Other Traditional Lei Materials

Other Traditional Lei Materials

 

Lei Niho Palaoa (Whale Tooth Pendant)

The lei niho palaoa was a prized necklace in ancient Hawai‘i and was only worn by ali‘i (chiefs and royalty).  Woven using tightly braided human hair, the highly-valued lei niho palaoa held a hook-shaped pendant carved from the niho (tooth) of a palaoa (Physeter macrocephalus, sperm whale).

[Photograph: Lei niho palaoa 

 

Ferns

Fronds of various ferns were traditionally used in lei.  These ferns included the endemic pala‘ā (Sphenomeris chinensis), commonly known as the lace fern; palapalai (Microlepia strigosa); pala (Marattia douglasii), which was often used as an offering to the gods; and in post-contact times the fragrant laua‘e fern (Phymatosorus scolopendria). (See Hula and Mele section, Chapter 3; also see Pala‘ā and Palapalai in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

A Hawaiian proverb states, “Mōhala maika‘i ke oho o ke kupukupu” (“Unfolded well are the fronds of the ferns”), which was “...said of a handsome person.”[i]

[Photographs: Pala‘ā, palapalai, pala, laua‘e: used in lei]

 

 

Fern Allies

Fern allies (more primitive than ferns) were also used in lei, and these include the native moa (Psilotum nudum) and wāwae‘iole (Lycopodium cernuum), a tropical club moss that grows up to 5 feet (1.5 m) tall.

[Photographs: Moa; wāwae‘iole: used in lei]

 

 

Plants

Hinahina (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum)

Endemic

Family: Boraginaceae—Borage Family

Hinahina often grows on the beach above the high water line.  The plant has hairy, silvery-green leaves and stems, and small clusters of fragrant, white flowers with yellow centers, on 1 to 2 inch (2.5 to 5 cm) stems.  The leaf clusters and flowers of hinahina are often twisted into open-ended garlands. 

Today the non-native Spanish moss (also called Florida moss, gray beard and hinahina) is often substituted for the native hinahina. (See Hinahina in Island Emblems section; and in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8; also see Spanish Moss section below.)

[Photograph: Hinahina lei]

 

 

Kauna‘oa (Cuscuta sandwichiana)

Common Name: Hawaiian Dodder

Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands

Family: Cuscutaceae—Dodder Family

Kauna‘oa (Cuscuta sandwichiana) is a wiry, thread-like, golden-orange to yellow-orange vine that twists and wraps around other plants.  Kauna‘oa also has tiny round fruits and tiny pointed, white flowers. 

The plant is not green, and doesn’t need to photosynthesize because it gets its chlorophyll from other plants through sucker-like roots known botanically as haustoria.  Kauna‘oa first roots in the ground and then attaches to other plants, parasitically thriving on the host plant. 

The stringy stems of kauna‘oa are often braided together into strands for lei, as was done by ancient Hawaiians.  Kauna‘oa is also the official emblem of Lāna‘i. (See Island Emblems section; and Kauna‘oa in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Kauna‘oa lei]

           

 

(Cordyline fruticosa)

Common Name: Ti

Polynesian Introduction

Family: Agavaceae—Agave Family

In ancient Hawai‘i, ti was known as kī, and its lā‘ī (leaves) were revered for their healing power.  To ward off evil spirits, braided ti leaf lei were worn horseshoe style.

Ti’s oblong leaves are smooth and waxy, and may be 1 to 4 feet (30 cm to 1.2 m) long and from 3 to 6½ inches (7 to 16 cm) wide.  An open-ended 60-inch (152-cm) lei, made using the wili method (twisted), requires about 12 to 14 large ti leaves.

(See Lei Making Methods; for more information see in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Kī lei]

 

 

Limu (Seaweed)

Limu was gathered off the coastal reefs and sometimes woven into lei.  Ancient Hawaiians gathered many varieties of limu from the ocean as well as from fresh water ponds and streams.

Edible varieties of both saltwater and freshwater limu were used for food as well as for medicinal, spiritual and ceremonial purposes. (See Limu in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Limu lei]

 

 

Maile(Alyxia oliviformis)

Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands

Family: Apocynaceae—Dogbane Family

The fragrance of maile leaves and bark has been described as spicy, and vanilla-like.  Long after a maile lei dries, its woodsy scent remains. 

The shiny, dark green, leathery leaves of maile are ½-inch to 4 inches (1 to 10 cm) long, growing in pairs.  The leaves are oval-shaped, coming to a point. 

A maile lei should be given as a single strand, open-ended, and then the receiver of the lei should connect the ends—this is a metaphor for the unending love of an intricately woven relationship.

In ancient Hawai‘i, maile was important in hula, and sacred to Laka, the goddess of hula, who was also considered the goddess of maile.  Laka was said to be able to assume the form of the maile plant, and when she departed the scent would remain.  Maile was one of the five primary plants placed in Laka’s hula altar.

A maile lei is constructed by first knotting the leaves (kīpu‘u method) and then twisting the strands (wili method). (See Lei Making Methods.)  Up to 15 vines are required for a lei.  Maile is often strung with lei flowers such as pīkake (Jasminum sambac, Arabian jasmine), ‘ilima (Sida fallax), or with berries of mokihana (Pelea anisata).

In ancient Hawai‘i, long garlands of maile were also a symbol of peace between warring chiefs.  It is said the chiefs would meet in a heiau (sacred place of worship), and peace would be officially established only when they had finished weaving maile together. 

Today maile is used customarily at the opening of a new building or road, and is often used in place of a ribbon for the ceremonial opening.  After a blessing, the maile is untied rather than cut. (See Maile in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Maile lei]

 

 

Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides)

Also Called: Florida Moss; Gray Beard; Hinahina; ‘Umi‘umi-o-Dole (Dole’s Beard).

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Bromeliaceae

Spanish moss consists of gray, thread-like, repeatedly branching stems and finely curled leaves.  Silvery-white scales densely cover the leaves.  The Spanish moss lei is made by twisting the plant together or braiding shorter lengths together.

Spanish moss is often substituted for Kaho‘olawe’s island emblem, the heliotrope known as hinahina (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum).  Spanish moss is an air plant (epiphytic and rootless), often seen hanging from tree branches and growing from hanging baskets. 

Spanish moss is sometimes referred to as ‘umi‘umi-o-Dole, or Dole’s beard (whiskers) because the plant was said to resemble the bushy gray beard of Sanford B. Dole, who was the first President of Provisional Government after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. 

Dole was later President of the Republic of Hawai‘i (from 1895 to1898), and then the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i (from 1898 to 1903).  Spanish moss was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands around 1920.

Spanish moss produces tiny flowers that are greenish-yellow or pale blue in color, usually blooming during summer.

[Photograph: Spanish moss lei]

 

 

‘Uala—Sweet Potato(Ipomoea batatas)

Common Name: Sweet Potato

Polynesian Introduction; Naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Convolvulaceae—Morning Glory Family

In ancient Hawai‘i, vines of ‘uala (sweet potato) were woven into lei used to bring an increase of something the wearer desired.  For example, a mother would use the lei to increase the flow of breast milk, fishermen would slap the water with the lei to increase their catch of fish, and surfers might use the lei to increase the size of the waves. (See ‘Uala, Chapter 9.)

[Photograph: ‘Uala lei]

 


Ni‘ihau Shell Lei—Pūpū Ni‘ihau

[Illustration: Ni‘ihau shell lei]

 

Shells from the island of Ni‘ihau are known as pūpū Ni‘ihau.  The shells are delicately strung into stunningly beautiful necklaces known as lei pūpū Ni‘ihau, or Ni‘ihau shell lei. 

Ni‘ihau shell lei have a rich tradition in Hawaiian culture.  Both Queen Emma (1836-1885) and Queen Kapi‘olani (1834-1899) were known to wear long loops of Ni‘ihau shell lei.  Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] was wearing a Ni‘ihau shell lei when she met the Queen of England. 

Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] (1838-1917), Hawai‘i’s last monarch, became an admirer of the necklaces during her visit to the island of Ni‘ihau in 1891.  Queen Lili‘uokalani’s collection of Ni‘ihau shell lei may now be seen on display in ‘Iolani Palace as well as at Washington Place in Honolulu.

In Charles E. King’s song entitled, “Na Lei o Hawai‘i” (The Lei of Hawai‘i), a flower is named as an emblem of each Hawaiian Island except Ni‘ihau, which is represented by the pūpū (shell).  These island emblems were formalized in the 1920s when Governor Wallace Rider Farrington made them official. (See Island Emblems section.)

 

Finding the Shells

Every winter, the northern shores of the Hawaiian Islands are pounded by large waves that are created by winter storms far north of the Islands, which generate swells.  The large ocean waves disturb nearshore reef areas and deposit shells along the northern shores. 

From October to March are the main months when Ni‘ihau shells are found.  Shells of the kahelelani variety are also found in summer.

The prized Ni‘ihau shells are also found on other islands (and still referred to as Ni‘ihau shells), particularly Kaua‘i, which is across the Kaulakahi Channel from Ni‘ihau.  However, nowhere are the shells as plentiful as on Ni‘ihau.

Shells are most often found along a debris line on the beach where the water deposits them.  A shell picker may lie down on the ground to look very closely at the sand for the precious shells.  A day’s pickings may yield about one cup of shells or, on a good day, about 16 ounces (.45 kg). 

 

Ni‘ihau Shell Varieties

The three primary types of shells used for the traditional Ni‘ihau shell lei are kahelelani (Leptothyra verruca), momi (Euplica varians) and laiki (Mitrella margarita).  At least 30 different Hawaiian names describe particular shells, which show many color and pattern variations that are caused by waves and sunlight as well as genetic differences.

The shell pickers also collect sundials and cowries, which are used to fasten together the ends of the Ni‘ihau lei strands.  Live shells are not collected.

Below are detailed descriptions of the three primary types of pūpū Ni‘ihau that are used to construct Ni‘ihau shell lei.

 

Momi (Euplica varians)

Also Called: Momi O Kai (“Pearl of the Sea”).

The Hawaiian word momi means “pearl,” and the shiny oval shells are also called momi o kai, which means “pearl of the sea.”  Momi shells show many different variations in patterns and colors, from white to dark brown or almost black.

Momi shells may be slightly flared, and are about 2/5 inch (10 mm) in length.  Momi’s species name, “varians,” is a reference to the shell’s great variability.

Light colored momi shells are known as ‘āhiehie, which means “faded.”  Shells that are not white but also not very dark are known as maika‘i, which means “good.”  The darkest momi shells are known as ikaika, which means “strong.”  The darkest shells and those with dark markings may also be referred to as ‘ele‘ele, which means “black.”

Different varieties of momi shells are named for their colors and patterns, such as momi lenalena (lenalena means “yellow”), and momi kua‘ula waha ‘ula‘ula, which has a red spot at the tip of the shell (‘ula means “red”).

 

Kahelelani (Leptothyra verruca)

Kahelelani shells were named after an ancient ruler of Ni‘ihau.  Like momi shells, kahelelani shells show many different variations in patterns and colors, from pink to brown or blackish. 

Measuring just 1/8- to 1/5-inch (3 to 5 mm), kahelelani shells are the smallest of the three varieties of Ni‘ihau shells.  Kahelelani shells are also the most difficult to find and string into lei, and thus they are the most expensive to purchase.

Like momi shells, kahelelani shell varieties are named for their colors and patterns, such as kahelelani ‘ākala pua (pink flower), and kahelelani maku‘e (brown kahelelani).

 

“Ni‘ihau a Kahelelani,”

“Ni‘ihau, land of Kahelelani.”

“Kahelelani was the name of an ancient ruler of the island of Ni‘ihau.  The tiny seashell that is made into the finest lei on the island now bears

the name of Kahelelani.”

                                                            (Pukui: 2312-252)[ii]

 

Laiki (Mitrella margarita)

Also Called: Rice Shells (Laiki means “Rice”).

Laiki shells are usually whitish in color with a smooth surface that has a lustrous appearance.  About ¼-inch (7 mm) long, the laiki shell is about the same size as a grain of rice, and also the same color.

Laiki shells are a favorite for wedding lei (particularly on Ni‘ihau), and are traditionally collected by the bride-to-be along with her family and friends.  Strands of the shells may be about 5 feet (1.5 m) in length, and a lei may consist of up to 20 of these strands.

Like momi and kahelelani shells, laiki shells are described by various suffixes related to their appearance.  The purest white shells, which are used for wedding lei, are known as laiki ke‘oke‘o. 

Shells of a less pure white or off-white with brownish markings are known as laiki kua‘ula.  Laiki lenalena are yellowish to beige in color, also with brownish markings.

 

Making the Ni‘ihau Shell Lei—Methods and Styles

After the Ni‘ihau shells are gathered, they are sorted according to size, type and color, and then strung together.  As many as one-third of the fragile shells don’t make it through the piercing process and must be discarded. 

From one to four nylon threads are used to string the shells.  The end of the thread is hardened using beeswax or quick-drying glue and then pushed through the opening in the shell.

Ni‘ihau shell lei are woven using various styles and techniques, some of which are traditional while others are new and more innovative.  Some stringing styles are modeled after particular flowers, such as lei helekonia, which is made using two threads and utilizes both kahelelani and momi shells.  The finished product resembles the shape and color of the heliconia flower (Heliconia species). 

The lei kui pīkake is also made using both momi and kahelelani shells, and has an appearance similar to the pīkake flower (Jasminum sambac, Arabian jasmine).  The “crown flower” style (also called “Lili‘u” in honor of Queen Lili‘uokalani) creates a lei with an appearance similar to pua kalaunu (crown flower, Calotropis gigantea).

When making a lei kui poepoe, momi shells are pierced in a particular manner that gives the final product an appearance similar to that of a tightly wound rope (this style uses two threads).  Lei wili (wili means “to twist or wind”) are often quite short, and are traditionally used for hats and chokers. 

Lei wili are made by stringing kahelelani shells singly onto threads, which are then wound around a foundation.  A strategic selection of shell colors results in an attractive pattern in the finished lei.

Another method of stringing Ni‘ihau shell lei is known as lei kipona, and uses a mixture of different shell types and colors.  Particular lei makers are known for their distinct lei kipona, which may be constructed using different styles, such as lei pīkake or lei pololei. 

The finest of the Ni‘ihau shell lei may sell for more than $10,000.  Ni‘ihau shell lei are worm primarily by women.  The paniolos (Hawaiian cowboys) of Ni‘ihau often wear lei ‘ālīlea, which are made from Strombus maculatus, a thick-shelled species that may measure up to ½-inch (14 mm) in length.


Seed Lei — Lei Hua

 

A‘e (Soap Seed)

Soapberry (Sapindus saponaria)

Indigenous

Family: Sapindaceae—Soapberry Family

A‘e produces clusters of 5-parted chartreuse flowers at the ends of the branches, and round, brown-skinned fruits that are about ¾-inch (2 cm) in diameter.  The fruits contain a soapy, yellowish pulp as well as a seed that is about ½-inch (13 mm) in diameter.  The round, black to brown, shiny seeds of a‘e are strung into lei.

Also referred to as mānele, a‘e usually grows as a small tree, but may reach more than 80 feet (24 m) in height, particularly at higher elevations.  A‘e has a whitish-colored trunk, and compound, light green leaves with three to six, mostly paired leaflets. 

Each leaflet is about 2 to 5 inches (5 to 13 cm) long.  Mature leaves take on a slightly winged shape, curving at the leaf’s axis. (See A‘e in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: A‘e seed lei]

 

 

‘Ākia

Wikstroemia species

Endemic

Family: Thymelaeaceae—‘Ākia Family

The Hawaiian term ‘ākia refers to 12 endemic Hawaiian species in the Wikstroemia genus.  ‘Ākia produce fleshy one-seeded fruits that are less than ½-inch (13 mm) in diameter.  The small berries may be yellow, red, or orangish in color.  In ancient Hawai‘i the berries were strung into lei known as lei ‘ākia ha‘a ha‘a.

‘Ākia grows in a variety of Hawaiian habitats, particularly in dry habitat at low elevations. (For more information see ‘Ākia in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: ‘Ākia seed lei]

 

 

Ali‘ipoe (Canna Lily)

Canna indica

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to the Neotropics; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands

Family: Cannaceae—Canna Family

Also known as Canna Indian shot, the Canna lily grows from about 2 to 5 feet (.6 to 1.5 m) tall, with narrow leaves that are about 12 to 24 inches (30 to 60 cm) long. 

Forms cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands are commonly yellow-flowered or red-flowered.  In addition to being strung into lei, ali‘ipoe seeds are also used in the calabash hula rattle made from the fruit shell of la‘amia (Crescentia cujete).

‘Ali‘ipoe’s three-parted seedpods are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long, with a warty surface, and contain numerous small round seeds that are dark brown to black in color and notably hard.

[Photograph: Ali‘ipoe seed lei]

 

 

‘Ēkoa (Lead Tree)

False Koa (Leucaena leucocephala)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to the Neotropics.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

‘Ēkoa is also known as koa haole, and usually grows up to about 30 feet (9m) tall, with trees recorded up to 66 feet (20 m).  ‘Ēkoa has leaves up to 12 inches (30 cm) long that are comprised of three to eight pairs of oblong leaflets (pinnae).  The plant also produces round, pale green to yellowish-white flowers that are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter.

‘Ēkoa’s oblong, brown seedpods are about 6 inches (15 cm) long, growing in clusters.  The pods encase numerous glossy, dark brown seeds that are oval in shape and laterally flattened.

[Photograph: ‘Ēkoa seed lei]

 

 

Hala (Screwpine)

Pandanus tectorius

Indigenous

Family: Pandanaceae—Screw Pine Family

Hala fruits are produced by the female trees, and are about 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) in diameter.  The fruits are comprised of numerous smaller fruitlets, known as keys or phalanges. 

The unripe hala keys were traditionally strung into colorful necklaces.  Since post-contact times, fronds of the laua‘e fern (Phymatosorus scolopendria, a post-contact introduction) are often woven between the hala keys.  It takes about 50 or more hala keys to string a standard 40-inch (100-cm) lei.  The keys are usually strung lengthwise through their centers using the kui pololei method.

Lei hala were worn during the Makahiki, an ancient harvest festival, to symbolize the passing of the year’s bad luck and habits.  Makahiki began with the first appearance of the crescent moon following the new moon after the appearance of the constellation Makali‘i (Pleiades) rising in the east after sunset (around the middle of October), and lasted several months.

During Makahiki, time was taken away from work for feasts, sports games, and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility. 

The name hala also means “mistake, slip, or error,” and the hala lei was thought of as good luck during the Makahiki, an ancient harvest festival, when the old year “slips away.” 

The unripe hala fruitlets (keys) were used for colorful lei that symbolized the passing of the year’s bad luck and bad habits, though the lei could be considered unlucky if worn at other times. (See Hala in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

A Hawaiian proverb states, “Pala ka hala, ‘ula ka ‘ā‘ī” (“When the hala ripens, the neck is brightened by them”), which means, “People are very fond of hala lei.  From a name chant of Kuali‘i.”[iii]

[Photograph: Hala lei]

 

 

Hua Weleweka (Velvet Seed)

Mgambo (Majidea zanquebarica)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Sapindaceae—Soapberry Family

Mgambo is a small tree with leaves that grow alternate to one another.  Small flowers grow in clusters at the branch ends. 

The flowers are greenish-yellow with just a bit of red in the very center.  The tree also produces red seedpods that break open upon maturity revealing three fuzzy, gray seeds.

[Photograph: Velvet seed lei]

 

 

Kā‘e‘e (Sea Bean)

Mucuna gigantea subsp. gigantea

Indigenous

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

In ancient Hawai‘i, kā‘e‘e seeds were strung into lei and continue to be used for seed lei today.  The plant is a high-growing, woody vine that usually reaches lengths of about 26 to 49 feet (8 to 15 m) but may measure more than 260 feet (80 m). 

The large, oblong, dark brown seedpods of kā‘e‘e are about 4 inches (10 cm) long and covered with stinging, orangish-brown hairs that may be extremely unpleasant and irritating to the skin and eyes. 

The seedpods hold from one to four (usually two or three) round, flattened seeds, called pēka‘a.  Each seed is about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter and about 1/3-inch (8 mm) thick. 

The seeds vary in color from light to dark brown, often mottled or streaked with black.  A black band rings the seed for about three-quarters of the way around the outside.  Keep an eye out for them while walking along Hawaiian beaches, especially near river mouths, as the seedpods commonly wash up on shore, providing a nice surprise to the casual beachcomber.

In the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i: Revised Edition,[iv] this indigenous Hawaiian plant was classified as the species Mucuna gigantea.  An update in the 2002 Electronic Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i,[v] reclassifies the Hawaiian plant as the subspecies Mucuna gigantea subspecies gigantea.

(See Kā‘e‘e in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Kā‘e‘e seed lei]

 

 

Kākalaioa (Gray Nickers)

Caesalpinia bonduc

Indigenous

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

Kākalaioa is a shrubby tree or climber reaching lengths of up to 100 feet (30 m), with paired oblong to round leaflets that are about ½ to 1 inch (1.3 to 2.5 cm) long.  The plant also produces small yellow flowers that grow in clusters on racemes (unbranched inflorescences, or flower clusters).

Kākalaioa’s prickly, oblong seedpods are 2½ to 3½  (6.5 to 9 cm) long, holding one to three seeds.  The roundish to oval seeds are about ½ to ¾-inch (15 to 20 mm) in diameter, and are pale gray in color turning to olive gray as they ripen. 

Kākalaioa grows in dry coastal areas up to elevations of about 750 feet (230 m).  The seeds have medicinal uses (as a purgative) and are used in seed lei.  The seeds also may have been used by children for games (similar to playing with marbles). 

A related species, C. major, is known as yellow nickers and Hawaiian pearls, and has yellowish instead of gray seeds.  C. major is considered naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands, but there is a possibility that it is actually a native Hawaiian species—this has yet to be determined conclusively.

[Photograph: Kākalaioa seed lei; yellow seeds of C. major]

 

 

Kamani (Punnai Nut)

Alexandrian Laurel (Calophyllum inophyllum)

Polynesian Introduction: Naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands     

Family: Clusiaceae—Mangosteen Family

The kamani tree bears green fruits that are about 1½ inches (3.8 cm) in diameter.  The fruits become yellowish to light brown as they dry, and then are strung into lei.  Within the fruit is a bony shell around an oily, white kernel.

Kamani also produces fragrant, white flowers that are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) across, with four sepals and four to eight petals, and a yellow stamen.  The flowers grow in clusters. 

The kamani tree grows from 26 to 66 feet (8 to 20 m) in height.  The tree’s large leaves are leathery and shiny, with parallel side veins, and grow up to 8 inches (20 cm) long and 3½ inches (9 cm) wide. (See Kamani in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Kamani seed lei]

 

 

Keko (Cycad)

Sago Palm (Cycas circinalis)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Cycadaceae—Cycas Family

The sago palm is a wide-trunked short palm-like tree with smooth, fern-like leaves that curve downward.  The leaves are composed of numerous narrow, pointed leaflets. 

Male trees produce long and narrow, erect cones, while female trees have modified leaves that are furry and indented, ringing the trunk apex and producing six to ten egg-like seeds that become reddish-yellow as they ripen.

Inside the mature orange fruit of the sago palm is a large oval seed that is strung into lei.  The seed’s kernel is toxic if consumed. 

[Photograph: Sago palm seed lei]

 

 

Keli Kepania (Spanish Cherry)

Pogada (Mimusops elengi)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family—Sapotaceae

Spanish cherry is an evergreen tree with smooth, dark green leaves that are about 4 inches (10 cm) long, and oval in shape.  The tree also produces fragrant white flowers that are about ½-inch (13 mm) long and grow in clusters at the leaf axils.

Spanish cherry produces green to orange-colored, ovoid (roundish, elongated) fruits that are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long and enclose yellow pulp and a flat, oval brown seed.         

[Photograph: Keli kepania seed lei]

 

 

Kou (Cordia)

Cordia subcordata

Indigenous (reclassified from Polynesian Introduction, 2001).

Family: Boraginaceae—Borage Family

Kou’s dried, round fruits are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, and contain from one to four seeds.  In ancient Hawai‘i, kou seeds were strung into lei, as were the flowers.  The seeds of the tree were also eaten.

The kou tree may reach a height of more than 30 feet (9.1 m).  The tree’s crepy, bright orange flowers grow in small clusters.  The 5- to 7-lobed, tubular flowers are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long and 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) in diameter, with a 3- to 5-toothed enlarged calyx that contains the fruit, which is about 1½ inches (3.8 cm) in diameter. 

The fruit is green when young, but turns grayish-brown and becomes dry as it matures. (See Kou in Lei Flowers section; and in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.) 

[Photograph: Kou seed lei]

 

 

Kukui (Candlenut Tree)

Aleurites moluccana

Polynesian Introduction: Naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands

Family: Euphorbiaceae—Spurge Family

The kukui nut consists of a hard, bony outer shell that is blackish in color and slightly furrowed.  The shell is flat (blunt) on one end and slightly domed on the other end with a small projection known as the nose. 

The nut encases a whitish inner kernel.  For kukui nut lei, the inside of the nut is removed through a hole in one end, and then the outer surface is finished. 

A traditional method of finishing nuts for lei kukui involves filing numerous lengthwise grooves into the outer surface of the nutshell.  In ancient Hawai‘i, spines of wana (Echinodermata, sea urchin)were used for files, and sanding was done using the skin of the kala fish (e.g., Naso species, surgeonfish)or skin of manō (Carcharhinus species, sharks),and pumice, or ‘ana (Leiodermatium, siliceous sponge).

A piece of kapa (tapa) barkcloth was used to apply kukui nut oil to the finished nutshells.  Polished kukui nuts remain popular for use in lei. (See Kukui in Island Emblems section; Lei Flowers section; and in Polynesian-Introduced Plants, Chapter 9.)

[Photograph: Kukui nut lei]

 

 

Kukui Hele Pō Kina (Chinese Lantern)

Hernandia nymphaeifolia

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to the tropics.

Family: Hernandiaceae—Hernandia Family

The Hawaiian word for lantern is “kukui hele pō,” while Kina is the word for China.  The Chinese lantern plant, also known as “Jack in the Box,” is a tall evergreen tree with broad, shiny leaves that are ovate in shape and about 8 inches (20 cm) long. 

The tree produces small, greenish-yellow flowers and clusters of hollow, red fruits that are flattish and roundish in shape, and about 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter with an opening at the bottom.  Within each fruit is a black seed.

[Photograph: Chinese lantern tree seed lei]

 

 

Loulu Hiwa (Pritchardia Palm)

Fan Palm (Pritchardia martii)

Endemic

Family: Arecaceae—Philodendron Family

Loulu refers to 19 endemic Hawaiian species in the genus Pritchardia.  Loulu hiwa is the Hawaiian term for the species Pritchardia martii, a thick-trunked fan palm found in the wet forest areas and moist valleys of O‘ahu’s Ko‘olau Mountains and cultivated elsewhere. 

Though other Pritchardia species may reach heights of more than 130 feet (40 m), loulu hiwa grows only to about 52 feet (16 m). With large fan-shaped leaves and yellow flowers that grow in clusters on spikes that are about 12 to 18 inches (30 to 46 cm) long. 

The ovoid-shaped fruits are green to purplish-black in color and about 1½ inches (4 cm) long with a fibrous husk that encloses a single thin-shelled nut. (See Loulu in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Loulu-hiwa seed lei]

 

 

Maka Hipa (Sheep’s-Eye)

Mucuna sloanei

Indigenous; Endemic

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

Also known as the cow-itch plant and sheeps-eye, the seeds of Mucuna sloanei are similar in shape and size to the previous mentioned plant known as kā‘e‘e (Mucuna gigantea subspecies gigantea). 

The maka hipa plant is a vine reaching lengths of up to 30 feet (9 m) in valleys and on mountain slopes.  The plant’s leaflets are 2 to 5 inches (5 to 13 cm) long.  The red and yellow flowers are about 2 inches (5 cm) long, growing in clusters.

The thick, oblong seedpods of maka hipa are dark brown in color and covered with yellowish-brown hairs that may cause extreme irritation to the eyes and skin.  The seedpods encase usually one or two seeds, each about 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide with a dark band ringing the seed for about three-quarters of the way around the outside.

Mucuna sloanei was formerly classified as Mucuna urens, and listed as questionably naturalized (possibly indigenous), in the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i: Revised Edition.[vi] 

An update in the 2002 Electronic Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i,[vii]renames Mucuna urens as Mucuna sloanei, and distinguishes two varieties: Mucuna sloanei variety persericea (endemic to a region between Makawao and Wailua Iki on East Maui; and Mucuna sloanei variety sloanei, an indigenous variety found on Hawai‘i Island, Maui, and O‘ahu.

[Photograph: Maka hipa seed lei]

 

 

Makekomia (Macadamia Nut)

Macadamia integrifolia

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Proteaceae—Protea Family

Many macadamia nut trees have been planted in the Hawaiian Islands over last two decades as part of an increasing macadamia nut industry, primarily on the island of Hawai‘i.  The medium-sized trees have dark green, oblong leaves, somewhat wavy with widely separated prickles on the side.

The whitish flowers of the macadamia nut tree are about 7 inches (18 cm) long, growing in tassels.  The roundish nut is about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, forming within a leathery case that opens upon maturity.  The related species M. tetraphylla is also grown commercially.

[Photograph: Makekomia seed lei)

 

 

Māpala Polū (Blue Fig)

Blue Marble (Elaeocarpus grandis)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to tropical and subtropical regions.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae—Elaeocarpus Family

The deeply wrinkled seeds of māpala polū are roundish and light brown.  The blue fig tree grows relatively tall, with whitish flowers and bright blue fruits enclosing the furrowed seeds.

[Photograph: Māpala polū seed lei]

 

 

Maunaloa (Pacific Beach Pea)

Canavalia cathartica

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to East Africa, India and Polynesia.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The thick seedpods of maunaloa contain about six oval brown to black seeds.  The plant also produces flowers of various colors, including white, pink, reddish and lavender. 

The coastal plant is a fast-growing vine that likes sandy and rocky areas.  Seeds of maunaloa were used for lei, as were the flowers. (See Maunaloa in Lei Flowers section.)

[Photograph: Maunaloa (Canavalia cathartica) seed lei]

 

 

Milo (Portia Tree)

Thespesia populnea

Polynesian Introduction

Family: Malvaceae—Mallow Family

The fruits of milo are flattened, roundish capsules, brown and woody, about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, with five compartments, each of which contains a wooly seed. 

In ancient Hawai‘i, the seeds of milo had medicinal uses, and were consumed for their laxative effect.  The shells of the fruit were used to produce a yellowish-green dye.  The fruit should not be eaten.

The milo tree may grow to heights of more than 66 feet (20 m), with thick, gray corrugated bark and a trunk diameter that may exceed 2 feet (61 cm).  The leaves of milo are shiny, yellowish-green and heart-shaped, and are about 2 to 12 inches (5 to 30 cm) wide, coming to a narrow point. 

Milo also bears pale yellow bell-shaped flowers that have a diameter of about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 cm), with a reddish-purple (maroon) spot at the base.  Milo’s flowers bloom most of the year, and usually shrivel and turn a purplish-pink by late in the day. (See Milo in Polynesian-Introduced Plants, Chapter 9.)

[Photograph: Milo seed lei]

 

 

Mokihana

Pelea anisata

Endemic to Kaua‘i

Family: Rutaceae—Rue Family

Mokihana’s yellowish-green or purplish-green, cube-shaped seed capsules are about ½-inch (13 mm) wide, and leathery to the touch, with a very strong anise-like fragrance that becomes stronger as the seed capsules dry, and this scent may remain with the seed capsules for months and even years.

Considered among the most treasured of seed lei, a mokihana lei is made by stringing together the purplish-green seed capsules after piercing them through their centers.  Mokihana is also often strung together (kui) with strands of maile that are knotted (kīpu‘u), as the two distinct scents complement each other.

It is said that traditional lei stringers are proud of the scars on their fingers from stringing mokihana lei.  A standard 40-inch (102-cm) lei requires about 100 of the mokihana capsules.  Mokihana is also the official emblem of Kaua‘i. 

In ancient Hawai‘i the capsules were used as a sachet stored with garments of kapa barkcloth.  The season for harvesting mokihana seed capsules is from May to September. (See Mokihana in Island Emblems section; and in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Mokihana seed lei]

 

 

Nīoi Pekela (Betel Nut Palm)

Areca Palm (Areca catechu)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Arecaceae—Palm Family

This palm tree may reach heights of more than 100 feet (30 m) with leaves about 4 feet (1.2 m) long, with 1- to 2-foot (61-cm) long leaf divisions. 

The palm’s fragrant, yellowish-white flowers blossom atop the trunk but beneath the leaf sheaths.  The flowers are about 1/3-inch (8 mm) long.

The palm’s red to orange, egg-shaped fruits may exceed 2½ inches (6.35 cm), and have a fibrous husk enclosing fleshy material and a channeled seed.

[Photograph: Nīoi pekala seed lei]

 

 

Niu Keko (Monkey Nut)

Queen Palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Arecaceae

Also known as feathery coconut, the queen palm is an ornamental tree with a thin, straight trunk reaching a height of up to 60 feet (18 m).  The trees leaves are up to 15 feet (4.6 m) long, arching downward.  Near the lower leaves a 3 to 6 foot (1 to 2 m) cluster of yellow flowers hangs down. 

The tree’s ovoid-shaped yellowish-orange fruits are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long and filled with pulpy fiber that encloses a nut.  One end of the nut has three pores.

[Niu Keko seed lei]

 

 

Nohomālie (Lucky Nut)

Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to the Neotropics; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Apocynaceae—Dogbane Family

Nohomālie means, “Be still,” in reference to the fact that a common name for the yellow oleander is the be-still tree.  The light brown, split triangular seeds of nohomālie are about 1¼ inches (32 mm) long by ½-inch (13 mm) wide. 

The Be-still tree was first brought to the Hawaiian Islands in the early 1900s as an ornamental shrub.  Quite common in the Hawaiian Islands today, the tree has long, narrow leaves and produces trumpet-shaped yellow flowers that bloom year round.  Some trees produce pinkish blossoms. 

All parts of nohomālie are poisonous if consumed, containing a heart toxin comprised of the cardiac glycosides peruvoside and thevetin A and B.  The seeds have the highest concentration of the dangerous toxin—about nine seeds could kill an adult.  The seeds should never be eaten, and skin exposed to the sap of the tree should be washed thoroughly.

[Photograph: Nohomālie seed lei]

 

 

‘Ohai (Monkeypod)

Rain Tree (Samanea saman)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to Neotropics; naturalized in some disturbed areas.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The monkeypod tree reaches heights up to 80 feet (24 m), and is a common lowland tree in the Hawaiian Islands.  The rounded, broad-spreading crowns of the monkeypod tree as well as its lacy foliage and pink blossoms make it an appealing landscaping tree. 

The tree monkeypod tree has compound leaves divided into four to eight pairs of pinnae, each divided into two to ten pairs of oblong leaflets that are about 1½ inches (4 cm) long.  The whitish-pink tufted flowers are about 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter, and have long pink stamens.

The dark brown seedpods of the tree are about 7 inches (18 cm) long, holding many brown seeds that are oval in shape.  The former scientific name of the monkeypod tree is Pithecellobium, which means “Monkey’s ear-rings,” implying the bulbous, pea-like seedpods would make nice jewelry for a monkey.  In the Hawaiian Islands, the monkeypod trees grow wild in some disturbed areas up to about 300 m (980 ft).

[‘Ohai seed lei]

 

 

‘Ohai Ali‘i (Pride of Barbados)

Dwarf Poinciana (Caesalpinia pulcherrima)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to tropical America.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The brown seedpods of ‘ohai ali‘i are about 4 inches (10 cm) long, and hold from six to eight seeds.  ‘Ohai ali‘i is an ornamental shrub that usually grows to about 8 feet (2.4 m) but may reach heights of 20 feet (6 m). 

Also called dwarf poinciana, ‘ohai ali‘i has prickly, coarse leaves comprised of numerous leaflets, each about ¾-inch (2 cm) long.  The tree also produces scarlet and golden flowers, including a darker red variety and a yellow variety. (See Lei Flowers section.)

[Photograph: ‘Ohai ali‘i seed lei]

 

 

Paina (Ironwood)

She Oak (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to Australia; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Casuarinaceae—She-Oak Family

Ironwood trees usually grow to about 66 feet (20 m) tall (sometimes much taller) with long, drooping branches.  The tree’s roundish to oval-shaped cones are about ¾-inch (2 cm) long, flattened at each end.  Each of the hardened bracts of the cones contains a flat, 1-winged seed.

[Photograph: Paina seed lei]

 

 

Pepeiao ‘Elepani (Ear Seed)

Elephant’s Ear (Enterolobium cyclocarpum)

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

Elephant’s ear is a tall tree with a gray trunk and twice-divided leaves composed of four to nine pairs of pinnae, which each have 10 to 30 pairs of leaflets.  The plant produces roundish, white flowers that are about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter. 

Pepeiao’s shiny, dark brown seedpods are about 3 to 4 inches (7.6 to 10.2 cm) in diameter, and resemble the shape of an elephant’s ear.  Pepeiao is the Hawaiian word for “ear,” while ‘elepani means, “elephant.” 

The dark brown seeds of elephant’s ear have a darker oval marking surrounded by a lighter ring.  Pepeiao ‘elepani is in the Fabaceae sub-family Mimosoideae.

[Photograph: Pepeiao seed lei]

 

 

Pilikai(Wood Rose)

Yellow Morning Glory (Operculina tuberosa)

Post-Contact Introduction: Pantropical

Family: Convolvulaceae—Morning Glory Family

The wood rose is a perennial vine with brown, flower-shaped fruiting capsules, each of which contains from 1 to 4 black, wooly seeds.  The wood rose also produces yellow flowers that are about 2 inches (5 cm) long. 

The vine’s leaves have five to seven lobes, and are about 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter.  The rose-shaped fruiting capsules and deep yellow flowers makes this a common ornamental plant in the Hawaiian Islands.  The plant also goes by the species name Merremia tuberosa.

[Photograph: Pilikai seed lei]

 

 

Pili-Nut (Java Almond)

Canarium vulgare

Post-Contact Introduction

Family: Burseraceae—Torchwood Family

The java almond is a tall gray-barked tree with leaves that are about 12 inches (30 cm) long and comprised of three to five pairs of oval leaflets, with one leaf at the tip. 

The tree also produces small, yellowish-white, 3-parted flowers and oval, blackish-blue seeds that are about 2 inches (5 cm) long.  Each seed contains a 3-sided brown nut.

[Photograph: Pili-Nut seed lei]

 

 

Pōniu (Heart Seed)

Balloon Vine (Cardiospermum halicacabum)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to southern United States and the Neotropics; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Sapindaceae—Soapberry Family

Pōniu’s thin-shelled, brown fruits enclose three black, roundish seeds that are about ¼-inch (6 mm) in diameter with a white heart-shaped scar (aril).  The vine’s 3-parted leaves are finely subdivided and about 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 cm) long. 

The plant also produces small, white flowers.  A post-contact use for pōniu was as a remedy for dizziness. The whole plant was worn as a lei and then a small amount was eaten and the lei was tossed into the ocean.

[Photograph: Pōniu seed lei]

 

 

Pūkiawe (Bead Vine)           

Black-Eyed Susan (Abrus precatorius)

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to tropical Asia, Africa and Pacific; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The oval seeds of pūkiawe are bright red with a black patch, or “eye.”  Also known as the rosary pea, pūkiawe is cultivated for its seeds, which are sometimes made into rosaries as well as lei. 

Pūkiawe is a shrub whose stems grow to about 30 ft (9 m) long.  The plant is also known as the rosary pea.  The plant’s green seedpods turn brown when they ripen, and then open and drop from four to eight seeds.

The seeds of pūkiawe are poisonous if ingested, and a single seed, if chewed, could potentially kill a person.  Lei stringers should also be careful not to get a needle-prick while making a lei, as it may cause severe sickness. 

When the toxin (abrin) is absorbed into the bloodstream it may cause nerve damage as well as severe bleeding lesions and kidney, adrenal and liver damage. 

[Photograph: Pūkiawe seed lei]

 

 

Pū‘ohe‘ohe (Job’s Tears)

Coix lacryma jobi

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to Asia; naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.

Family: Poaceae—Grass Family

Pū‘ohe‘ohe is a branched grass that may reach heights of 10 feet (3 m).  The blades are 4 to 20 inches (10 to 50 cm) long and 8 to 20 inches (20 to 50 cm) wide, with a heart-shaped base.  The plant also produces papery, white flowers that grow on the leaf axils.  The flowers are about 1 to 4 inches (2.5 to 10 cm) long.

Pū‘ohe‘ohe’s teardrop-shaped bead-like seeds are popular for use in lei.  The seeds may be green, gray, black or almost completely white in color, and are borne at the tip of the flower stem. 

Pū‘ohe‘ohe grows along stream banks and in other moist areas at elevations up to about 2,000 feet (610 m).

[Photograph: Pū‘ohe‘ohe seed lei]

 

 

Waina Kai (Sea Grape)

Coccoloba uvifera

Post-Contact Introduction:

Family—Polygonaceae—Buckwheat Family

Sea grape produces an abundant amount of roundish fruits that are about ¾-inch (2 cm) long and grow in clusters.  Each fruit holds three small, brown seeds that are somewhat heart-shaped.

The sea grape is often planted in coastal areas, sometimes as a windbreak.  The tree reaches a height of up to 30 feet (9 m).  Sea grape’s glossy, leathery leaves are green, though new leaves are an attractive, translucent bronze color.

The leaves are nearly round, about 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter, and have prominent pinkish to white veins.  Sea grape’s small but fragrant, white flowers grow on spikes that rise up 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm).

[Photograph: Waina Kai seed lei]

 

 

Wī ‘Awa‘awa (Tamarind)    

Tamarindus indica

Post-Contact Introduction: Native to Tropical Africa; possibly Asia

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family.

Tamarind’s seedpods are up to 8 inches (20 cm) long, enclosing brown pulp and a few flat, roundish, brown seeds.  The green seedpods turn brown as they ripen and the shells become brittle.

The tamarind is an evergreen tree may that reach a height of 80 feet (24 m).  With broad branches and a spreading crown, the tree’s dense foliage makes it a nice shade tree. 

Tamarind’s brown bark has a shaggy appearance, and the tree’s green compound leaves are almost fern-like, comprised of 10 to 20 pairs of leaflets, each of which is about ½-inch (13 mm) long.

Tamarind’s small, orange to cream-colored, 3-petaled flowers are veined with red and grow in clusters.  The tree’s wood is valued and the fruit pulp is eaten and made into a beverage.

[Photograph: Tamarind seed lei]

           

 

Wiliwili (Hawaiian Coral Tree)

Erythrina sandwicensis

Endemic

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The name wiliwili means, “twisting,” which refers to the twisting action of the tree’s seedpods as they release one to three red to yellowish-orange, oblong seeds that are about the size of kidney beans.  Ancient Hawaiians strung wiliwili’s bright seeds into beautiful lei.

Wiliwili is a deciduous tree that loses its leaves in the dry season (summer), when flowers adorn the tree’s bare branches.  Blooming in mid to late August, wiliwili’s flowers vary from light to deep-colored orangish-apricot to red-orange, chartreuse, pale golden yellow, or white. 

The flowers grow in clusters at the branch tips, and new leaves grow after the pastel-colored flowers open, attracting pollinating birds and insects. 

The soft, light wood of the wiliwili tree was traditionally used to make papa he‘e nalu (surfboards) as well as fishnet floats and outriggers for canoes. (See Wiliwili in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

[Photograph: Wiliwili seed lei]

 

 

Wiliwili Haole (Common Coral Tree)

Erythrina crista-galli

Post-Contact Introduction: Widely planted along roadways.

Family: Fabaceae—Pea Family

The oblong seeds of the coral tree are dark brown in color with light streaks.  The common coral tree’s leaves are composed of three shiny oval leaflets. 

The tree’s oblong flowers that are about 2 inches (5 cm) long, dark red in color, and grow near the ends of the branches.  Seeds of the tree are encased in a long, curved and swollen pod.

Erythrina variegata is a closely related species, also referred to as wiliwili haole and commonly planted in the Hawaiian Islands.  E. variegata produces blackish, white or dark pink or purple seeds, sometimes with black markings.

[Photograph: Wiliwili haole seed lei]

 

E lei kau, e lei ho‘oilo i ke aloha.

Love is worn like a wreath through the summers and the winters.

Love is everlasting.

                                                (Pukui: 332-40)



[i]p. 237, Pukui, Mary Kawena.  ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings.  Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983.  Proverb 2180.

[ii]p. 252, Pukui, Mary Kawena.  ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings.  Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983.  Proverb 2312.

[iii]p. 285, Pukui, Mary Kawena.  ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings.  Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983.  Proverb 2589.

[iv]Wagner, Warren L., Herbst, Derral R., and Sohmer, S.H.  Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i: Revised Edition, Volumes 1 and 2.  Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press; Bishop Museum Press, 1999.

[v] Wagner, Warren L., and Herbst, Derral R.  Electronic Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i.  Internet site: http://rathbun.si.edu/botany/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/supplement.htm, 3/05/2002.

[vi]Wagner, Warren L., Herbst, Derral R., and Sohmer, S.H.  Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i: Revised Edition, Volumes 1 and 2.  Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press; Bishop Museum Press, 1999.

[vii] Wagner, Warren L., and Herbst, Derral R.  Electronic Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i.  Internet site: http://rathbun.si.edu/botany/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/supplement.htm, 3/05/2002.