Hawaiian Culture / Ancient Hawaii

Hawaiian Culture / Ancient Hawai‘i

1. This Hawaiian king united all of the Hawaiian Islands under one rule.

a) Kalākaua

b) Kamehameha III

c) Liholiho

d) Kamehameha I

2. Hawaiian royalty were known as:

a) Lomilomi

b) Wai‘ale‘ale

c) Ali‘i

d) Aku

3. In ancient Hawai‘i, if something was forbidden it was considered:

a) Kanaka

b) Konohiki

c) Pau Hana

d) Kapu

4. What are ancient Hawaiian sacred places, or temples called?

a) Hukilau

b) Anuenue

c) Tiki

d) Heiau

5. What is the name of the traditional voyaging canoe built in the 1970s to show that migrating Polynesians could have sailed east against the prevailing trade winds.

a) Hawai‘iloa

b) Hōkūle‘a

c) Marquesas

d) Hanalei

6. In ancient Hawai‘i, most of the large carvings of religious and sacred images (some up to 15 feet tall), were carved of this wood which, when bleached by the sun and rain and aged by time is prone to cracking and gives the figures a striking appearance.

a) Wiliwili

b) Koa

c) Coconut Tree

d) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua

7. In 1881, this man became the first Hawaiian monarch to travel around the globe.

a) Kamehameha I

b) Kalākaua

c) King Liholiho

d) Kamehameha IV

8. This son of Kamehameha I succeeded him as king in 1819 and helped bring an end to the revered kapu system.

a) Liholiho

b) Likilike

c) Lot

d) Kalākaua

9. King Kalākaua built this structure in 1882, and it became the official home of Hawai‘i’s royalty.

a) Pu‘uhonua Heiau

b) Lili‘uokalani Palace

c) ‘Iolani Palace

d) Hale Kane

10. Made from the inner bark of certain trees, such as wauke, this material is like a soft, pliable paper, and had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i including for clothing and blankets.

a) Kapu

b) Wiliwili

c) Tilapia

d) Kapa

11. Queen Lili‘uokalani was confined in this building for 9 months as a political prisoner of the Provisional Government.

a) The State Judiciary Building

b) The Royal Hawaiian Hotel

c) ‘Iolani Palace

d) Hale Honu

12. What is the Hawaiian name for offshoots of the taro plant, which grow in a circle around the parent plant, and may eventually mature and produce their own offshoots?

a) Kapu

b) Pau

c) Ha‘ena

d) ‘Oha

13. Prince Kauikeaouli, Liholiho’s younger brother, was proclaimed

a) Kamehameha II

b) Kamehameha III

c) Kamehameha IV

d) Kamehameha V

14. This man became king after a controversial election, which he won over Dowager Queen Emma, widow of King Kamehameha IV.

a) Kalākaua

b) Kamehameha V

c) Liholiho

d) Likelike

15. What was Queen Lili‘uokalani’s birth name?

a) Kaualani Kalākaua

b) Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha

c) Lydia Kamaka‘eha

d) Kaualani Kamehameha

16. This root was dried and chewed, then strained through fibers and heated in a calabash using hot stones. Drinking it created a relaxing feeling, and the mixture had various uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

a) Ti

b) Kava

c) Taro

d) Noni

17. What was the Hawaiian name for taro?

a) Kava

b) Pua Keni Keni

c) Kalo

d) Lo‘i

18. This Hawaiian king was known as the “Napoleon of the Pacific.”

a) Kalākaua

b) Liholiho

c) Kamehameha I

d) Kamehameha II

19. Pele the volcano goddess was jealous of the love of this couple and so Pele’s sister turned them into a tree so they could be together forever.

a) Hi‘iaka and Maui

b) Kane and Wahine

c) ‘Ōhi‘a and Lehua

d) Poli‘ahu and Lono

20. What is the Hawaiian term for water?

a) Wai

b) Makai

c) Wiki

d) Hana

21. What is the name of the Hawaiian form of dance that traditionally expresses Hawaiian stories and genealogies?

a) Kapu

b) Honu

c) ‘Oli

d) Hula

22. What Hawaiian king was known as the Merrie Monarch?

a) Kamehameha I

b) Kalākaua

c) Kamehameha IV

d) Lunalilo

23. Royal feather standards called kāhili consisted of feather clusters attached to long poles, and they were symbols of chiefly rank. The feathers of what bird were especially valued for use in making the kāhili?

a) Frigatebird

b) Pueo

c) Red-tailed tropicbird

d) ‘I’iwi

24. Who was the only child of Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma?

a) Prince Kuhio

b) Prince Albert

c) Prince Jonah

d) Prince Lunalilo

25. This species was brought to the Hawaiian Islands as a stowaway aboard their voyaging canoes.

a) Snake

b) Mongoose

c) Gecko

d) Mosquito

26. Ancient Hawaiians used this tree’s wood to carve small canoes, musical instruments, surfboards, poi boards and other items. The leave sheaths were used as a fine sandpaper, and the sap from the tree was used as a caulk for the seams of canoes, and also was put on sticks to catch birds.

a) Hala

b) Breadfruit

c) Kukui

d) Koa

27. This legendary small race of ancient Hawaiians was famous for their stonework, which they completed all at night time, and all in one night, or else the job was left unfinished.

a) Malahini

b) Makahiki

c) Mokihana

d) Menehune

28. What are the two main forms of hula?

a) Oli and Noni

b) ‘Auana and Kahiko

c) Mele and Pua

d) Hi‘aka and Poli‘ahu

29. What is the name of the reddish-brown, silky hair that grows on the young fronds and top of the trunk of the hapu‘u fern, and was exported in large quantities in the 1800s for use as stuffing for mattresses and pillows?

a) Pulu

b) Limu

c) Pua le‘a

d) Nalu

30. These rock carvings are found in over 100 places throughout the Hawaiian Islands, and are the only prehistoric art of the Hawaiian Islands not in collections or museums.

a) Hieroglyphics

b) Petroglyphs

c) Basaltagraphs

d) Pau Hana

31. What is the Hawaiian term for an ancestor, grandparent, or relative?

a) Kumuhula

b) Lauhala

c) Papa he‘e nalu

d) Kupuna

32. It is generally believed that Polynesian voyagers first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands when?

a) Around 3,000 B.C.

b) Around 1,000 B.C.

c) Around A.D. 200

d) Around A.D. 800

33. One instrument used to accompany hula was the pahu hula, a drum made from the trunk of the coconut or breadfruit tree. The drumhead was made of what material?

a) Kapa bark cloth

b) Hala

c) Eel skin

d) Shark skin

34. Hawaiians burned the oily inner kernel of these nuts for light. When skewered with the midrib of a coconut leaf and then set afire, the nuts would burn for about 45 minutes.

a) Macadamia nuts

b) Kukui nuts

c) Hala nuts

d) Koa nuts

35. The early Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands brought this species with them.

a) Boar

b) Sheep

c) Deer

d) Goat

36. The 4 major Hawaiian gods are Kāne, Kū, Lono and what other god?

a) Kanaloa

b) Pele

c) Kamehameha

d) Hi‘aka

37. Known as a creator and also a destroyer, this goddess is said to live today in Halema‘uma‘u Crater atop Kīlauea Volcano.

a) Hi‘aka

b) Poli‘ahu

c) Lehua

d) Pele

38. What was the first battle among the Hawaiians in which foreign gunners participated?

a) Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali

b) Battle of ‘Aiea

c) Battle of Waimea

d) Battle of Mākaha

39. In 1877, King Kalākaua dedicated this park to his wife, making it the first public park in the Hawaiian Islands. Around the turn of the century, band concerts and horse racing were the main attractions at the park.

a) Waimea Park

b) Lili‘uokalani Park

c) Queen Emma Park

d) Kapi‘olani Park

40. Research on the origins of the Polynesians shows that the descendants of a seafaring people first traveled from Asia or Melanesia to Sāmoa and Tonga about how long ago?

a) 1,200 years

b) 6,000 years

c) 10,000 years

d) 50,000 years

41. What does the Hawaiian word “kai” mean?

a) Friend

b) Sugar cane

c) Sea

d) Mountain

42. The Hōkūle‘a voyaging canoe was built by the Polynesian Voyaging Society in 1970 to re-enact traditional voyages. What is the name of the voyaging canoe built in the 1990s almost entirely out of traditional materials?

a) Hōnule‘a

b) Hawai‘iloa

c) Nainoa

d) Hōkūpa‘a

43. In 1810, Kamehameha I singed a treaty with the king of this island, the only island he had not conquered. The agreement ceded the island to Kamehameha, finally uniting the Hawaiian Islands under one ruler.

a) Maui

b) O‘ahu

c) The Big Island

d) Kaua‘i

44. When the Polynesian Voyaging Society built a voyaging canoe in the 1970s they named it the Hōkūle‘a, which means:

a) Star of Happiness

b) Star of Life

c) Star of the north

d) Star of Fish

45. The legendary Hawaiian god Māui is known as:

a) God of the forests

b) God of volcanoes

c) The trickster

d) The healer

46. What does Haleakalā mean?

a) House of pain

b) House of the alā bird

c) House of the alā fern

d) House of the rising sun

47. The Hawaiian word for sea urchin is:

a) Ono

b) ‘Ulu

c) Wana

d) Pipipi

48. Lē‘ahi is the Hawaiian name for:

a) Pearl Harbor

b) Diamond Head

c) Bali Hai

d) Sleeping Giant

49. The Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands braided the fiber of the husk of the seed of this plant into sennit lashings.

a) Coconut Palm

b) Hala

c) Sandalwood

d) Wiliwili

50. In ancient Polynesia many houses were thatched with hala or coconut leaves. What other material was warmer, with a nice color and pleasant grass odor, and was commonly used by Hawaiians to construct houses?

a) Wiliwili

b) Kāhili

c) Pili

d) Sandalwood

51. What was the relationship between King Kalākaua and Queen Lili‘uokalani?

a) Brother and sister

b) Father and daughter

c) Husband and wife

d) Aunt and Nephew

52. The Hawaiian word for children is:

a) Kaukau

b) Kipuka

c) Keiki

d) Kokua

53. In ancient Hawai‘i, the leaves of this tree were woven into mats, baskets, roof lining, sails for voyaging canoes and many other items.

a) Wiliwili

b) Koa

c) Kukui

d) Hala

54. Ornamental garments used by the kings of ancient Hawai‘i included long royal capes. From what material were these capes woven?

a) Lauhala

b) Flowers

c) Feathers

d) Kapa

55. In 1864, this king proclaimed a new constitution, giving greater power to the king and less to the privy council and legislative assembly. This angered foreigners, but natives supported the return to monarchial leadership. What king proclaimed this new constitution?

a) Kamehameha III

b) Kamehameha IV

c) Kamehameha V

d) Lunalilo

56. On December 13, 1879, King Kalākaua laid the cornerstone for ‘Iolani Palace. What does ‘Iolani mean?

a) House of royalty

b) Place of worship

c) Heavenly

d) Bird of Heaven

57. ‘Ulu maika, haka moa, pa umauma, and hukihuki are all:

a) Hawaiian plants

b) Hawaiian animals

c) Hawaiian sporting events

d) Hawaiian musical instruments

58. Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) died in 1824 in London. What was the cause of death?

a) A duel

b) Small pox

c) Poisoning

d) Measles

59. After Kamehameha the Great unified the islands he set up his base in this town, and the capital remained there until 1845.

a) Kohala

b) Waipi‘o

c) Lahaina

d) Nāwiliwili

60. Hawaiians referred to the fragrant heartwood of this tree as la‘au‘ala, which means “sweet wood.” Traditional uses included placing the powdered wood between layers of kapa to impart the fragrance to the cloth, medicinal uses, and using the wood to fashion musical instruments.

a) Kukui

b) Koa

c) Sandalwood

d) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua

61. In the highly refined Hawaiian art known as geometric block printing, the stamp was dipped in a shallow stone bowl containing dye and pressed onto kapa. Each impression was aligned with the edge of the previous impression, creating a pattern. What material was used to make the stamp?

a) Koa

b) Kukui

c) Bamboo

d) Milo

62. ‘Olena (tumeric), roots of noni, and seeds of nana were all used to produce dyes for the distinctly Hawaiian art of geometric block printing. These three plants were used to produce what color?

a) Yellow

b) Purple

c) Red

d) Gray-green

63. In 1890, King Kalākaua took a trip to the United States. Who did he appoint as sole Regent during his absence?

a) Kamehameha V

b) Sanford Dole

c) Princess Lili‘uokalani

d) Prince Kuhio

64. The Hawai‘iloa Voyaging Canoe, built by the Polynesian Voyaging Society in the 1990s almost entirely out of traditional materials, utilized what type of wood for its 57-foot long hulls.

a) Koa

b) Wiliwili

c) Sitka Spruce

d) Redwood

65. The ‘Ōhi‘a lehua tree was very important in the practice of hula in ancient Hawai‘i, representing the goddess:

a) Laka

b) Hi‘aka

c) Poli‘ahu

d) Wahine

66. This Tahitian kahuna (priest) is said to have come to the Hawaiian Islands sometime before the year A.D. 1200 and founded a high priest line, known as kahuna nui, and with Pili sired the royal line leading to Kamehameha, beginning a 700-year dynasty.

a) Kane

b) Pa‘ao

c) Pahu

d) Lono

67. Built an estimated 1,200 years ago, this 395-foot-long, 56-foot-wide heiau is near Kaua‘i’s Wailua river mouth, a place considered a spiritual center and perhaps the first place Polynesians landed on Hawaiian Island shores.

a) Mailekini Heiau

b) Hale o Kapuni Heiau

c) Hikina a ka Lā Heiau

d) Keaīwa Heiau

68. Who was the Big Island chief that Captain Cook was attempting to take hostage when he was killed in an encounter with the natives?

a) Kalani‘opu‘u

b) Kamehameha

c) Keoua

d) Kahiliki

69. Ancient Hawaiians crafted various items using feathers, including long, royal capes worn by ali‘i. What was another item that was crafted using this featherwork?

a) Ceremonial shields

b) Ceremonial helmets

c) Ceremonial Insignias

d) Ceremonial Pillars

70. In the Hawaiian Islands today, honor and respect among dignitaries is often shown with a velvety rope of carefully strung bright orange _____________ petals.

a) Plumeria

b) ‘Ilima

c) Hinahina

d) Kou

71. The Hawaiian name of this bird, ‘alae ‘ula, means “red forehead,” and Hawaiian legend tells of how this bird brought fire from the gods to the Hawaiian people. What is this bird’s common name?

a) Coot

b) Stilt

c) Moorhen

d) Night-heron

72. Hawai‘i’s first constitution was drafted by Kamehameha III in what year?

a) 1810

b) 1830

c) 1840

d) 1850

73. In ancient Hawai‘i, the pollen of the flower of the male hala tree was used to preserve items of featherwork, such as feather capes worn by ali‘i. What is the Hawaiian name of this fragrant flower?

a) Hīnano

b) Kō

c) Pua le‘a

d) Hapu‘u

74. The Polynesians that first settled in the Hawaiian Islands saw huge, strong trees growing in the mountains and named them koa, a word that comes from the Tahitian word toa, which means:

a) Giant

b) Strong

c) Straight

d) Tall

75. Equilateral triangles in a chief’s feathered cloak and in the complex tattoo motifs of Hawaiian warriors are said to have embodied the mana (spiritual power) of:

a) Hala leaves

b) Ancestral mosaics

c) Shark teeth

d) Earth, water and sky


Advanced Questions

Hawaiian Culture / Ancient Hawai‘i

1. How many letters are in the Hawaiian alphabet?

a) 7

b) 12

c) 15

d) 21

2. In ancient Hawai‘i, what was the name of the annual period of several months set aside for feasts, games and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility?

a) Makahiki

b) Malahini

c) Menehune

d) Minestrone

3. What was the Hawaiian term for a personal (or family) guardian spirit?

a) Ahupua‘a

b) ‘Aumakua

c) Pau Hana

d) Mauna

4. The sticky sap of what tree was used to catch birds, and also used as a caulk or sealant?

a) Kamani tree

b) Breadfruit tree

c) Ironwood tree

d) Koa tree

5. What tree was used to make the finest surfboards for the ali‘i, the royalty of ancient Hawai‘i?

a) Koa

b) Kukui

c) Wiliwili

d) Breadfruit

6. This battle was Kamehameha’s final military conquest, and over 10,000 soldiers may have died in the fighting.

a) The Battle of Kīlauea

b) The Battle of the Red-Mouthed Cannon

c) The Battle of Ka‘u

d) The Battle of Nu‘uanu

7. What is the name of the snow goddess said to live on a hill near the top of Mauna Kea’s summit, where she does battle with Pele, thus explaining the alternating snow and lava that has covered the summit throughout the history of the mountain?

a) Lokahi

b) Hi‘aka

c) Poli‘ahu

d) Lili‘u

8. How old was Captain Cook when he was killed at Kealakekua on the island of Hawai‘i?

a) 40

b) 45

c) 50

d) 55

9. Before Queen Lili‘uokalani became queen she married to John O. Dominis. Where did they move when they were married?

a) ‘Iolani Palace

b) Washington Place

c) Hale Honua

d) Pu‘uhonua

10. This plant is a member of the ginger family, was used by Hawaiians in religious ceremonies as a purifying agent, and also used as a dye for kapa bark cloth, providing some of the most striking gold and yellow colors.

a) ‘Ilima

b) Ti

c) Noni

d) ‘Olena

11. What is the Hawaiian name for the wild boar?

a) Pua‘a

b) Pohaku

c) Puna

d) Pulo‘o

12. Kahiko is the older and more traditional form of hula. What does kahiko mean?

a) Graceful

b) Ancestor

c) Origin

d) Ancient

13. What is the name of the fern hair that was used as an absorbent for dressing wounds and for embalming the dead, and was also used to soak up medicinal preparations so the vapors could be breathed?

a) Puna

b) Anue

c) Pulu

d) Pohaku

14. How many petroglyphs are there at the Puakō petroglyph preserve?

a) Less than 300

b) About 1,000

c) About 2,000

d) Over 3,000

15. If something is said to have mana, it possesses:

a) Forbidden qualities

b) Spiritual or divine power

c) Water

d) Elements of creation

16. How long are the twin hulls of the Hōkūle‘a voyaging canoe, which was built by the Polynesian Voyaging Society to re-enact traditional voyages.

a) 42 feet

b) 52 feet

c) 62 feet

d) 72 feet

17. In hula, the lei po‘o is the lei that is worn:

a) Around the neck

b) Around the head

c) Around the ankles

d) Around wrists

18. Kamehameha II adopted a new constitution, providing for a legislature of 2 houses, nobles appointed by the king, and representatives appointed by the people. What year did this occur?

a) 1822

b) 1832

c) 1842

d) 1852

19. What is the name of the 2,077-line creation chant, translated by Queen Lili‘uokalani, which recounts the history of the Hawaiian Islands and its people?

a) Kumulipo

b) Kamehameha

c) Kupuna

d) Kumu Oli

20. If someone is clever, smart, or knowledgeable about a situation, they are said to be:

a) Malahini

b) Noni

c) Kaukau

d) Akamai

21. Which goddess was known as Na wahine ‘ai honua?

a) Hi‘aka

b) Pele

c) Poli‘ahu

d) Na Wahine

22. On Moloka‘i, what is on the small volcano called Lua Makika?

a) Petroglyph fields

b) Radio tower

c) Stone quarry

d) Telescope

23. Sacred to the hula goddess Laka, this plant was revered by Hawaiian royalty, and it is said that peace between warring chiefs would be officially established only when they had finished weaving it together.

a) Hala

b) Coconut

c) Wauke

d) Maile

24. Known as the “prince of Hawaiian plumage birds,” this bird was sought after for its bright yellow feathers which were used to make royal capes and other items of featherwork.

a) ‘O‘o

b) ‘O‘u

c) ‘I‘iwi

d) ‘Alalā

25. When this baby girl was born in 1838, she became hānai (adopted foster child) to the granddaughter of Kamehameha I.

a) Bernice Pauahi Bishop

b) Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha

c) Mililani Trask

d) Kaha‘anu‘u