Settlement - 1800


Ancient Polynesians

‘AumākuaSacred Guardians

Heiau and Kapu

Celestial Navigation

The First Hawaiians

Polynesian-Introduced Plants

Traditional Uses of Polynesian-Introduced Species

Traditional Uses of Native Hawaiian Species

‘ŌahiThe Fire-Throwing Ceremony

Medicinal PlantsThe Kahuna Lā‘au Lapa‘au

A Unique Hawaiian Culture

Kapa (Tapa) Barkcloth

Kamehameha’s First Major Battle

Captain Cook Establishes Western Contact

The Death of Captain Cook

The Rise of the Warrior Kamehameha

The Death of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai

Games, Rituals, and Celebrations

The Battle of Kepaniwai—Kamehameha Invades Maui

The Olowalu Massacre

The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade

Dedication of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau

George Vancouver Visits the Hawaiian Islands

The Battle of Nu‘uanu

Ancient Polynesians

The ancient Polynesians were master navigators who sailed their wa‘a kaulua (double-hulled voyaging canoes) to inhabit hundreds of Pacific islands over thousands of years before finally discovering the Hawaiian Islands. Using only the moon and sun as their clock and calendar, they were guided by the stars, winds, and flight patterns of birds.

The Polynesians were the first to reach the Hawaiian Islands, an isolated island group totaling less than 6,500 square miles (16,835 in the middle of an ocean covering more than 70 million square miles (181,300,000 million, nearly one-third of the Earth’s surface.

When Captain Cook and his crew established Western contact with the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, they found a friendly, self-sufficient and productive people with all the components of a highly developed culture. There was a fairly rigid caste structure, though the Hawaiians also maintained a system of communal subsistence based on the natural resources of wedge-shaped land divisions known as ahupua‘a. Resources were shared within these ahupua‘a, formed naturally by mountain ridges and ocean bays and extending from the high valley to the sea, including the offshore coral reefs. The ahupua‘a contains all of the different resources important for survival.

O kau aku, o ka ia la mai, pelā ka nohona o ka ‘ohana.

From you and from himso lived the family.

The farmer gave to the fisherman, the fisherman to the farmer.[i]

‘AumākuaSacred Guardians

The world of the ancient Hawaiians was rich with spiritual forces closely linked to the natural environment. Certain species were considered sacred ‘aumākua, guardian spirits that might be seen in visions or dreams.

This connection to the natural world and these spiritual beliefs continue today—the Hawaiian culture is a living culture, and the ancient philosophies still resonate in the daily lives of Hawaiians.

As personal or family gods, ‘aumākua may take on various physical manifestations, becoming incarnate in living animals that appear to warn or protect.

Some ‘aumākua are the ‘io (Hawaiian hawk), manō (shark), pueo (owl), honu (sea turtle), kōlea (golden plover), and hīnālea (wrasse), with different species being ‘aumākua to different families.

[Illustrations/photos of above species (hawk, shark, owl, sea turtle, plover, wrasse).]

Heiau and Kapu

Ancient Hawaiians built many heiau, sacred places of worship, including shrines to gods and places of refuge. Heiau structures included stone enclosures, platforms, and earthen terraces. A heiau might also include an ‘anu‘u, or oracle tower, covered with white kapa (tapa) barkcloth. Offerings and prayers were made to ‘aumākua, personal or family gods and sacred guardians that were considered protectors that should be respected and even fed.

The Tahitian high priest Pā‘ao arrived in the Islands sometime before A.D.1200, and initiated a new social order. The highest class was the mō‘ī (king, queen) and his/her ‘aha kuhina (chiefs and advisers). Next were the ali‘i (royalty), kāhuna (priests and experts in a given profession), maka‘āinana (commoners who were mostly farmers), and lastly the kauā (or kauwā) class, who were the lowest outcast members.

Pā‘ao also introduced kānāwai, a strict system of laws and regulations that determined if something was kapu (sacred or forbidden). Commoners fell prostrate to the ground in the presence of chiefs, who possessed more mana (divine power).

Before the arrival of Pā‘ao the Hawaiians had built various heiau, but Pā‘ao constructed the first luakini (temple of human sacrifice), honoring Kūkā‘ilimoku, the god of war. This luakini was known as Waha‘ula Heiau, located at Puna on Hawai‘i Island. Pā‘ao also introduced Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes.

Many other types of heiau were also built throughout the Islands: heiau ho‘oūlu insured good fishing; heiau ho‘oulu ua insured rain; and heiau ho‘oulu ‘ai brought an increase in food crops. Treatment of the sick was done at heiau hō‘ola, and the large number of these found throughout the Islands signified the Hawaiians’ advanced state of medicinal healing knowledge. Today one of the only surviving heiau hō‘ola is Keāiwa on ‘Aiea Heights.

Many heiau were dedicated to Lono, the god of agricultural fertility. Agricultural heiau were known as waihau or unu, where gifts such as pigs, bananas, or coconuts were offered. Fishermen often placed a kū‘ula (fish god) atop a stone altar located near the coast, while bird catchers in the mountains made their offerings at a ko‘a (stone platform).

The site of a heiau was chosen by a kahuna kuhikuhi pu‘uone (master architect) who valued a location for its mana, or spiritual power. Major heiau were usually constructed of lava rock walls built into a rectangular formation on the ground, or raised terrace platforms forming a more substantial structure.

Structures built within heiau utilized wood of the native ‘ōhi‘a lehua and cordage woven from olonā. Pili grass was used for thatching. Ki‘i (wooden carved figures representing gods) were carved from ‘ōhi‘a lehua and placed in and around the heiau.

[Photograph: Heiau]

The strict sanctions of the kapu system in ancient times ensured the separation of the classes, and prescribed much of the daily lives of the islanders. Kapu breakers and defeated warriors were subject to immediate death unless they could reach a pu‘uhonua, or place of refuge, where a priest could absolve them.

One such place was Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau on Hawai‘i Island’s South Kona coast, with a 1,000-foot (305-m) high, 10-foot (3-m) long stone wall. Now a National Historical Park, Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau encompasses ancient royal grounds and a reconstructed heiau and pu‘uhonua with carved images of ki‘i (ancient gods).

Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau also has a petroglyph site, a loko ‘ia (fishpond), lava tree molds, and a canoe that was hand-carved from koa. A heiau on the nearby coastal point holds the bones of 23 chiefs, and these bones are said to hold mana (spiritual power) that is imparted to those that come near.

Pu‘ukoholā Heiau overlooks the Pacific Ocean about 30 miles (48 km) north of Kailua-Kona on Hawai‘i Island. The rising warrior Kamehameha constructed this luakini heiau (sacrificial temple) as a result of a prophecy that the construction of the massive heiau would allow him to unite all of the Islands under his rule.

Kamehameha had thousands of his men work to construct the 224-foot (68-m) long, 100-foot (30-m) high structure of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau. A human chain 20 miles (32 km) long passed stones from hand-to-hand all the way to the site.

Also found at the Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site are the ruins of Mailekini Heiau, which was used by King Kamehameha‘s ancestors. Hale o Kapuni Heiau, dedicated to a shark god, is submerged offshore.

Many other heiau are found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands as well as on the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Necker Island, 310 miles (499 km) northwest of Ni‘ihau, was inhabited in ancient times and has the remains of an extensive heiau complex. The island was uninhabited when Captain Cook first established Western contact in 1778. (See Dedication of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, Chapter 12.)

Celestial Navigation

Seafaring Polynesians navigated the oceans guided only by the clues that nature provided, such as the positions and movements of the sun, moon, stars, and constellations as well as the flight patterns of birds and the prevailing winds and seas.

The Polynesians likely began their west-to-east journeys when westerly winds replaced the prevailing easterly trade winds. If the voyagers failed to find land, then they could wait for the trades to return and carry them home.

The Polynesians also used the star that Westerners call Polaris (also called the North Star) to determine the direction toward the Hawaiian Islands. The ancient navigators called this star Hōkūpa‘a (“Fixed Star”) because it is located due north and appears “fixed” in the sky.

The Earth spins to the east, so to an observer looking north, the star doesn’t change position, as do all the other stars in the sky. In the northern hemisphere, Hōkūpa‘a’s altitude is very close to the observer’s latitude, and in the Hawaiian Islands the latitude is between 18.5 and 22.5 degrees above the horizon.

The star called Hōkūle‘a (hōkū means “star”; le‘a means “happiness,” or “joy”) was also important to ancient Polynesians trying to navigate their wa‘a kaulua (double-hulled voyaging canoes) to the Hawaiian Islands. The name Hōkūle‘a refers to the star that Westerners call Arcturus.

Voyagers sailing to the Hawaiian Islands from the Marquesas or Tahiti needed to determine how far north to sail. They knew that at the latitude of Hawai‘i Island, the star Hōkūle‘a would be directly overhead (a zenith star). At the high point of its nightly arc across the sky, Hōkūle‘a points the way to the Hawaiian Islands.

The Polynesian voyagers utilized many different types of navigational clues. For example, they knew that clouds tend to pile up over islands, revealing land in the distance. Land also reflects light, and so the color of the sky may reveal an island’s location. Even phosphorescence on the water at night is said to have helped guide the ancient navigators.

The Polynesian voyagers also relied on their knowledge of the daily and seasonal cycles of birds. Migratory birds such as the kōlea (Pacific golden plover) and the ‘akē‘akē (ruddy turnstone) winter on Central Pacific islands and then head back to their arctic breeding grounds in April or May. Sighting these species revealed to the Polynesian mariners that somewhere to the north or northeast there was land.

The flight directions of pelagic (oceanic) birds were also helpful, including ‘ua‘u (petrels), ‘ua‘u kani (shearwaters) and mōlī (albatross). These pelagic birds spend most of their time over the ocean seeking fish, squid, and crustaceans and then return to land during the nesting season.

Non-pelagic birds such as ‘a (boobies), noio (terns) and koa‘e (tropicbirds) all feed over the sea by day but return each night to their island homes. Navigators watched for these species at dusk because sighting them meant land was near at hand. During their open ocean journeys, the navigators also looked for birds congregating over feeding areas, as this revealed locations where fishing would be productive.

I wawā no ka noio, he i‘a ko lalo.

When the noio make a din, there are fish below.

When the people gossip, there is a cause.[ii]

The First Hawaiians

Polynesians sailed double-hulled voyaging canoes to the Hawaiian Islands, bringing pua‘a (pigs), moa (chickens), ‘īlio (dogs), and more than two dozen species of plants for food, clothing, and tools. In addition to these Polynesian-introduced species, they also utilized native plants from the mountains to the sea.

Specific parts of the plants used included the bark, leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, wood, sap (resin), flower pollen, and flower bracts. [Note: A bract is “a specialized leaf from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; the leaf of an inflorescence.”[iii]]

Plants were used extensively to create food products, lei, dyes, scents, containers, tools, weapons, musical instruments, canoes, hale (houses), and heiau (sacred places of worship). Many plants also had extensive ritual and ceremonial uses.

One of the most important plants brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians was kalo (taro), which they pounded into poi, a staple of their diet. They grew the taro in rock-terraced fields with networks of irrigation channels. Taro was cultivated extensively in lowland areas where the lo‘i kalo (taro patches) complemented the Hawaiians’ extremely productive and well-stocked loko i‘a (saltwater fishponds).

A Hawaiian saying states: “‘Ono kāhi ‘ao lū‘au me ke aloha pū” (“A little taro green is delicious when love is present.”), which is explained to mean, “Even the plainest fare is delicious when there is love.”[iv]

[Illustration: Lo‘i kalo (taro patch)]

The settlers also caught fish from the coral reefs and deeper ocean waters, and ate honu (turtles), and shellfish. Along the shoreline and in the shallow ocean waters Hawaiians gathered limu (seaweed) that provided essential vitamins and minerals as well as spicy flavors. Limu was often mixed with pa‘akai (sea salt), another natural resource gathered from ponds along the coast.

Varieties of limu also had spiritual and ceremonial uses. Limu kala was worn as a lei to bring healing, and used in ho‘oponopono, an ancient cultural process that involves offering and receiving forgiveness.

Polynesian-Introduced Plants



Alocasia macrorrhizos


Tephrosia purpurea



Piper methysticum

‘Awapuhi Kuahiwi

Shampoo Ginger

Zingiber zerumbet


Bottle Gourd

Lagenaria siceraria



Colocasia esculenta


Alexandrian Laurel

Calophyllum inophyllum


Cordyline fruticosa


Saccharum officinarum



Aleurites moluccana


Native Plantain

Plantago species


Banana Plant

Musa species


Portia Tree

Thespesia populnea


Coconut Palms

Cocos nucifera


Indian Mulberry

Morinda citrifolia



Schizostachyum glaucifolium

‘Ōhi‘a ‘Ai

Mountain Apple

Eugenia malaccense



Curcuma longa


Polynesian Arrowroot

Tacca leontopetaloides


Sweet Potato

Ipomoea batatas



Dioscorea alata



Dioscorea pentaphylla (discussed under Uhi)



Dioscorea bulbifera (discussed under Uhi)



Artocarpus altilis


Paper Mulberry

Broussonetia papyrifera

* Though niu (Cocos nucifera, coconut palm) is considered a Polynesian introduction, there is a chance that it also may be native to the Hawaiian Islands, as the seeds are very durable in ocean water for many months.

Some plants that are currently considered Polynesian introductions may later, upon further scientific evidence, turn out to be native to the Hawaiian Islands.

[Note: Though niu (Cocos nucifera, coconut palm) is considered a Polynesian introduction, there is a chance that it also may be native to the Hawaiian Islands, as the seeds are very durable in ocean water for many months. Some plants that are currently considered Polynesian introductions may later, upon further scientific evidence, turn out to be native to the Hawaiian Islands.]

Traditional Uses of Polynesian-Introduced Species

The Polynesian setters of the Hawaiian Islands brought pua‘a (pigs), moa (chickens), and ‘īlio (dogs) to the Hawaiian Islands on their voyaging canoes. They also brought dozens of species of useful plants.

Tall niu (coconut palms) were a source of food and provided material for cordage as well as for musical instruments such as the pahu (drum). Growing near the lo‘i kalo (taro patches) was pia, the Polynesian arrowroot. Pia’s starchy tubers were mixed with shredded niu (coconut), wrapped in (ti) leaves and baked in an imu (underground earthen oven) to make the tasty treat known as haupia.

The pudding-like mix known as kūlolo was made with kalo (taro) corms, niu (coconut), and (sugarcane) wrapped in (ti) leaves and baked in an imu.

Dozens of varieties of ‘uala (sweet potatoes) were cultivated, as were uhi (yams). (sugarcane) and mai‘a (bananas) were grown near dwellings. Bananas were also grown in upland areas and at the forest’s edge along with groves of ‘uala (breadfruit trees).

Almost all of the species brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesian settlers eventually became naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands, growing without the aid of human cultivation.

Two important Polynesian-introduced species that did not become naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands are ‘uala (Artocarpus altilis, breadfruit) and ipu (Lagenaria siceraria, bottle gourd).

The wood of the breadfruit tree was fashioned into papa ku‘i ‘ai (poi-pounding boards), papa he‘e nalu (surfboards), and large drums, while the tree’s leaves, bracts and flower clusters were used as a fine sandpaper to polish wooden bowls as well as to polish kukui nuts that were strung into lei.

Kukui were strung together and burned to provide the primary source of light in ancient Hawai‘i, while the tree’s blossoms and leaves were used to make lei, as were leaves of (ti) and blossoms of (sugarcane). Calabashes (bowls) for poi and other foods were made primarily from kamani trees and from the red-grained milo, as well as from the wood of kou. [Note: Kou was long considered to be a Polynesian introduction but is now classified as indigenous. The native koa was also used to make calabashes (bowls) for holding certain items, however not for food, since the tannic acid in koa wood imparts an unpleasant taste to food.]

Another Polynesian-introduced plant widely used in ancient Hawai‘i was ipu, the bottle gourd. Ipu were used as containers for food and other items, and were also made into musical instruments such as the pā ipu (double gourd drum), found only in the Hawaiian Islands.

Many Polynesian-introduced plants had important ceremonial uses in ancient Hawai‘i. Mai‘a (bananas) and kalo (taro) were used as offerings at loko i‘a (fishponds). Noni (Indian mulberry), ‘ōhi‘a ‘ai (mountain apple), and ‘awa (kava) were part of many medicinal preparations.

Note on Polynesian-Introduced Species:

The precise number of plants brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the early Polynesian settlers remains uncertain, and likely includes several species that were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians, and were already native (indigenous) to the Hawaiian Islands. These species include: hala (Pandanus tectorius, screwpine), hau (Talipariti tiliaceum), and kou (Cordia subcordata).

The 25 Polynesian-introduced species listed include 24 species shown quite conclusively by research to be Polynesian introductions, along with ‘ohe (Schizostachyum glaucifolium, bamboo), which is probably a Polynesian introduction, though its status is still questionable. Kou (Cordia subcordata), long thought to be a Polynesian introduction (and not native to the Hawaiian Islands) was recently determined to be native.

Hala (Pandanus tectorius, screwpine) was also thought to have been a Polynesian-introduced species (and not native to the Hawaiian Islands) until hala fossils dated to more than one million years ago were discovered along Kaua‘i’s north shore. This find proved quite conclusively that hala is indeed a native Hawaiian plant.

Species that are generally considered indigenous in the Hawaiian Islands, but which may be Polynesian-introduced, include: pā‘ihi (Rorippa sarmentosa), pili (Heteropogon contortus, twisted beardgrass), and ‘uhaloa (Waltheria indica).

Various other Polynesian-introduced species were also brought unintentionally. Following is a summary of all species known to be introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by the early Polynesian settlers, as well as other species that may have been brought to the Hawaiian Islands, intentionally or unintentionally, by Polynesian settlers previous to Western contact in 1778.

Intentional Polynesian introductions include: pua‘a (Sus scrofa, pigs); moa (Gallus g. gallus, chickens); ‘īlio (Canis familiaris, dogs); and at least 24 (and probably more than 26) plant species.

Unintentional Polynesian introductions include:

Geckos (Gekkonidae): Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnotii); mourning gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris); stump-toed gecko (Gehyra mutilata); tree gecko (Hemiphyllodactylus typus).

Skinks (Scincidae): azure-tailed skink (Emoia impar); moth skink (Lipinia noctua noctua); snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus poecilopleurus).

Plants (possibly Polynesian-introduced; some of these plant species may be indigenous Hawaiian species, but have been noted as potential Polynesian introductions.): kāmole (Ludwigia octivalvis, primrose willow); ‘ihi ‘ai (Oxalis corniculata, yellow wood sorrel); kūkaepua‘a (Digitaria setigera); koali kua hulu (Merremia aegyptia, hairy merremia); neke (Cyclosorus interruptus, formerly Thelypteris interrupta, maiden fern); Paspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass, no known Hawaiian name).

Snails (Lamellaxis gracilis; Lamellidea oblonga; Gastrocopta pediculus.)

Other (unintentional) Polynesian-introduced species include: Polynesian black rat (Rattus exulans); ectoparasites; Laelaps hawaiiensis, and others (carried on rats).

Based on Kirch, Patrick V. (Citing Cooke 1926; Cooke and Kondo 1960; Pilsbry 1916-1918; Solem 1959.) The Impact of the Prehistoric Polynesians on the Hawaiian Ecosystem. Pacific Science, Vol.36, No.1, January, 1982.

In addition, freshwater clams (Pisidium casertanum; Musculium partumeium) found in ancient taro ponds may have been transported on taro stock brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Polynesian settlers. (Evenhuis, Neal L., and Eldredge, Lucius G., Editors. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, Number 68, 69. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 3/25/2002.).

The early Polynesian settlers brought many other species to Hawai’i besides plants. Some of these other species were brought intentionally for use as food sources, but other species were brought unintentionally, coming as stowaways on the Polynesians’ voyaging canoes and then establishing breeding populations in the Hawaiian Islands.

The geckos and the skinks listed above are presumed to have arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in this manner (as stowaways on the voyaging canoes), but there remains a possibility that some of these lizard species may instead have arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on their own (e.g., floating to the Hawaiian Islands on rafts of debris), and thus are native to the Hawaiian Islands.]


Traditional Uses of Native Hawaiian Species 

Polynesian-introduced species were very useful in ancient Hawaiian culture, but they numbered only in the dozens, compared to thousands of native Hawaiian species. Many of native Hawaiian species are endemic (unique) to the Hawaiian Islands, and the use of these endemic resources contributed greatly to the unique Hawaiian culture that evolved in the isolated archipelago.

The yellowish wood of ‘ahakea was made into papa ku‘i ‘ai (poi-pounding boards) as was the reddish wood of ‘ōhi‘a lehua, which was also used to make ‘umeke (bowls), ihe (spears), kū‘au (mallets), and ki‘i (carved images of sacred temple gods). The red-brown wood of lama was made into fish traps, while fishhooks were made from the hardwood olopua. Ihe (spears) and pou (house posts), were made from olopua, ‘a‘ali‘i, naio, and ‘ōhi‘a lehua. Houses were often thatched with pili grass, particularly in the warmer and dryer areas. The majestic koa tree was fashioned into large, twin-hulled canoes and also used to make jewelry, weapons, and wooden carvings.

Maile leaves were woven into lei, and used in hula along with various mountain ferns such as palapalai and pala‘ā. Native blossoms woven into lei came from ‘ōhi‘a lehua, māmane, hala pepe, ‘ohai, ‘āwikiwiki, kou, and nānū (native gardenia). Another traditional lei flower was nuku ‘i‘iwi, notable for its long, curved blossoms that evolved to fit perfectly with the long beaks of honeycreeper birds. ‘Ilima growing near the sea provided orange flowers for the beautiful ‘ilima lei that were reserved for ali‘i (Hawaiian royalty).

[Photograph: Nuku ‘I‘iwi]

Leaves for lei were gathered from various native species including ‘ōhelo, ‘ōlapa, pūkiawe, ‘ōhi‘a lehua ‘a‘ali‘i and pa‘iniu (native lily). Lei were also made with the berries of the native ‘ākia, ‘ōhelo, ‘ūlei, and kūkaenēnē, and the seeds of the native kāmakahala, ‘ōhi‘a lehua and ‘a‘ali‘i. Also strung into lei were the fragrant seed capsules (“berries”) of Kaua‘i’s endemic mokihana.

The native hāpu‘u and ‘ama‘u tree ferns were valued for their pulu, the silky hair growing at the base of the young fronds. Pulu was used as an absorbent for dressing wounds, and for embalming the dead.

[Note: When embalming the dead, the brain, tongue, and body organs were removed from the deceased and the spaces were filled tightly with pulu, which absorbed the body fluids.

The body openings were then sewed shut. A body preserved in this way was known as i‘aloa, which means, “long fish.” Bodies embalmed with pulu could remain preserved for up to several months.]

The tree ferns were also valued for the edible, starchy pith in their trunks, which was cooked in an imu (underground earthen oven) and eaten. Also cooked and eaten were the starchy bases of the stems of the now rare pala fern, which had medicinal and ceremonial uses.

The young fronds and roots of the kikawaiō fern were eaten raw, as were the pepe‘e (young coiled fronds) of the hō‘i‘ō fern, often eaten with ‘ōpae (mountain shrimp) and poi.

Ka i‘a ho‘opumehana i ka weuweu.

The fish that warms the clumps of grass.

Mountain shrimp, which cling to weeds and grasses along the banks of streams when a cloudburst occurs in the upland. Unlike the ‘o‘opu, they are not washed down to the lowland.[v]

The uluhe fern was used to make a medicinal tea. The fern ally moa and the tropical club moss wāwae‘iole were consumed for medicinal purposes and also used in lei. The bracts (specialized leaves) of the hīnano (flower cluster of the male hala tree) were woven into the finest of the ancient mats, known as moena hīnano, used only by ali‘i (chiefs and royalty) and kāhuna (priests and experts in a given profession).

Kohekohe was used as offerings at loko i‘a (fishponds). Leaves of hala (lau hala) were woven into baskets, floor mats and sails for voyaging canoes. Hala fruitlets were woven into a lei symbolizing the passing of the old year and the beginning of a new year, and worn during the ancient harvest festival known as Makahiki.

The inner bark of hau and olonā provided fibers used to make the strong cordage for canoe lashings as well as fishnets, which were also made from the native sedge ‘ahu‘awa. Hau was rapidly rotated against the harder olomea to start fires using friction.

The tough ‘ie‘ie vine, which grows mostly in wet areas, was woven into fish traps and fine baskets, and used for the base of mahiole (feather-crested helmets). The buoyant wood of wiliwili was made into papa he‘e nalu (surfboards) as well as ama (canoe outriggers) and fishnet floats.

The broad, wedge-shaped leaves of loulu, the native fan palm, were used to provide protection from the rain and sun (loulu means “umbrella”). Loulu was also used for plaiting (interlacing strips of leaf material), particularly for the construction of heiau (sacred places of worship and refuge). Other plants used for plaiting included lau hala, makaloa and ‘aka‘akai.

Edible native berries eaten by the ancient Hawaiians included pōpolo, ‘ūlei, ‘ōhelo, naupaka kahakai and ‘ākala, the Hawaiian raspberry. The fruit of the native lama tree was also eaten. Hala fruit was eaten during times of food scarcity.

[Illustration: Uses of native plants]

‘ŌahiThe Fire-Throwing Ceremony

In the ancient ‘ōahi (fire throwing) ceremony, flaming logs of pāpala and hau were hurled into the strong seaward winds blowing off the sea cliffs of northwestern Kaua‘i. The fiery wood showered sparks over the ocean waters as people in canoes beneath the cliffs attempted to catch the burning embers, sometimes tattooing themselves with the fiery logs to commemorate the event.

A saying from ancient times states: “Pulelo ke ahi ha‘aheo i na pali” (“The firebrand soars proudly over the cliffs.”), which is said as “an expression of triumph. Referring to the firebrand hurling of Kaua‘i, or to the glow of volcanic fire on Hawai‘i.”[vi]

[Illustration: Fire-throwing ceremony]

Medicinal Plants—The Kahuna Lā‘au Lapa‘au

Cultural knowledge in ancient Hawai‘i was passed on through apprenticeships, including training by kāhuna (priests and experts in particular professions).

The kahuna lā‘au lapa‘au was an herbalist and healer trained from an early age to identify, prepare and administer medicinal treatments made from the natural resources of the Hawaiian Islands.

Nānā no a ka lā‘au ku ho‘okāhi.

Look for the plant that stands alone.

Often said by those seeking strong medicinal herbs. A plant that stood by itself was considered better for medicine than one that grew close

to others of its kind.[vii]

The kahuna lā‘au lapa‘au had an extensive botanical, pharmacological and medicinal knowledge of more than 300 plants and ferns (both native and Polynesian-introduced) as well as at least 29 animals (mostly marine creatures) and about twelve minerals, including pālolo (clay), ‘alaea (red ocherous earth) and pa‘akai (sea salt). These ingredients were prepared in a variety of ways and utilized to create a multitude of medicinal treatments.

The kahuna lā‘au lapa‘au followed many rituals during the gathering of medicinal materials, as well as during the preparation and administration of treatments.

If the afflicted person was a female, prayers were offered to the goddess Hina. The god Kū was prayed to if the patient was male. Prayers were also offered to gods associated with particular plants. For example, when gathering the important medicinal plant pōpolo a prayer was offered to the god Kāne, as pōpolo is considered an embodiment of Kāne.

At the conclusion of the medicinal treatment, a small piece of food was eaten. This was considered a closing (pani) and the food eaten was often from a marine species with a similar sounding name to the land plant that had been used in the medicinal treatment. This twinning of plants is detailed in the Kumulipo,[viii] the Hawaiian creation myth in which many land and sea species are paired.

A Hawaiian proverb states: “E ‘imi i ke ola mawaho.” (“Seek life outside.”) which is explained to mean, “Consult a kahuna to see what is causing the delay in healing. Said when a person lies sick, and recovery is slow.”[ix]

[Illustration: Hawaiian forest scene, understory of ferns, etc.]

A Unique Hawaiian Culture

From the time the ancient Polynesians first discovered and settled the remote Hawaiian archipelago, created an amazingly rich and complex Pacific island culture unlike any other. The unique Hawaiian language that evolved among the isolated islanders is still considered among the most fluid and melodic of any language known.

Of all the Pacific cultures, the Hawaiians were the only ones to construct and maintain shoreline loko i‘a (saltwater fishponds) where pua ‘ama‘ama (mullet) and pua awa (milkfish) entered through mākāhā (sluice gates), and then were raised and eaten when needed.

The sticky sap of pāpala kēpau was used to catch native forest birds whose plumage was woven into colorful ‘ahu ‘ula (feathered capes and cloaks). Mahiole (feather-crested helmets) made with the aerial root of the ‘ie‘ie vine and adorned with colorful bird feathers were found nowhere else in Polynesia. These elaborate and magnificently-crafted featherwork items were unmatched anywhere, and were preserved with hīnano, the inflorescence (flower cluster) of the male hala tree.

Also woven from the ‘ie‘ie vine were a great variety of twined baskets considered the finest in all of ancient Polynesia, a distinction also given to the moena pāwehe (sleeping mats) woven from the native sedge makaloa. Some forms of Hawaiian ki‘i pōhaku (petroglyphs), including certain muscled figure petroglyphs, are found nowhere except the Hawaiian Islands.

Riding waves on a surfboard was likely first done in the Society Islands, including Tahiti, but it was in the Hawaiian Islands that he‘e nalu (surfing) really took hold. The first papa he‘e nalu (surfboards) used by Hawaiians were up to 18 feet (5.5 m) long. The surfboards were carved from the buoyant wood of wiliwili (Hawaiian coral tree), ‘ulu (breadfruit tree), or koa, and weighed up to 175 pounds.

The early Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands also created many artistically decorated bowls and containers, and developed an innovative new method of carrying the containers using a continuous unknotted cord. No other Pacific culture produced such large ipu (bottle gourds), and this was a testament to ancient Hawaiians’ horticultural skills. The pā ipu (double-gourd drum) and the pūniu (coconut knee drum) were found nowhere else in Polynesia.

The culture that evolved among the ancient Hawaiians was in many ways different than anywhere else in the world. The uniqueness of the Hawaiian culture was in large part due to the variety of unique resources (e.g., endemic species) available to the ancient settlers who first landed on Hawaiian shores.

Ua lehulehu a manomano ka ‘ikena a ka Hawai‘i.

Great and numerous is the knowledge of the Hawaiians.[x]

Kapa (Tapa) Barkcloth

The Polynesians produced the finest kapa (tapa) barkcloth in ancient times, and the Hawaiians produced the finest kapa in all of Polynesia. Hawaiian kapa had the greatest variety of design and texture, and was made with a fermentation process and second beating that produced a homogenous quality generally free of defects, resulting in a barkcloth superior to kapa made in other locales.

The primary source of fibers for making kapa was the Polynesian-introduced wauke (paper mulberry tree). The long inner bark fibers of māmaki were another source of material for cordage and for making kapa. Kapa beaters (hoahoa and i‘e kuku ho‘ōki) and kapa-beating anvils (kua kuku) were made from numerous native trees, including kāwa‘u, koai‘e, uhiuhi, ‘ōhi‘a lehua, nīoi, kauila and pūkiawe.

Kapa was used to produce dozens of different products integral to early Hawaiian culture, including a great variety of fine clothing items such as long pā‘ū dresses and malo loincloths.

Kapa items were colored and scented with dyes and fragrances derived from native and Polynesian-introduced plants, and often stamped with intricate geometric designs found nowhere else in Polynesia. Sap of ‘ulu (breadfruit) was sometimes painted onto kapa to give it a shiny appearance.

Plant materials used to scent kapa included maile, powdered ‘iliahi (sandalwood), and hīnano, the inflorescence (flower cluster) of the male hala tree. The flowers of kamani, valued for their pleasant orange-blossom fragrance, were also used to scent kapa. Dyes for kapa were made from a multitude of native and Polynesian-introduced species, and included the beautiful golden colors of ‘ōlena.

A kapa moe (sleep covering) might consist of several layers of kapa sewn together, with the kilohana (upper layer) often beautifully decorated. Pā‘ū (women’s wrap-around skirts), were made of kapa and could be up to ten layers thick. The malo (loin cloth) worn by males was often stamped with two different designs, and then folded lengthwise so that both designs showed.

[Illustration/photo: Kapa (tapa) items ]

A pūlo‘ulo‘u (kapa-covered stick) was carried in front of chiefs to signal their kapu (sacred) status, and a puela (triangular kapa strip) was displayed on canoes. The silky pulu (wooly hairs) found on hapu‘u (tree ferns) were used to embalm the deceased ali‘i (royalty) whose bones were preserved by wrapping them in kapa and placing them in a remote hidden cave or heiau (sacred place of worship).

The mashed fruit of the Polynesian-introduced noni (Indian mulberry) was used as a poultice by binding it to the wound with kapa.

Modern attempts to replicate traditional kapa-making techniques have only approximated the high quality kapa produced by the ancient Hawaiians. Rediscovering the traditional methods has given modern crafters a renewed appreciation for this ancient art.

[Photographs: Kapa barkcloth with geometric designs; pā‘ū; malo]

Kamehameha’s First Major Battle

In 1775, warriors of Hawai‘i Island ruler Kalani‘ōpu‘u battled the warriors of Maui’s ruler, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Angered by the recent slaughter of his people at Kaupō, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] raised an army led by the famous warrior Kāne‘ōlaelae, and ordered his forces to avenge the attack on his people at Kaupō.

A heated battle took place at Kaupō between the warriors of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], and this became known as the Battle of Kalaeoka‘īlio (“The cape of the dog”). Kekūhaupi‘o showed fearless bravery in this battle, and when he was suddenly surrounded my Maui warriors he was rescued by the young warrior chief Kamehameha.

Despite the valiant fighting of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s forces, they were outnumbered and had to flee the battlefield, and the Maui warriors were victorious. Many Hawai‘i Island warriors died in this battle. Those who survived returned to Hawai‘i Island where Kalani‘ōpu‘u again prepared to avenge his defeat by Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

The young warrior Kamehameha was displeased at having been ordered to attack the Kaupō people, and told Kalani‘ōpu‘u that such cowardly acts of war would not be supported by the war god.

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] was informed of the valiant fighting of the two warriors Kamehameha and Kekūhaupi‘o, and he mentioned to some of his chiefs that perhaps this brave warrior Kamehameha was his son.

(Note: Though the father of King Kamehameha is usually listed as Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui], many think Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is indeed the true biological father because Kamehameha’s mother Keku‘iapoiwa had visited Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] before the young ali‘i Pai‘ea Kamehameha was born.)

Kalani‘ōpu‘u then ordered his most proficient fighters, the 800 warriors of the Chiefly Army of Keawe, to move inland to Wailuku toward the plain of Kama‘oma‘o. There they would confront the Maui warriors of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] who were also supported by the O‘ahu warriors of Kahāhana.

The Maui and O‘ahu warriors hid at the sand dunes of Waikapū and nearby at a spot seaward of Wailuku, awaiting the arrival of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s forces, who were soon surrounded.

All of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s Chiefly Army was slain except for two messengers who were left alive so they could bring the news of the slaughter to Kalani‘ōpu‘u. This battle came to be known as ‘Ālapa and Pi‘ipi‘i Heaped Up at Kakanilua, or Battle of the Sand Dunes.

Captain Cook Establishes Western Contact

Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colón) reached the New World in 1492, Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) of Spain sailed across the Pacific Ocean in 1519, and French, English, and Dutch ships undertook many voyages of discovery through the early 1700s, yet Westerners still had not found the Hawaiian Islands.

Magellan died during the voyage, but his ship and crew continued on and circumnavigated the globe, completing the journey in 1522. It would take 256 more years before British Captain James Cook finally established the first documented Western contact with the Hawaiian Islands in 1778. (There are undocumented accounts of Spanish galleons reaching the Hawaiian Islands before 1778.)

The crews of Cook’s two ships, the HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, first sighted O‘ahu and Kaua‘i in the dawn hours of January 18, 1778. Weather and ocean conditions kept Cook’s ships far offshore until the next day, by which time they had also sighted the island of Ni‘ihau.

When Cook’s ships approached Kaua‘i’s southeast coast on the afternoon of January 19, natives in canoes paddled out to meet them. The Hawaiians traded fish and sweet potatoes for pieces of iron and brass, which were lowered down from the larger ships to the Hawaiians’ canoes—and so began Western contact with the Hawaiian people.

Cook’s ships remained offshore sailing along Kaua‘i’s southeast coast. On the morning of January 20, Cook allowed a few Hawaiians to come on board before he continued on in search of safe anchorage.

On the afternoon of January 20, 1778 Cook anchored his ships near the mouth of the Waimea River on Kaua‘i’s southwest coast. Cook and twelve armed marines boarded three small boats and went ashore for the first time.

As Cook and his men stepped onto land, hundreds of Hawaiians greeted them and offered various gifts including kapa (tapa) barkcloth, pua‘a (pigs), and mai‘a (bananas). Cook went ashore three times the next day, walking inland where he saw Hawaiian hale (houses), heiau (sacred places of worship), and agricultural sites.

Cook’s crew estimated the total population of the eight main Hawaiian Islands to be around 400,000, with about 30,000 people living on Kaua‘i. (Note: Pre-contact population estimates vary from less than 300,000 to more than 700,000.)

Captain Cook named the islands “The Sandwich Islands” in honor of his patron, the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich.

The Death of Captain Cook

British Captain James Cook returned to the Hawaiian Islands one year after first establishing Western contact in 1778. After leaving the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, Cook had journeyed north in search of the elusive (because it was non-existent) “Northwest Passage,” a northwest route from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. On January 17, 1779, Cook sailed into Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island to restock his ships and prepare for further exploration.

[Illustration: Map of Cook’s route to Hawaiian Islands in 1778, and then north, returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1779.]

Cook was unaware that he was visiting the Islands during the ancient Hawaiian harvest festival known as Makahiki, which began with the first appearance of the crescent moon following the new moon after the appearance of the constellation Makali‘i (Pleiades) rising in the east after sunset (around the middle of October), and lasting several months.

During the Makahiki, time was taken away from work for feasts, sports games, and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility.

When Cook arrived on Hawai‘i Island during the Makahiki festival, he was greeted by processions and celebrations unlike any he had encountered before.

Many historians state that Cook was received as the god Lono, fulfilling Hawaiian beliefs that Lono had long ago departed from Kealakekua Bay, promising to return. Others disagree, and accounts vary on whether Cook was indeed thought by the natives to be the god Lono. It is clear, however, that the Hawaiians gave preferential treatment to Cook.

Cook was brought to Hikiau Heiau, a sacred temple where kāhuna (native priests) put sacred red kapa cloth on him and offered sacred chants.

Cook left Kealakekua Bay on February 4, 1779 to survey the other Hawaiian Islands, but when a foremast of the HMS Resolution broke, Cook and his men returned to Kealakekua Bay. When one of Cook’s boats (a cutter, the Discovery’s largest boat) was stolen, he went ashore with nine of his men to retrieve the boat.

Cook planned to find the ruler of the island, Kalani‘ōpu‘u, and take him hostage in order to demand the return of the boat for the return of the chief.

On February 14, 1779, Cook and his men awakened Kalani‘ōpu‘u and compelled him to come to the ship. Meanwhile, members of Cook’s crew had blockaded the harbor so no one could escape.

When a canoe attempted to pass the blockade, Cook’s crew fired on the natives, killing a chief. Learning that one of their chiefs had been killed, the natives gathered in a large crowd near shore just as Cook’s group reached shore to take their small boat out to the main ship.

During a violent encounter with the native Hawaiians on the shore, Cook and his men fired upon the natives. When Cook’s men paused to reload they were attacked. Cook yelled for his men to “...take to the boats!,” but it was too late—Cook was stabbed in the neck and killed, and floated face down in the water.

At least four of Cook’s men were also killed. The rest of Cook’s group escaped, retreating to the main ship and leaving Cook behind along with the other members of his crew that had been killed.

Four marines and an unknown number of native Hawaiians died in the fighting during the following days as hostilities escalated. A stalemate existed over the return of Cook’s remains, which had been taken inland.

Eventually a procession of Hawaiians bearing white flags and beating drums returned Cook’s remains wrapped in kapa (tapa) barkcloth and covered by a feather cloak. Within the kapa, however, were only some of Cook’s remains, while the rest remained in the possession of native chiefs.

Cook’s hands and feet had been preserved with pa‘akai (sea salt), and the rest of his flesh had been stripped from his bones and burned. (Note: Historians have noted that this stripping and burning of flesh was normally reserved for ali‘i nui (high chiefs)).

Cook’s crew then held a naval burial service. The ship’s cannons were fired in salute, and Cook’s remains were lowered into Kealakekua Bay. Pressure from the British government eventually resulted in Cook’s remains being returned to his homeland.

[Photograph: HMS Discovery or HMS Resolution]

The Rise of the Warrior Kamehameha

When Hawai‘i Island ruler Kalani‘ōpu‘u met with his chiefs in 1780, he informed them that after he died his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], would be the new ruler, and his son Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] would get land. Kamehameha (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s nephew) would become chief of Kohala on land that was Kamehameha’s by inheritance, and Kamehameha would be given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku, along with the responsibility of caring for the heiau (sacred places of worship) associated with the war god.

Afterward, Kalani‘ōpu‘u captured an enemy chief of Puna named ‘Īmakakoloa [Imakaloa] for a human sacrifice ceremony to consolidate his chiefdom. ‘Īmakakoloa was taken to the Ka‘ū luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed) called Hālauwilua in Kamā‘oa in the ahupua‘a of Pākini, which was built by Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

When Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], initiated the sacrificial ceremony, Kamehameha boldly stepped in and finished the ritual, placing ‘Īmakakoloa on the altar.

This action by Kamehameha caused controversy and led to a rift between Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Kamehameha, who then returned to Kohala.

Kalani‘ōpu‘u died in April of 1782, and Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] brought the deceased ruler’s bones to Hale-o-Keawe, the Royal Mausoleum at Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau in Kona on Hawai‘i Island.

As specified by Kalani‘ōpu‘u before his death, his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], became the new ruler of Hawai‘i Island, and his other son, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], was given land. Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s nephew, Kamehameha, was given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku, and also became chief of Kohala on Hawai‘i Island.

Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] then redivided the lands of Hawai‘i Island. Chief counselor for Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at this time was Keawemauhili,[xi] who was given large portions of Kona and Hilo.

Keawemauhili was the grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his father’s side, and great grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his mother’s side. His name reflects this lineage, and means “Keawe of the double twist,” a reference to the genealogical connection to Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on both sides of the family.

Kamehameha and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] were both slighted by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]’s redivision of lands, which took away from Kamehameha and the Kona chiefs lands that were formerly under their rule.

The redivision of lands on Hawai‘i Island by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] angered many important Kona chiefs. When Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] attempted to take control of disputed lands, this caused Kamehameha to unite with the chiefs of Kona, and he soon became their leader.

Loyal to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] were chiefs of Ka‘ū, Puna, and Hilo, including Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother, Keawemauhili.

Kona chiefs aligned with Kamehameha:

· Kalua‘apana Keaweāheulu—Kamehameha’s uncle.

· Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe—Ka‘ahumanu’s father.

· Kekūhaupi‘o—Warrior teacher of Kamehameha.

· Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū]—Son of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kamakaeheikuli; half-brother of Kamehameha.

· Kawelo‘okalani—Half-brother of Kamehameha.

· Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani], the brother of Kamehameha.

· Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa—Sacred royal twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike], the sons of Keawepoepoe and Kanoena (Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa are depicted on the State of Hawai‘i’s official coat of arms).

Chiefs aligned against Kamehameha:

· Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]—Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s oldest son, and heir to his rule of Hawai‘i Island.

· Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula— Younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū.

· Keawemauhili—Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother.

The Death of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli

at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai

In 1782, the Battle of Moku‘ōhai was fought in Ke‘ei, Kona. The young warrior Kamehameha led his warriors to victory, and the chief Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was killed.

When Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] died he was wearing an ‘ahu ‘ula (feathered cloak), which then became the property of Kamehameha. (Note: This feathered cloak is now in the collection of the Bishop Museum.)

One account states that an injured Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe crawled to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], who also had been injured, and then Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe slit the neck of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] with a leiomano (shark-tooth weapon).

(Note: Accounts differ on the sequence of events leading to the death of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai. Another version holds that Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was stabbed to death, or killed by stones.)

After Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was killed, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] fled to Ka‘ū and Keawemauhili was captured, but then was allowed to escape, presumably because of his high rank. After the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, Hawai‘i Island was divided into three chiefdoms:

· Keawemauhili ruled Hilo and a portion of Puna and Hāmākua.

· Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula ruled Ka‘ū and part of Puna.

· Kamehameha ruled Kona, Kohala, and northern Hāmākua.

Kamehameha then campaigned for nearly a decade to control the rest of Hawai‘i Island. Kamehameha’s two opponents were: Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū) and Keawemauhili (Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother). Kamehameha also began a military campaign to conquer other Hawaiian Islands.

Games, Rituals, and Celebrations

Ancient Hawaiians enjoyed a great variety of pā‘ani (sports and games), many of which were part of more serious rituals and ceremonies. The game of kōnane is similar to the Western game of checkers, and was played using pebbles on a stone or wood surface called a papa kōnane.

A traditional loop and ball game was known as pala‘ie. Various hei (string figures) were made using string looped around the fingers. Ancient Hawaiians produced at least 115 of these string figures, and many of the figures were associated with particular chants.

Ancient Hawaiians also engaged in many contests of strength and balance, including uma and pā uma (hand and wrist wrestling), kula‘i wāwae (foot-pushing), kula kula‘i (chest pushing), heihei kūkini (foot races), and hākōkō (wrestling). Ku‘i a lua was a dangerous form of hand-to-hand fighting, sometimes resulting in broken bones.

Pua (arrows, or darts) were sometimes made from stalks of kō (sugarcane) or other plants, and were used in games and contests. The finger-pulling contest in which opponents hooked their fingers together is known as loulou (“to link or hook together”), and the competitors see who can stay hooked the longest. A team tug-of-war game was known as pā‘ume‘ume, and ‘io was a tag game involving foot-racing. (Note: Pā‘ume‘ume is also called hukihuki.)

‘Ulu maika involved rolling stone discs for accuracy and distance. Ho‘olele lupe (flying kites) were made by covering a hau frame with kapa (tapa) barkcloth or plaited lau hala (leaves of hala), and then the kites are flown on a cord made from olonā.

Ancient Hawaiians also practiced kio (mock war games) in anticipation of real battle. They threw ku‘uku‘u (boomerangs) and participated in kākā lā‘au (spear fencing), ‘ō‘ō ihe (spear throwing), and ku‘i a lua (hand-to-hand fighting). Kūpololū involved using pololū (long spears) to pole vault, which was a necessary warrior skill for traversing ravines.

Many activities occurred in or near the ocean, including ‘au (swimming) as well as lele kawa, jumping off cliffs into the sea in an attempt to make the least amount of splash. The goal of lele pahū was to make the biggest splash.

The sport of kaupua was another ocean challenge, requiring participants to dive deep underwater to retrieve half-ripe ipu (gourds). Ancient Hawaiians also engaged in kaha nalu (body surfing), he‘e nalu (surfing), and heihei wa‘a (canoe racing).

Many ancient Hawaiian games and sports were played during the ancient Hawaiian harvest festival known as Makahiki, which began with the first appearance of the crescent moon following the new moon after the appearance of the constellation Makali‘i (Pleiades) rising in the east after sunset.

During the Makahiki festival, time was taken away from work for feasts, sports games, and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility.

He‘e hōlua involved using papa hōlua (wooden sleds) to slide down steep hills or down specially constructed stone ramps. The slides were lined with pili grass (twisted beardgrass) or tassels of kō (sugarcane), allowing the sledders to reach speeds sometimes exceeding 100 miles (161 km) per hour.

Children often slid down the steep inclines on the stalks of a mai‘a (banana plants) or on hōlua kī, the leaves of kī (ti). Some contests engaged in during Makahiki were meant to strengthen the participants’ warrior skills.

A saying from ancient times was: “He he‘e hōlua” (“One who rides a hōlua sled.”), which was “said proudly of being a descendant of the chiefly families of Waipi‘o, Hawai‘i, who were well known for their skill in hōlua sledding.”[xii]

The Battle of KepaniwaiKamehameha Invades Maui

In 1790, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] was the most powerful ali‘i (chief) in the Hawaiian Islands, ruling Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i. He was in alliance with his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], ruler of Kaua‘i, who seized O‘ahu by killing its chief and sacrificing him to his own war god, also killing lesser chiefs of O‘ahu and using their skeletons to construct a house of bones.

Fearing conquest of Hawai‘i Island by Kā‘eokūlani and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], Kamehameha decided to strike first, and landed his troops on Maui to fight against Kalanikūkupule, son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Kamehameha considered it a good omen when the feathers of his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku bristled.

Fighting between the two groups of warriors began in Wailuku, and then proceeded up into ‘Īao Valley where the precipitous cliffs at the head of the valley blocked escape. Kamehameha’s forces had the advantage of superior western weapons (muskets) as well as a cannon manned by the foreigners John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) and Isaac Davis [‘Aikake].

In Kamehameha’s victory at ‘Īao Valley, dead bodies from both sides are said to have blocked the river, giving the battle its name, the Battle of Kepaniwai (“The Water Dam”).

The bloody confrontation is also referred to as Ka‘uwa‘upali (“Precipice-clawing”), referring to the fleeing warriors climbing the steep cliffs of ‘Īao Valley as they tried to escape.[xiii]

Facing imminent defeat, Kalanikūpule, the son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], fled over a narrow mountain pass along with his high chiefs, and they sailed to O‘ahu where Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] began war preparations. Kamehameha’s troops returned to Hawai‘i Island but Kamehameha sailed to Moloka‘i to meet with his chiefs and advisers.

The Olowalu Massacre

Pioneering American trader Simon Metcalfe arrived in 1790 in command of the snow Eleanora. After the chief Ka‘ōpūiki stole one of his skiffs, Metcalfe killed more than 100 Hawaiians as retribution. Off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe also punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him.

Some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas, who was killed along with all of the crew except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake), who was left tied to a canoe, half blind and nearly dead. It is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting.

Simon Metcalfe left his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) onshore and sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands without even knowing if his son had been killed.

The Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha, and Davis and Young became Kamehameha’s supporters (and advisers), manning large guns from canoes during the invasion of the northern coast of Hawai‘i Island as well as during a later attack on O‘ahu. Davis and Young were later known as ‘Aikake and ‘Olohana.

John Young (I) [‘Olohana] eventually became governor of several Hawaiian Islands and had estates on all the Islands. Isaac Davis (‘Aikake ) eventually became a chief, married a relative of King Kamehameha I, became governor of O‘ahu, and owned estates on O‘ahu, Maui, Moloka‘i, and Hawai‘i Island.

Young’s granddaughter was Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836—1885), the wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani).

The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade

‘Iliahi, the Hawaiian name for the sandalwood tree, means “fiery surface” and refers to the tree’s reddish blooms and new leaves.

Sandalwood trees may be up to 65 feet (20 m) tall, with small leathery, elliptical-shaped leaves that are about 4 inches (10 cm) long with a glossy surface. ‘Iliahi also produces small purple fruits, and the flowers may be green, yellow, pale red, or magenta, growing in clusters that are often pleasantly scented, and sometimes used in lei.

Ancient Hawaiians had many uses for the tree, including placing its powdered heartwood between layers of kapa (tapa) barkcloth to impart the sweet fragrance to the cloth.

A mixture added to kapa dyes was made by adding ‘iliahi to the oil of niu (coconut palm) heated with hot stones. Sandalwood also had various medicinal uses in ancient Hawai‘i, including as part of a treatment to sooth the pains of aching joints.

The wood of ‘iliahi was used to make various products, including the ‘ūkēkē, a musical instrument comprised of a wooden bow with strings that were strummed while the player’s mouth was used as a resonance chamber, producing a speech-like sound though no noise was made by the player’s vocal cords. The ‘ūkēkē was the only stringed instrument in ancient Hawai‘i.

In 1790, New England ship captain John Kendrick (c.17401794) left two of his crew on the island of Kaua‘i to collect sandalwood. This was a prelude to the sandalwood trade, which began in 1791 when it was discovered that the fragrant wood could be sold for a high price in Canton, China.

Extensive sandalwood groves in the mountains of the Hawaiian Islands were harvested and shipped to China where they valued the close-grained fine-smelling wood for making fine furniture, boxes, chests and carvings, as well as perfume and incense. The older trees were the most valued due to their increased fragrance (the scent increases with age).

In 1811, Jonathan and Nathan Winship arrived on the O‘Cain and the Albatross, and took away a load of sandalwood. (Note: Jonathan and Nathan Winship initially arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1806.)

King Kamehameha was pleased with his profits and granted the Winships and Captain William Heath Davis an exclusive ten-year contract for sales of sandalwood on all the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i. (Note: The sandalwood contract was cancelled in 1813 due to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States.)

Between 1810 and 1820, sandalwood sold for about $125/ton, generating more than $3 million. The peak years of the sandalwood trade were from 1810 to 1840, a time that also saw a steadily increasing desire for Western goods in the Islands, and consequently a large debt incurred by the Hawaiian monarchy. By 1821, sandalwood exports totaled about 1,400 tons annually.

Chiefs forced maka‘āinana (commoners) to climb high in the mountains to cut down the tall trees. Carrying the wood down from the mountains was hard work, and intensive harvesting of sandalwood occurred at the expense of the lo‘i kalo (taro patches) and other traditional agricultural food production and cultural practices.

Sandalwood traders supplied the Hawaiians with furniture, clothes, liquor and other Western goods that increasingly eroded away at traditional native ways of living.

As the sandalwood forests of the Hawaiian Islands were logged at a rapid pace to meet China’s growing market, the supply of the valued wood rapidly declined and was eventually exhausted. By 1840, nearly all of the large, marketable sandalwood trees in the Hawaiian Islands had been cut down, ending the sandalwood trade with China.

Though the large sandalwood groves of ancient times are gone, smaller trees remain. Currently only one of the four endemic (unique) Hawaiian sandalwood species is listed as endangered.

[Photographs: Sandalwood tree; ‘ūkēkē; sandalwood box; and/or other sandalwood items]

Dedication of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau

After the young warrior Kamehameha’s military victory at the Battle of Kepaniwai (see The Battle of Kepaniwai), he sent Ha‘alo‘u (the grandmother of Ka‘ahumanu) to O‘ahu to consult with Kapoukahi, a highly respected kahuna (priest) of Kaua‘i, who was in Waikīkī at the time.

Kapoukahi answered the request from Kamehameha for an oracle, telling Kamehameha that he would be victorious over all the Hawaiian Islands only if he built a heiau dedicated to his war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku.

This heiau was to be built at Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island, and named Pu‘ukoholā (“Whale hill”).[xiv] Kamehameha’s royal architect Kapoukahi traveled from Kaua‘i to assist Kamehameha in the construction and consecration of the massive heiau at Kawaihae.

In the summer of 1791, with construction of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau completed, Kamehameha asked Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], chief of Hawai‘i Island’s Puna and Ka‘ū districts, to attend the dedication of the heiau, telling Keōuakū‘ula his presence was important if there was to be peace between the rivals. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and 26 of his chiefs and friends, including the highest chiefs of Ka‘ū, arrived at Kawaihae Bay in two large canoes.

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] was in one of the canoes, and in the other canoe was a young chief named Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū, the son of Kamehameha and Kānekapōlei (the mother of Keōuakuahu‘ula with Kalani‘ōpu‘u).

Greeting Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and his men were Kamehameha’s war canoes arranged in a great crescent shape surrounding Kawaihae Bay to prevent Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s escape. Kamehameha’s men onshore had muskets and cannons.

As they arrived at the shoreline of Kawaihae Bay, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] was killed along with many of his chiefs and other members of his group. Historical accounts of this event by prominent early historians differ considerably on various points.

In most but not all accounts, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula was killed by Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe, who is said to either have killed Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] with a spear, or put Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula in a lua (fighting) hold and drowned him (said to have been done to keep Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s body unmarred for the human sacrifice at the heiau).

Another account has Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula killed by an ‘alā o ka ma‘a (slingstone)[xv] that was hurled from on shore, hitting Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula in the temple.

Also uncertain about this event: whether the killing of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] was ordered by Kamehameha or was done by Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe without Kamehameha’s approval; the number of other chiefs with Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula who were killed; and other significant facts.

After the initial attack on Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], Kamehameha reportedly prevented his men from attacking the people in the other canoe, which included Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū, Kamehameha’s first son.

The bodies of the killed chiefs (including Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula) were sacrificed on the altar of the heiau atop the hill at Pu‘ukoholā, which was a luakini (where human sacrifices were performed). With his rival, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula, dead, Kamehameha controlled Hawai‘i Island.

Note: Pu‘ukoholā means “Whale hill”[xvi] according to Pūku‘i, but was later explained by Frazier to instead be spelled Pu‘ukohola (no macron), and meaning “built as the house of the god, a pu‘u [desire] for death and not for life. The death which was to be bound securely within this heiau was in the lagoon (kai kohola) and not in the deep sea nor on land.”[xvii]

Hele aku ‘oe ma‘ane‘i, he wa‘a kanaka; ho‘i mai ‘oe ma‘ō he wa‘a akua. When you go from here, the canoe will contain men;

when you return, it will be a ghostly canoe.

Warning to Keouakuahu‘ula by his kahuna not to go to meet Kamehameha at Kawaihae. He went anyway and was killed.[xviii]

George Vancouver Visits the Hawaiian Islands

British Captain George Vancouver (1758-1798) had served under Captain Cook on his second Pacific voyage, and was Cook’s midshipman on his third voyage when Cook first found the Hawaiian Islands. Vancouver returned to the Hawaiian Islands on March 5, 1792 in command of the Chatham and the Discovery (not the same ship Captain Cook sailed).

Vancouver came to the Islands again in 1793 and 1794, meeting with many important Hawaiian chiefs. Vancouver also introduced sheep, cattle, goats, and geese as well as a variety of seeds and plants including almond and orange trees as well as grapevines.

Vancouver hoped that the food products would be raised and cultivated by the Hawaiians and then would later supply food for visiting ships of British seamen.

On February 25, 1794, Vancouver obtained an informal treaty of cession from Kamehameha I. The two men were friends, and Kamehameha sought assurance that the Hawaiian Islands would be under British protection.

Kamehameha received a gift of a British flag (a Union Jack) from Vancouver, and flew the flag for the next 22 years at various places where he lived. It is uncertain what meaning Kamehameha attributed to the flag, however, since the British Parliament never ratified the apparent cession agreement with Vancouver.

During Vancouver’s 1794 visit, his carpenters helped Kamehameha construct the 36-foot Britannia, the first foreign-designed ship in the Hawaiian Islands.

The Battle of Nu‘uanu

In February of 1795, Kamehameha and his warrior army sailed from Kohala on Hawai‘i Island to Lahaina, Maui to take on food and other provisions, and then sailed to Kaunakakai, Moloka‘i where they prepared to invade O‘ahu.

In April of 1795 they set sail from Moloka‘i to invade O‘ahu. Kamehameha had an estimated 960 canoes as well as 20 armed foreign ships, and his troops totaled an estimated 16,000 soldiers, many trained in modern musketry. Also allied with Kamehameha were 16 foreigners, including several manning Kamehameha’s cannons.

Kamehameha’s warriors landed on O‘ahu’s southern shores from Waikīkī to Wai’alae, and then prepared to meet the forces of O‘ahu’s chief Kalanikūpule, an estimated 9,000 warriors arrayed throughout Pū‘iwa and La‘imi, and mauka (toward the mountains) all the way to Luakaha.

Kamehameha’s warriors who landed at Wai‘alae marched over the plains of Kaimukī to Mō‘ili‘ili where they joined with the troops marching from Waikīkī.

Kamehameha’s united army then proceeded behind Pūowaina (now called Punchbowl Crater) to Nu‘uanu where the warriors confronted the forces of Kalanikūpule, who were also supported by the forces of the chief Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] who had deserted Kamehameha and joined Kalanikūpule.

The first confrontations occurred at La‘imi and Pū‘iwa, and neither side gained a clear advantage. Kamehameha’s warriors killed Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula, and the O‘ahu forces were gradually overpowered and retreated up into Nu‘uanu Valley. Many of the fleeing warriors climbed the valley’s sides while others retreated up to Nu‘uanu Pali at the head of the valley.

Fleeing from Kamehameha’s onslaught, some of Kalanikūpule’s warriors escaped over the valley’s ridges and others made it down the trail at the end of the pali (cliff). Those who didn’t escape were confronted by Kamehameha’s soldiers at the edge of the precipice at Nu‘uanu Pali.

Many of the O‘ahu warriors were driven over the edge of the cliff at Nu‘uanu Pali, and met their death on the rocks hundreds of feet below. (Note: Historical accounts of the events that occurred at Nu‘uanu Pali vary considerably, and it is possible that some warriors may have jumped off the precipice rather than surrender.

The number of soldiers that died at the head of Nu‘uanu Pali is also uncertain, with estimates varying from 300 to more than 2,000. Overall, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 warriors (from both sides) died in the Battle of Nu‘uanu, making the confrontation the deadliest event ever in the Hawaiian Islands, including Pearl Harbor.)

Chief Kalanikūpule escaped from the battlefield and hid in the Ko‘olau mountains. He was captured several months later in the upper Waipi‘o-‘Ewa area, and the defeated chief was killed and presented to Kamehameha, who offered the body as a sacrifice to his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku. This is said to have occurred on the altar called Pu‘ukapa at Moanalua.

The Battle of Nu‘uanu was Kamehameha’s final major military conquest. With his victory, Kamehameha gained control of all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, furthering his attempt to establish a united Hawaiian Kingdom.

King Kamehameha I established a system of government wherein each island had a governor. There was also a Council of Advisers, a Treasurer, and a Prime Minister. Taxes were levied, and could be paid with handicrafts or produce.

King Kamehameha instituted a fee for licensing trade and wharfage, and encouraged the sandalwood trade with foreign ships. He initially ruled from Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island, then moved the capital to Hilo in 1796.

Kamehameha moved the capitol to Lahaina, Maui in 1803 and lived in a red stone house originally built for Queen Ka‘ahumanu. In 1804 the center of government was moved to Honolulu, which had the best available port.

A saying from the time of Kamehameha was: “He aupuni ko Kamehameha.” (“Kamehameha has a government.”), which was a warning not to steal. Kamehameha united the islands and made laws that gave everyone peace and safety. Killing and stealing were utterly prohibited.”[xix]

[Illustration: Nu‘uanu Pali battle scene]

[i] p. 266, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2441.

[ii] p. 137, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1267.

[iii] Wagner, Warren L., Herbst, Derral R., and Sohmer, S.H. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i: Revised Edition, Volumes 1 and 2. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press; Bishop Museum Press, 1999.

[iv] p. 276, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2523.

[v] p. 146, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1340.

[vi] p. 300, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2735.

[vii] p. 248, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2270.

[viii] One version of the Kumulipo is: The Kumulipo: A Hawaiian Creation Chant. Translated and edited with commentary by Martha Warren Beckwith. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Facsimile reproduction of first edition, University of Chicago Press, 1951. Including Foreword by Katharine Luomala, The University Press of Hawaii, 1972.

[ix] p. 38, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 311.

[x] p. 309, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2814.

[xi] Spelling Clarification—Keaweamauhili / Keawemauhili / Keaweama‘uhili: The spelling “Keaweama‘uhili” is used by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i in ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings, (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983) and in other publications.

In Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o [p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.], however, Frazier (Pūku‘i’s former assistant) notes that the spelling “Keawemauhili” more properly reflects the originally intended meaning and symbolism of the name.

The Hawaiian Dictionary defines the word mauhili as: “entangled, snarled, interwoven,” and gives the example: “Keawe-a-mauhili (name), Keawe entangled [in taboo] or interwoven [as chiefly blood].” [p. 242, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

For these reasons the spelling Keawemauhili is used in this text and throughout the Hawaiian Encyclopedia.

[xii] p. 66, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 571.

[xiii] p. 191, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1781.

[xiv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xv] ‘Alā are “dense waterworn volcanic” stones. Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

[xvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xvii] p. 309, p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xviii] p. 81, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 732.

[xix] p. 64, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 552.