife, Lena Deverill Sanborn, who had been raised on Kaua‘i. In 1907, Walter Foss Sanborn and Lena Deverill Sanborn gave birth to a girl, Helen, and then later to three boys: Walter F. Jr., Percy, and John (Jack). During this time the Sanborns lived primarily at the Princeville Ranch House, which served as the center of operations for the large Princeville cattle ranch.

When Helen was ten years old she began attending Punahou School on O‘ahu. Her brothers were sent to the Honolulu Military Academy at Kaimukī, which later became the Punahou Farm School.

When a tsunami struck Kaua‘i’s north shore in 1957, it moved the Sanborn home about ten feet off its foundation.[cc] Walter and Lena’s daughter Helen (later Helen Sanborn Davis Hibbard), credited an avocado tree for halting the movement of the house, which suffered only minor structural damage and was simply re-posted in its new location.[cci]

Jack Sanborn, one of the three sons of Walter Foss Sanborn, died in 1970, leaving the house and one acre of property to his three sons: Pete, Alan, and Bill. In 1972, the beachfront property was divided into three sections.

At this time a wing of the house (a master bedroom) on the western side off the kitchen was removed and relocated across Weke Road for use as a two-bedroom house, known as the Reed House, which became part of the Sanborn Poi Mill run by Walter Foss Sanborn.

A porch was later added on the side of the structure that had formerly been joined to the Sanborn house, and later there were other additions. Where a wing of the Sanborn beach house had been removed, a breakfast room was added.

The poi mill operated until the mid 1950s[ccii] when it was taken over by new owners who eventually abandoned their effort after buyers fell behind in payments. The poi mill’s new owners were Kenichi Tasaka, Harold Kobayashi, and Michi Fukuda.[cciii]

“The Hanalei District of Kauai is not going to be the same without Walter Foss Sanborn. His tall, active figure, still erect in his late seventies, his shock of unruly hair, now snowy, his twinkling eyes and an assumption of gruffness that they belied, had been familiar to the district since he came there some 55 years ago to manage the late Albert S. Wilcox’s plantation. Now in retirement, he made his home in a rambling shoreside dwelling, surrounded by broad, carefully tended lawns and gardens, within reach of the village social center. Outspoken always, Walter Sanborn sometimes antagonized associates who could not believe that anyone could pull so many facts out of his mind without grievous error. Yet that was what he did, and differences of opinion were swept away before an avalanche of facts. Behind his gruff exterior was a soft heart, as every child knew instinctively. He was a sucker for kids.”

Honolulu Advertiser Editorial[cciv]

Just west of the Sanborn house on Weke Road is the Fayé Beach House, built in 1915 by Hans Peter Fayé, nephew of sugar planter Valdemar “Kanuka” Knudsen. The two-story wood-framed Hanalei structure was built by Fayé as a vacation home. A second story is set into the steeply-pitched gable roof. The structure was damaged by the 1957 tsunami and required repairs.

Hans Peter Fayé was born in Norway and moved to Hawai‘i in 1880. He later developed sugar plantations on western Kaua‘i, harvesting his first crop in 1886 with the help of Chinese laborers provided by Leong Pah On, who was known as Kaua‘i’s “Rice King.”[ccv]

In 1893, H. P. Fayé married Margaret Lindsey at Moloa‘a, and they would have eight children. Fayé’s Mana [Mānā] Sugar Company merged with Kekaha Sugar Company in 1898, and Fayé managed the operation for the next three decades.

H. P. Fayé’s son Lindsay later managed Kekaha Sugar Company. Another son, Alan Fayé, managed the Waimea Sugar Company, a plantation that was run by the Fayé family. Remnants of the sugar mill can be seen today in Waimea town.

[Photograph: Fayé Beach House]

[Photo Caption:]

Fayé Beach House

Built: 1915.

Just up from the Fayé Beach House in Hanalei, on the other side of Weke Road, is the former Princeville Ranch Manager’s House. The home was built under the direction of Fred Conant, who became manager of the Princeville Plantation in 1927. Later the home became the residence of Larry and Jeanie Ching. The home is a private residence—please do not go on the property.

[Photograph: Bounty House]

[Photo Caption:]

The Bounty House

In 1914, Charles, Elsie, and Mabel Wilcox and their parents Samuel and Emma Wilcox, along with Ethel Damon, bought five adjoining beachfront lots in Hanalei at an auction. Mabel Wilcox and her brother then planned the house named Mahamoku, which means “Island of peace.”[ccvi]

Mabel Wilcox may have worked with Honolulu architect Clinton B. Ripley in creating the design and building specifications of Mahamoku, since the Wilcox family was working with him closely at the time in designing an addition to the Grove Farm plantation house in Līhu‘e. Ripley was later chosen by Mabel to design the Mahelona Hospital in Kapa‘a. [ccvii]

Mahamoku is a 1½-story, L-shaped, wood-framed house built by Sam Itchioka between September and November of 1914.[ccviii] During construction, Samuel Wilcox and three of his children, Charles, Elsie, and Mabel frequently visited the site and occasionally suggested changes to the house plans.

For more than two weeks of September, storms prevented the Wilcoxes from reaching the north shore as “heavy rains...washed out all [the] bridges between Lihue and Hanalei.”[ccix]

Mahamoku’s board and batten walls are utilize vertical redwood boards in double wall construction. The home’s high-pitched, gable roof creates an interior loft area, and the home’s interior is described as “barn-like” with “darkness contributing to the atmosphere of rest and comfort at the edge of the ocean and with bright, breathtaking scenic views of Hanalei on all sides.”[ccx]

Cantilevered loft balconies extend from each end of the home and are covered by overhanging eaves. A series of windows in the central living area allow tradewind breezes to cool the house.

Itchioka took it upon himself to add a three-window dormer on the ocean side of Mahamoku. The dormer was strongly disapproved of by Mabel Wilcox, yet it was not changed.

[Photograph: Mahamoku]

[Photo Caption:]

Mahamoku—Mabel and Charles Wilcox House

Built: 1914.

Designer: Mabel Isabel Wilcox.

Builder: Sam Itchioka

Style: American Arts and Crafts (Variation of Bungalow Style).



[i] p. 7, The Bridge and the Roads. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[ii] Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society 1851:52-4.

[iii] p. 99, Whitney, Henry M. The Hawaiian Guide Book for Travelers. 1875. Reprint. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle, 1970.

[iv] p. 14. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[v] p. 14. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[vi] p. 56, Davies, Theo. An Account of the First Visit to the Island of Kauai in September 1860. Transcription from the original journal written in longhand on board S. S. “Ariel”, on the Atlantic, 22nd August, 1862.

[vii] p. 7, The Bridge and the Roads. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible, citing a “statistical, commercial and tourist guide” written by George Browser. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[viii] p. 15, King, Josephine Wundenberg. Reminiscences of Hanalei, Kauai, Kaua‘i Historical Society, 5/26/1917.

[ix] p. 273, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[x] Hanalei Bridge is located on Route 560 at Milepost 1.19.

[xi] Cook, Chris. Robeson, Wilcox honored for preserving Hanalei Bridge: Statewide Historic Hawai‘i Foundation conference opens. The Garden Island, 5/15/2003.

[xii] The Garden Island, 8/06/1912.

[xiii] p. 7, The Bridge and the Roads. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xiv] The Garden Island, 1/1/1913.

[xv] Wai‘oli Bridge is located just west of Hanalei town.

[xvi] Waipā Bridge is located just west of Hanalei town.

[xvii] Waikoko Bridge is located just west of Hanalei town.

[xviii] New Church is Dedicated. The Garden Island, 10/22/1912.

[xix] A type of column in Greek architecture originating with the Dorians.

[xx] Hanalei’s Beautiful Church Edifice. The Garden Island, 10/29/1912.

[xxi] Hanalei’s Beautiful New Church Edifice. The Garden Island, 10/29/1912.

[xxii] Hanalei’s Beautiful Church Edifice. The Garden Island, 10/29/1912.

[xxiii] Hanalei’s Beautiful Church Edifice. The Garden Island, 10/29/1912.

[xxiv] p. 69, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987. Hart Wood (1880—1957) came to Hawai‘i in 1919 as chief designer for prominent Hawai‘i architect, Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and eventually designed many prominent buildings and homes in Honolulu and other locations.

[xxv] p. 67, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxvi] Līhu‘e contractor Sam B. Goss was hired to complete the Wai‘oli mission restoration work.

[xxvii] p. 70, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxviii] p. 70, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxix] p. 396, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xxx] p. 396, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xxxi] p. 396, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xxxii] p. 70, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxxiii] p. 65, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxxiv] p. 8, Medical. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xxxv] p. 21, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[xxxvi] p. 79, Riznik, Barnes. Waioli Mission House: Hanalei, Kauai. Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i: Grove Farm Homestead and Waioli Mission House, 1987.

[xxxvii] pp. 17-18, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[xxxviii] p. 8, Waioli Park, Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xxxix] p. 396, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xl] Riznik, Barnes. Digging Down under Wai‘oli Mission Hall. Historic Hawai‘i News, 1980.

[xli] The 1986 restoration raised the Belfry about 4 inches above its previous height.

[xlii] State of the River 2001: Hanalei American Heritage River. Internet site: http://www.epa.gov/rivers/sor/sorhanalei.pdf., 2001.

[xliii] p. 276-281, Narrative of a Voyage Round the World, Performed in Her Majesty’s Ship Sulphur, During the Years 1836-1842, Including Details of the Naval Operations in China, From Dec. 1840, to Nov. 1841. Published under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Captain Sir Edward Belcher, Commander of the Expedition, Volume I, London: Henry Colburn, Publisher, Great Marlborough Street, 1843.

[xliv] p. 67, 276-281, Narrative of a Voyage Round the World, Performed in Her Majesty’s Ship Sulphur, During the Years 1836-1842, Including Details of the Naval Operations in China, From Dec. 1840, to Nov. 1841. Published under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by Captain Sir Edward Belcher, Commander of the Expedition, Volume I, London: Henry Colburn, Publisher, Great Marlborough Street, 1843.

[xlv] p. 72, Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[xlvi] p. 70, Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[xlvii] Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[xlviii] pp. 70-71, Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[xlix] p. 72, Wilcox, Carol. Sugar Water: Hawai‘i’s Plantation Ditches. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996.

[l] p. 104, Whitney, Henry M. The Hawaiian Guide Book for Travelers. 1875. Reprint. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle, 1970.

[li] The Hanalei Valley land was part of the former plantation of Charles Titcomb, likely in the area crossed by Nukuhuli Stream near the current Hanalei Center (Wailele Building).

[lii] p. 2, The Emergence of Rice. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[liii] p. 2, The Emergence of Rice. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[liv] p. 2, The Emergence of Rice. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lv] p. 2, The Emergence of Rice. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lvi] p. 1, A Changing Landscape, a New Crop, a New Population. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lvii] p. 1, A Changing Landscape, a New Crop, a New Population. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lviii] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lix] p. 22, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lx] p. 11, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxi] p. 16, The Demise of the Rice Industry. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxii] p. 16, The Demise of the Rice Industry. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxiii] p. 4, Recollecting the Work of Rice Farmers. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxiv] p. 4, Recollecting the Work of Rice Farmers. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxv] p. 4, Recollecting the Work of Rice Farmers. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxvi] Nutmeg mannikins. p. 101, Hawaii’s Birds. Honolulu: Hawaiian Audubon Society, 1993. “Nutmeg Mannikin (Lonchura punctulata). Introduced from Southeast Asia about 1865. Also known as Ricebird or Spotted Munia...It can become a serious agricultural pest, particularly in rice and sorghum.”

[lxvii] p. 4, Recollecting the Work of Rice Farmers. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxviii] p. 22, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxix] p. 26, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxx] The wood of the hau tree was also used for fencing.

[lxxi] p. 4, Recollecting the Work of Rice Farmers. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxii] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxiii] p. 22, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxxiv] p. 3, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxv] This land is now occupied by Hanalei Garden Farms and Bison Ranch. The land was known in ancient times as Pā‘ele, which means “Black,” or “Dark.” Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[lxxvi] p. 5, Kenichi Tasaka. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxvii] p. 3, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxviii] Fujimoto, Dennis. Haraguchi Rice Mill receives Young Bros. grant. The Garden Island, 8/14/2003.

[lxxix] p. 23, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxxx] p. 23, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxxxi] p. 16, The Demise of the Rice Industry. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997, citing Tin-Yuke, Chinese Historic Sites, p. 160.

[lxxxii] p. 3, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxxiii] p. 323, Damon, Ethel M. Koamalu: A Story of Pioneers on Kauai and of What They Built in That Island Garden. Volume 1. Privately Printed, Honolulu, 1931.

[lxxxiv] p. 2, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxxv] p. 25, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[lxxxvi] Overnight camping is allowed at Black Pot Park only on weekends.

[lxxxvii] pp. 287-288, Bird, Isabella L. Six Months in the Sandwich Islands. 1875, Reprint. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press for Friends of the Library of Hawaii, 1964.

[lxxxviii] p. 8, The Hanalei Pier, Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[lxxxix] Fujimoto, Dennis. Haraguchi Rice Mill receives Young Bros. grant. The Garden Island, 8/14/2003.

[xc] Fujimoto, Dennis. Haraguchi Rice Mill receives Young Bros. grant. The Garden Island, 8/14/2003.

[xci] Remnants of the railroad tracks may still be seen near Hanalei Pier.

[xcii] p. 8, The Hanalei Pier, Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xciii] p. 8, The Hanalei Pier, Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xciv] p. 8, The Hanalei Pier, Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xcv] p. 34, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[xcvi] p. 14, Princeville Plantation Ranch House. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[xcvii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xcviii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[xcix] p. 9, Polk-Husted Directory of Honolulu and the Territory of Hawaii, 1914. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[c] Frank Kurihara referred to the Chock Chin Store as Chock Sing: “At the intersection was Chock Sing Store. It later became Lau Store.” [p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303).]

[ci] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[ciii] p. 5, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303).

[civ] Man Sing’s rice plantation was also located alongside the Hanalei River. He sold his rice mill to the Haraguchis in 1924. [p. 3, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.]

[cv] A ceremony to celebrate the completion of Fusao Haraguchi’s sampan took place on May 10, 1938.

[cvi] Fujimoto, Dennis. Haraguchi Rice Mill receives Young Bros. grant. The Garden Island, 8/14/2003.

[cvii] Permission to use the land to grow rice was given by the Robinson family. Fujimoto, Dennis. Haraguchi Rice Mill receives Young Bros. grant. The Garden Island, 8/14/2003.

[cviii] William Haraguchi a Living Treasure for life-long commitment to agriculture. The Garden Island, 6/26/2002.

[cix] p. 101, Hawaii’s Birds. Honolulu: Hawaiian Audubon Society, 1993. “Nutmeg Mannikin (Lonchura punctulata). Introduced from Southeast Asia about 1865. Also known as Ricebird or Spotted Munia...It can become a serious agricultural pest, particularly in rice and sorghum.”

[cx] According to Harry Ho, “opposite the Man Sung Wai Rice Mill, a Chinese temple and a community home were built.” [p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.]

[cxi] The Yee Hing Community Home was sometimes referred to as the Community House.

[cxii] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxiii] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxiv] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxv] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxvi] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxvii] The former Hongwanji in Hanalei Valley was used for office space. P. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxviii] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxix] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxx] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxi] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxii] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxiii] In later years the Cemetery was maintained by the Chinese community in the region as well as the Mormon community. [p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.]

[cxxiv] These homes are located on the land that is now the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge.

[cxxv] pp. 5-6, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxxvi] The Trader Building was at the current site of the Dolphin Building.

[cxxvii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[cxxix] p. 6, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxxx] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxxi] p. 12, The Chinese Cemetery, by Harry Ho: Recollections by longtime resident Harry Ho about the Yee Hing Society and the Chinese Cemetery. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxxxii] Ching Young Village History Page. Internet site: http://www.chingyoungvillage.com/history.htm, 1/10/2003.

[cxxxiii] Missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox first arrived on Kaua‘i in 1846. Their sons and descendants have played a significant role in Hanalei history.

[cxxxiv] p. 5, Ching Young Store Historic Register Application Statement of Historical and/or Architectural Significance.

[cxxxv] Ching Young Village History Page. Internet site: http://www.chingyoungvillage.com/history.htm, 1/10/2003.] Dang Ha Ching’s name was given as Ah Har Dang in: Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997, p. 10.

[cxxxvi] Ching Young Village History Page. Internet site: http://www.chingyoungvillage.com/history.htm, 1/10/2003.

[cxxxvii] p. 5, Historic Register Application Statement of Historical and/or Architectural Significance.

[cxxxviii] Ching Young Village History Page. Internet site: http://www.chingyoungvillage.com/history.htm, 1/10/2003.

[cxxxix] p. 6, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxl] Reverend Tsui Hin Wong was listed in the Polk Directory in 1930-31.

[cxli] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxlii] p. 3, The Rice Farms and Mills in the Landscape. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxliii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxliv] p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxlv] pp. 6-7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxlvi] p. 9, Polk-Husted Directory of Honolulu and the Territory of Hawaii, 1914. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxlvii] Frank Kurihara recalls “Mr. Yokota, the Japanese school teacher.” [p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303).]

[cxlviii] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxlix] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cl] Hawai‘i’s Japanese residents numbered about 100,000, including 35,000 first generation Japanese.

[cli] Later the building was again moved.

[clii] P. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997. Frank Kurihara noted that “the Japanese School...was moved there from its previous location near the beach.” [P. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)]

[cliii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cliv] Frank Kurihara referred to the store at the intersection as the Chock Sing Store: “At the intersection was Chock Sing Store. It later became Lau Store.” [p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303).]

[clv] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clvi] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clvii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997. [Note: Frank Kurihara referred to the store at the intersection as the Chock Sing Store: “At the intersection was Chock Sing Store. It later became Lau Store.” [p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996.]

[clviii] p. 9, Commerce in the Rice Growing Era. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clix] Source: Note on file at Kaua‘i Historical Society stating “Information source: Mr. K. Tasaka.”

[clx] p. 5, Kenichi Tasaka. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxi] p. 5, Kenichi Tasaka. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxii] p. 7, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxiii] The Lily Pond House was located on a lot belonging to Harry Weinberg.

[clxiv] Lily Pond House - National Register of Historic Places: Statement of Historical and/or Architectural Significance. United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[clxv] The Lily Pond House was moved under the direction of Mr. Tasaka, a taro farmer and County plumber, and the son of the former caretaker for the home of the Kaua‘i Electric manager. Lily Pond House - National Register of Historic Places: Statement of Historical and/or Architectural Significance. United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[clxvi] p. 7, The Old Post Office. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxvii] Post Office in Paradise: Kauai Postmarks, Part 1Anahola to Koloa. Internet site: http://www.hawaiianstamps.com/iskauai1.html, 3/18/2003.

[clxviii] The Princeville Plantation House was formerly known as Kikiula, and later known as the Princeville Ranch House). P. 7, The Bridge and the Roads. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible.. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxix] p. 4, Westerners Arrive. Hanalei Yesterday, Part I, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1990.

[clxx] Post Office in Paradise: Kauai Postmarks, Part 1Anahola to Koloa. Internet site: http://www.hawaiianstamps.com/iskauai1.html, 3/18/2003.

[clxxi] p. 7, The Old Post Office. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxxii] p. 7, The Old Post Office. Infrastructure and Commerce in Rice Times: New Technology makes Hanalei more accessible. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxxiii] p. 10, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxxiv] p. 9, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303). Also, “John Hanohano served as the area’s policeman along with Kaonohe. [p. 17, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)]

[clxxv] A Brief History of the Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church. Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church Bulletin, 2003.

[clxxvi] Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii from December 31, 1902 to December 31, 1904.

[clxxvii] p. 9, Polk-Husted Directory of Honolulu and the Territory of Hawaii, 1914. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[clxxviii] Hanalei School is fully accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

[clxxix] p. 10, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxxx] p. 10, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxxxi] Wilcox, Carol. The Kauai Album. Kaua‘i: Kauai Historical Society, 1981.

[clxxxii] Kurihara also noted that, living at the Princeville Plantation Ranch, were “the Lindsay, Niau, and the Kaukahi families, also the Io brothers.” Pages 6-7, 17, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxxxiii] p. 239, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[clxxxiv] Huki: “to pull”; lau: “seine.” Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[clxxxv] p. 29, Clark, John R. K. Beaches of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

[clxxxvi] p. 6, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[clxxxvii] Lumaha‘i Hula. Kimo Alama, Keaulana Collection, Bishop Museum Archives MS GRP 329 Box 5.37.

[clxxxviii] Lumaha‘i Hula. Kimo Alama, Keaulana Collection, Bishop Museum Archives MS GRP 329 Box 5.37.

[clxxxix] p. 13, Fishing. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxc] Halalū refers to “the young of the akule fish, about 14 or 15 cm long.” [Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

[cxci] p. 18, Kurihara, Frank H. Hanohano Hanalei. Skyline Designs: 1996. (Bishop Museum MS Doc. 303)

[cxcii] p. 11, Cultural and Religious Community Life in the Rice Times. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cxciii] Kauikeōlani Estate: Hanalei Plantation Cottages. Internet site: http://www.hanaleiland.com/pages/kaui_history.htm, 12/27/2002.

[cxciv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[cxcv] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxcvi] p. 278, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[cxcvii] p. 37, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[cxcviii] Sanborn Beach HouseNational Register of Historic Places: United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[cxcix] The Princeville Ranch House was originally known as Kikiula, and then later called Princeville Plantation House, and then Princeville Ranch House.

[cc] Sanborn Beach HouseNational Register of Historic Places: United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[cci] Sanborn Beach HouseNational Register of Historic Places: United States Department of the Interior; National Park Service.

[ccii] Blaich, Beryl. Notes on file at Kaua‘i Historical Society, based on information from Alan Sanborn, 1/05/87.

[cciii] p. 17, Taro Returns to Hanalei. Hanalei Yesterday, Part II, 1000 Friends of Kauai, 1997.

[cciv] p. 116, Damon, Ethel M. Letters from the Life of Abner and Lucy Wilcox, 1836-1869. Honolulu: privately printed, 1950.

[ccv] Sobeleski, Hank. History makers of Kauai: H.P. Fayé. The Garden Island, Internet site: http://kauai-harborhouse.com/hbfaye.html, 3/29/2003.

[ccvi] Mahamoku. National Register of Historic Places: Inventory - Nomination Form.

[ccvii] Mahamoku. National Register of Historic Places: Inventory - Nomination Form.

[ccviii] Mahamoku. National Register of Historic Places: Inventory - Nomination Form.

[ccix] Mahamoku. National Register of Historic Places: Inventory - Nomination Form.

[ccx] Mahamoku. National Register of Historic Places: Inventory - Nomination Form.