Part 1: Complete Timeline of Hawaiian History

Part 1

Complete Timeline of Hawaiian History

A Chronology of the History of the Hawaiian Islands

[Illustration: King Kamehameha I]

Introductory Charts and Information

 

Nā Mō‘ī Hawai‘i—The Hawaiian Monarchy

Hawaiian Monarch

King Kamehameha I

[Kamehameha] (c.1753-1819) 

King Kamehameha II

[Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho] (1797-1824) 

King Kamehameha III

[Kauikeaouli] (1814-1854)

King Kamehameha IV

[Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani)] (1834-1863)

King Kamehameha V

[Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha] (1830-1872)

King Lunalilo

[William Charles Lunalilo] (1835-1874)

King Kalākaua

[David La‘amea Kalākaua] (1836-1891)

Queen Lili‘uokalani

[Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] (1838-1917)

Other Hawaiian Ali‘i (Royalty) and Chiefs

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (c.1713-1794)

Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (c.1736-1804)

Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (1748-1794)

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula

[Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (c.1756-1795)

Kalanikūpule (1760-1795)

Kaikio‘ewa (1765-1839)

Kalanimoku

[Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] (1768-1827)

Queen Ka‘ahumanu (c.1768-1832)

Ulumāheihei

[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] (1776-1840)

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (1778-1823)

King Kaumuali‘i (c.1780-1824)

Queen Kapi‘olani (1781-1841)

‘Ōpūkaha‘ia (1792-1818)

Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802-1824)

Kīna‘u (1805-1839)

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

[Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua;

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena;

Harriet Keōpūolani] (1815-1836)

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826-1883)

Princess Pauahi

[Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831-1884)

Queen Kapi‘olani (II) (1834-1899)

Queen Emma

[Emma Na‘ea Rooke;

Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885)

Princess Victoria Kamāmalu (1838-1866)

Prince Kūhiō

[Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922)

Princess Ka‘iulani

[Victoria Kawēkiu Ka‘iulani] (1875-1899)

Governors of Hawai‘i

Governors of the Territory of Hawai‘i

Appointed by U.S. President

Governors of the State of Hawai‘i

Elected after Statehood

Introduction to the Timeline

Complete Timeline of Hawaiian History


 

Nā Mō‘ī Hawai‘i

The Hawaiian Monarchy

The Eight Rulers of the United Hawaiian Kingdom

 

Monarch: King Kamehameha I [Kamehameha]

Reign: 1795—May 8, 1819

Birth: 1753

Death: May 8, 1819

Monarch: King Kamehameha II [Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho]

Reign: May 20, 1819—July 14, 1824

Birth: 1796

Death: July 14, 1824

Monarch: King Kamehameha III [Kauikeaouli]

Reign: June 6, 1825—Dec. 15, 1854

Birth: Mar. 17, 1814

Death: Dec. 15, 1854

Monarch: King Kamehameha IV [Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani]

Reign: Dec. 15, 1854—Nov. 30, 1863

Birth: Feb. 9, 1834

Death: Nov. 30, 1863

Monarch: King Kamehameha V [Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha]

Reign: Nov. 30, 1863—Dec. 11, 1872

Birth: Dec. 11, 1830

Death: Dec. 11, 1872

Monarch: King Lunalilo [William Charles Lunalilo]

Reign: Jan. 8, 1873—Feb. 3, 1874

Birth: Jan. 31, 1835

Death: Feb. 3, 1874

Monarch: King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]

Reign: Feb. 13, 1874—Jan. 20, 1891

Birth: Nov. 16, 1836

Death: Jan. 20, 1891

Monarch: Queen Lili‘uokalani

[Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]

Reign: Jan. 29, 1891—Jan. 17, 1893

Birth: Sep. 2, 1838

Death: Nov. 11, 1917

Kuhina Nui

Premiers, or Regents, Sharing Power with the King 

 

Years:1819-1824

Kuhina Nui: Ka‘ahumanu

During Reign of: King Kamehameha II

Years: 1824-1832

Kuhina Nui: Ka‘ahumanu

During Reign of: King Kamehameha III

Years: 1832-1839

Kuhina Nui: Kīna‘u

During Reign of: King Kamehameha III

Years: 1839-1845

Kuhina Nui: Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea]

During Reign of: King Kamehameha III

Years: 1845-1854

Kuhina Nui: John Young (II) (Keoni Ana)

During Reign of: King Kamehameha III, IV

Years: 1854-1863

Kuhina Nui: Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu

During Reign of: King Kamehameha IV, V

Years: 1863-1864

Kuhina Nui: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a

During Reign of: King Kamehameha V


 

Historic Periods

of the Hawaiian Islands

Note: Historic periods listed below, except the Modern Period, are based on classifications proposed by Patrick Vinton Kirch in Feathered Gods and Fishhooks (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1985).

 

Colonization Period

A.D. 300 (±200)—600

Initial arrival and colonization of the Hawaiian archipelago by Polynesians, most likely from the Marquesas Islands about 2,500 miles (4,000 km) to the southeast. Relatively little is known about the culture, social customs, and rituals of this time period.

Developmental Period

600—1100

Development of food production and acquisition strategies; utilization of plentiful native and Polynesian-introduced resources, including plants, birds, shellfish, and fish (including large game fish); the population reaches an estimated 20,000 people, moving beyond the windward valleys into arid leeward valleys and coastal areas; a unique Hawaiian culture begins to develop.

Expansion Period

1100—1650

Major increase in population; increased agriculture; the first true loko ‘ia (fishponds) and the aquaculture techniques used to manage them; development of ahupua‘a system (natural watershed land divisions extending from the mountains to the sea) with land divisions under the control of sub-chiefs responsible to a paramount chief; and other significant changes in social and political structures.

Protohistoric Period

1650—1778

Further increases in food production, including irrigation in lower valleys; continuing social and political changes with independent chiefdoms competing for rule; changes in architecture of heiau (sacred places of worship), including increasingly large luakini heiau where human sacrifices occur.

Modern Period

1778—Present

Western goods and weapons bring dramatic changes in traditional ways of living; the Hawaiian monarchy is overthrown in 1893; the Hawaiian Islands are annexed to the United States in 1898; sugar becomes the driving force of the economy through the first half of the 1900s; the Islands are increasingly utilized by the U.S. as a strategic military location, and become the 50th state in 1959; tourism grows to seven million annual visitors by 2005.

 

Major Battles of King Kamehameha I

1782—The Battle of Moku‘ōhai

1790—The Battle of Kepaniwai—Kamehameha Invades Maui

1791—Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula—War of the Red Mouthed Cannon

1795—The Battle of Nu‘uanu

Hawai‘i’s Major Political Periods

1795—1893 Kingdom of Hawai‘i

1893—1894 Provisional Government

1894—1900 Republic of Hawai‘i

1900—1959 Territory of Hawai‘i

1959—Present Statehood


 

Biographical Sketches

Table of Contents 

Nā Mō‘ī Hawai‘i—The Hawaiian Monarchy

(See Year of Birth in Timeline for Biographical Sketch)

 

Hawaiian Monarch

King Kamehameha I

[Kamehameha] (c.1753-1819) 

King Kamehameha II

[Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho] (1797-1824) 

King Kamehameha III

[Kauikeaouli] (1814-1854)

King Kamehameha IV

[Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani)] (1834-1863)

King Kamehameha V

[Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha] (1830-1872)

King Lunalilo

[William Charles Lunalilo] (1835-1874)

King Kalākaua

[David La‘amea Kalākaua] (1836-1891)

Queen Lili‘uokalani

[Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] (1838-1917)

Other Hawaiian Ali‘i (Royalty) and Chiefs

(See Year of Birth in Timeline for Biographical Sketch)

 

Hawaiian Historical Figure

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (c.1713-1794)

Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (c.1736-1804)

Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (1748-1794)

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula

[Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (c.1756-1795)

Kalanikūpule (1760-1795)

Kaikio‘ewa (1765-1839)

Kalanimoku

[Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] (1768-1827)

Queen Ka‘ahumanu (c.1768-1832)

Ulumāheihei

[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] (1776-1840)

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (1778-1823)

King Kaumuali‘i (c.1780-1824)

Queen Kapi‘olani (1781-1841)

‘Ōpūkaha‘ia (1792-1818)

Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802-1824)

Kīna‘u (1805-1839)

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

[Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua;

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena;

Harriet Keōpūolani] (1815-1836)

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826-1883)

Princess Pauahi

[Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831-1884)

Queen Kapi‘olani (II) (1834-1899)

Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke;

Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885)

Princess Victoria Kamāmalu (1838-1866)

Prince Kūhiō

[Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922)

Princess Ka‘iulani

[Victoria Kawēkiu Ka‘iulani] (1875-1899)


 

Governors of Hawai‘i

Governors of the Territory of Hawai‘i

Appointed by the United States President

 

Sanford B. Dole (Annexationist (Republican)

Born: 1844.

Died: 1926.

Term: 1900-1903

George R. Carter (Republican)

Born: 1866

Died: 1933

Term: 1903-1907

Walter F. Frear (Republican)

Born: 1863

Died: 1948

Term: 1907-1913

Lucius E. Pinkham (Democrat)

Born: 1850

Died: 1922

Term: 1913-1918

Charles J. McCarthy (Democrat)

Born: 1861

Died:1929

Term: 1918-1921

Wallace R. Farrington (Republican)

Born: 1871

Died: 1933

Term: 1921-1929

Lawrence M. Judd (Republican)

Born: 1877

Died: 1968

Term: 1929-1934

Joseph B. Poindexter (Democrat)

Born: 1869

Died: 1951

Term: 1934-1942

Ingram M. Stainback (Democrat)

Born: 1883

Died: 1961

Term: 1942-1951

Oren Ethelbert Long (Democrat)

Born: 1889

Died: 1965

Term: 1951-1953

Samuel Wilder King (Republican)

Born: 1886

Died: 1959

Term: 1953-1957

William Francis Quinn (Republican)

Born: 1919

Died: 2006

Term: 1957-1959

Governors of the State of Hawai‘i

Elected after Statehood

William Francis Quinn (Republican)

Born: 1919

Died: 2006

Term: 1959-1962

John Anthony Burns (Democrat)

Born: 1909

Died: 1975

Term: 1962-1964

George R. Ariyoshi (Democrat)

Born: 1926

Died: -----

Term: 1974-1986

John D. Waihee III (Democrat)

Born: 1946

Died:-----

Term: 1986-1994

Benjamin J. Cayetano (Democrat)

Born: 1939

Died:-----

Term: 1994-2002

Linda Lingle (Republican)

Born: 1953

Died:-----

Term: 2002-


 

Introduction to the

Complete Timeline of Hawaiian History

In 1789, new nations were forming in two very different places. In the Hawaiian Islands, the brave, young warrior Kamehameha was leading an invasion of Maui, and he would soon conquer all of the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States, George Washington was elected as that country’s first president.

One revolution was the result of the American colonists’ resistance to the dominance of Great Britain. The other was the result of battles led by a young ali‘i (royal) chief who would eventually form a united Hawaiian Kingdom and become known as King Kamehameha the Great.

This Timeline of Hawaiian History chronicles the major events and people that comprise the history of the Hawaiian Islands, including:

the arrival of the Polynesians, the first humans to reach the Hawaiian Islands;

the development of a native Hawaiian culture unique in all of Polynesia;

early inter-island and intra-island battles between warrior chiefs and their armies;

the battles of King Kamehameha I uniting the Hawaiian Islands under one ruler;

the arrival of British Captain James Cook in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778;

the wide-ranging effects of Western contact;

the eight rulers of Hawaiian monarchy and other ali‘i (royalty);

the arrival of the twelve companies of American missionaries beginning in 1820;

the eras of sandalwood trading and whaling in the early 1800s;

the Great Māhele in 1848 that instituted a new system of private property ownership;

the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893;

the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States in 1898;

the rise of the sugarcane industry in the 1900s including the mass immigration of laborers and the plantation era;

the pineapple industry; milestones of aviation and other forms of transportation;

advances in communication technology;

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941;

the Democratic Revolution of 1954;

the advent of Statehood in 1959, ushering in a new era of jet travel and rapidly increasing tourism;

the construction of historic buildings;

the “Hawaiian Renaissance”;

natural disasters—volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes;

native and endangered species,

extinctions and efforts at restoration of species populations;

important cultural and political issues;

and other major events of Hawaiian history from ancient times up to the present day.

This Timeline of Hawaiian History, as with this Hawaiian Encyclopedia overall, seeks to include all relevant information while remaining objective and impartial, and in all cases avoids subjective interpretations of major historical events (e.g., the arrival of missionaries, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, etc.).

When specific details of particular events remain uncertain, controversial, or are subject to varying and contrasting historical interpretations, the pertinent issues are qualified and clarified, and in some cases opposing points of view are provided.

See Appendices 1 and 2 for a more complete discussion of issues regarding Hawaiian history and how they are treated in this text.


 

Complete Timeline of Hawaiian History

c. 4000 B.C.c.3000 B.C.—Beginning of several waves of seafaring migrations from the Southeast Asian mainland by voyagers (Austronesians) who eventually inhabit hundreds of Pacific islands.

These ancient mariners sailing voyaging canoes first migrate from Taiwan and China to the Philippines and Indonesia (see approximate dates below), then to West Polynesia, East Polynesia, New Zealand, and eventually Tonga, Sāmoa and the Hawaiian Islands.[i] (See DNA Research on Polynesian/Hawaiian Origins and Migrations, Chapter 3.)

Note: Genetic studies indicate that humans first migrated out of Africa into Europe and Asia about 50,000 years ago.

[Illustration: Map (sketch) of migration paths of early Polynesians]

c.2500 B.C.—Early Austronesian voyagers travel from Taiwan to the Philippines likely by outrigger canoe.

Note: Root words for outrigger canoes show up in the language at about this time.

c.1500 B.C.—The Lapita, an ancient Pacific Ocean people, migrate eastward from the Bismarck Archipelago, a group of volcanic islands off the northeast coast of New Guinea in the southwest Pacific. The eastward expansion of this Early Eastern Lapita people continues an early migration into the Western Pacific from Southeast Asia, and eventually gives rise to the Polynesians.[ii]

The rapid migration activities of the Lapita begin about 1500 B.C., reaching the Solomon Islands in Melanesia by about 1300 B.C. and then New Caledonia by about 1200 B.C..

Note: The Lapita culture is known for its distinctive and colorful earthenware pottery, which can be traced through Melanesia to Sāmoa, Fiji, and Tonga, where many characteristics of typical Polynesian culture evolve during the first millennium. By the time the Hawaiian Islands are settled, however, the use of pottery disappears and is replaced instead by stone adzes and other crafts.

Lapita pottery appears in Melanesia and then New Caledonia and Sāmoa. The people of the Lapita culture are the founding members of Tonga, Sāmoa, and Fiji. (See Ancient Polynesians, Chapter 12.)

c.900 B.C. – c.800 B.C.—The Lapita people migrate east as far as Tonga and Sāmoa where the culture then disappears and the Polynesian culture arises.

Note: About this time, mentions of the Polynesian gods first appear and this is also likely when the double voyaging canoe is developed, allowing the Polynesians to make long voyages extending thousands of miles.

c.1000 B.C. 900 B.C.—Western Polynesia (including Tonga and Sāmoa) is first settled, and becomes the homeland of the Polynesians who develop a Proto-Polynesian language that leads to at least 36 documented Polynesian languages. More than 4,000 words of this Proto Polynesian language have been reconstructed.[iii]

c.500 B.C. – c.A.D. 900—Polynesian settlers migrate north, east, and southwest, and settle Eastern Polynesia, including the Marquesas Islands, Society Islands, Austral Islands, Cook Islands, and eventually New Zealand, Easter Island, and the Hawaiian Islands.

Austronesian voyagers journey from the Philippines in several directions, reaching the Marianas Islands in Micronesia by about 2000 B.C. to 1500 B.C., and reaching Indonesia by about 500 B.C.

Note: Molecular biologists have discovered phenotypic homogeneity and common genetic markers among Polynesians, suggesting a “genetic bottleneck” took place early in the history of the Polynesian race, likely around the time that Fiji, Tonga, and Sāmoa were settled. [iv]

[Illustration: Map (sketch) of migration paths of early Polynesians]

Austronesian Dispersal Theory

Recent research by Bishop Museum chairman of anthropology Tianlong Jiao and Taiwanese archeologists Dr. Li Kuang-ti and Dr. Tsang Cheng-hwa produced results in agreement with the research of University of California Berkeley scientist Patrick V. Kirch and Peter Bellwood of the Australian National University.

Kirch and Bellwood espouse an Austronesian dispersal theory that Micronesians, Melanesians, and Polynesians are not separate races (as previously believed) but instead are all descended from the Austronesians who originated on the southern coast of China.[v]

c.A.D. 200 – c.A.D. 800—Humans Arrive in the Hawaiian Islands—The First Hawaiians

Polynesian voyagers sailing double-hulled voyaging canoes reach the Hawaiian Islands, probably from the Marquesas Islands, a ring of ten steep, volcanic islands about 2,500 miles (4,023 km) to the southeast of the Hawaiian Islands, 740 miles (1,191 km) northeast of Tahiti, and 3,700 miles (5,955 km) west of Peru.

The Marquesas are part of the South Pacific island group known as French Polynesia, an archipelago that includes 130 islands divided into five groups: the Gambier Islands, the Australs, the Tuamotus, the Society Islands, and the Marquesas. By A.D. 1200 the Polynesian voyagers settle nearly every habitable island over some ten million square miles of the Pacific Ocean.

The Polynesians bring with them to the Hawaiian Islands on their voyaging canoes many different species of plants and animals, including pua‘a (Sus scrofa, pigs), moa (Gallus gallus gallus, chickens), and ‘īlio (Canis familiaris, dogs) along with at least 24 (probably more than 26) species of plants for food and other uses. (See Polynesian-Introduced Plants, Chapter 9.)

The Hawaiian settlers construct houses of pili grass (Heteropogon contortus, twisted beardgrass) thatched on a wooden frame. They clear the lowland forests to plant kalo (Colocasia esculenta, taro). The eat taro’s lū‘au (young leaves) and pound the underground tubers (corms) into poi, a staple of their diet. The taro is grown in earthen and rock-terraced fields irrigated by networks of ‘auwai (irrigation channels).

These first Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands also catch a variety of fish and shellfish from the ocean, eat honu (sea turtles) as well as limu (seaweed), and utilize many native Hawaiian plants as well as dozens of Polynesian-introduced species that they brought with them to the Hawaiian Islands on their voyaging canoes. In the coastal shallows the ancient Hawaiians build large loko i‘a (fishponds) that they keep well stocked.

The Polynesians reach the Marquesas and Tahiti about A.D. 700, Easter Island by A.D. 900, and New Zealand by A.D. 1200.

(For more information about Polynesian migrations, see First Polynesians, First Hawaiians, Chapter 3; The First Hawaiians; Traditional Uses of Native Hawaiian Species; and Traditional Uses of Polynesian-Introduced Species, Chapter 12.)

c.A.D. 1000—The existence of the sweet potato in Polynesia by this date suggests South American contact because the sweet potato is indigenous to South America. Polynesians may have sailed to South America, or the sweet potato may have been brought to Polynesia or arrived by some other means.

c.1000 – c.A.D. 1200 (perhaps one or two centuries later)—Tahitians, sailing voyaging canoes first arrive in the Hawaiian Islands. The Tahitians comprise a second wave of immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, and they conquer and dominate the earlier Marquesan settlers.

Note: Tahiti encompasses 402 square miles (1,041 sq. km), and is the largest island of the Society Islands group of French Polynesia, which also includes the Marquesas. The island of Tahiti is almost directly below the Hawaiian Islands and about half way between California and Australia.

c.1100—A Tahitian kahuna (priest) named Pā‘ao arrives in the Hawaiian Islands to start a high priest line known as kahuna nui, introducing the war god Kūkā‘ilimoku and constructing luakini heiau (temples of human sacrifice).

Pā‘ao returns to Tahiti and brings back a chief named Pili [Kaaiea], who rules Hawai‘i Island and sires the royal line that begins a 700-year dynasty culminating with the Kamehamehas. (See Hawaiian Culture, Chapter 3; ‘Aumākua—Sacred Guardians; and Heiau and Kapu, Chapter 12.)

c.1300 c.1400—Contact with southern Polynesia ceases or severely diminishes, and a period of time begins in which Hawaiians no longer complete long-distance, open-ocean voyages.

During this time a unique Hawaiian culture develops and continues to evolve. (See A Unique Hawaiian Culture; Celestial Navigation, ‘Ōahi—The Fire-Throwing Ceremony; Medicinal Plants—The Kahuna Lā‘au Lapa‘au; and Kapa (Tapa) Barkcloth, Chapter 12.)

c.1400s—Surfing is likely introduced to the Hawaiian Islands around this time. The first papa he‘e nalu (surfboards) are up to 18 feet (5.5 m) long and weigh up to 175 pounds (79 kg). (See History of Surfing, Chapter 3.)

1492—Spanish explorer Cristobal Colón (Christopher Columbus) reaches North America.

c.1500—Ruling chiefs battle for power, and engage in numerous interisland wars. The paramount chief of Maui is Kiha-a-pi‘ilani. Early rulers of Hawai‘i Island include Līloa and his son ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] (son of Līloa).

1519—Spanish Explorer Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) completes the first trans-Pacific voyage, as captain of the first ship to circumnavigate the Earth, though Magellan dies before the ship makes it back to Spain. Soon after this, many other ships begin to traverse the Pacific Ocean, including Spanish, French, Dutch and English ships.

Note: Despite the fact that ships of many countries sail the Pacific Ocean in the early 1500s, there are no verifiable records of any European ships or other Western ships reaching the Hawaiian Islands until more than 250 years later, in 1778, when British Captain James Cook officially becomes the first Westerner to visit the Hawaiian Islands.

However, Spanish galleons voyaging between Mexico and the Philippines may have encountered the Hawaiian Islands earlier (see 1555; 1620), but this remains speculative.

c.1555—Spanish navigator Juan Gaetano (Gaytan) documents an island group at the latitude of Hawaiian Islands, but records an incorrect longitude. Gaetano names the island group “Islas de Mesa,” (“Table Islands”) or “Los Majos” (“The Tableland”).

Other maps and charts dating to the 1600s also show an island group thought to be the Hawaiian Islands, which are located just a few hundred miles from the routes known to be used by Spanish ships traveling between the Far East and Latin America during this time period.

c.1580 – c.1600—The paramount chief of Hawai‘i Island is Līloa, whose reign is relatively peaceful.

c.1600—Hawai‘i Island chief ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] marries Pi‘ikea, the daughter of the Maui ruler Pi‘ilani. Lono-a-Pi‘ilani, the eldest son of Pi‘ilani, becomes ruler of Maui after his father dies, and then is defeated by his younger brother Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani who is victorious in the battle due to the assistance of his brother-in-law ‘Umi-a-Līloa, who continues to rule the Hāna district. Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani builds a road known as alaloa circling the island.

c.1600 – c.1620—Hawai‘i Island ruler ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] inherits the guardianship of the war god Kūkā‘ilimoku (though he was not named heir), and becomes ruler of Hawai‘i Island after defeating his half-brother Hākau at Waipi‘o and uniting the Hawai‘i Island chiefs under his rule.

c.1620—The legendary Konaliloa wrecks at Ke‘ei near Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island, according to Thrum’s first chronology in 1882 listing the marine casualties of the Hawaiian Islands (some accounts say the wreck occurred up to one century earlier).

It is said that the vessel’s captain and his sister barely made it to shore, where they were cared for by the natives.

Also in 1620, a group of Puritans known as the Pilgrims who are dissatisfied with the Church of England colonize New England, arriving there on the ship Mayflower.

c.1620—c.1640—Keali‘iokaloa, the son of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi], rules Hawai‘i Island, but he is not a popular leader and his son Kuka‘ilani is defeated by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] (another son of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]), who becomes the ruling chief of Hawai‘i Island.

c.1700—Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] is ruling chief of Hawai‘i Island. Kanaloakua‘ana, the grandson of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]. serves as Regent because Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] is so young. The warriors of Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] battle rebel chiefs on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, and Moloka‘i.

c.1700—The forces of Alapa‘iniu, the paramount chief of Hawai‘i Island, attack the forces of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] on Maui. Kekaulike responds with a counterattack against Hawai‘i Island.

Kekaulike is the great grandfather of King Kamehameha I’s sacred wife Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], and the great great grandfather of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

c.1713—Birth of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] to Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui].

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu

Kahekili 

Biographical Sketch: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]: 

Born: c.1713.

Died: 1794.

Father: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike].

Mother: Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui].

Brother: Kamehamehanui.

Sister: Kalola.

Sons: Kalanikūpule; Koalaukani [Koholokalani]; possibly also King Kamehameha I (see below).

Half-Brothers: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], Kekuamanohā.

Half-Sister: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]

Summary of Life of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]:

· Chief of Maui and O‘ahu.

· Enemy of warriors Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kamehameha I.

· May have been true biological father of King Kamehameha I. Though the father of King Kamehameha I is usually listed as Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui], many think Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is indeed the true biological father because Kamehameha’s mother Keku‘iapoiwa (II) had visited Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] before the young ali‘i Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) was born.

· Tattooed black over one side of his body from head to toe; sometimes referred to as “Pā‘ele kū chief of the Bays of Pi‘ilani [Maui],” referring to “the solid black tattoo covering half of Kahekili’s body.”[vi]

· Assisted by his half-brother Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], became ali‘i ‘ai moku (paramount chief) of Maui (succeeded Kamehamehanui) and then O‘ahu, leaving his son, Kalanikūpule to rule Maui.

· Visited ship of British Captain James Cook (1728—1779) in November 1778.

· In 1790, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu was the most powerful ali‘i (chief) in the Hawaiian Islands, ruling Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i. He was in alliance with his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], ruler of Kaua‘i, who seized O‘ahu by killing its chief and sacrificing him to his own war god, also killing lesser chiefs of O‘ahu and using their skeletons to construct a house of bones.

· Fearing conquest of Hawai‘i Island by Kā‘eokūlani and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], Kamehameha decided to strike first, and landed his troops on Maui to fight against Kalanikūkupule, son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Kamehameha considered it a good omen when the feathers of his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku bristled.

· Fighting between the two groups of warriors began in Wailuku, and then proceeded up into ‘Īao Valley where the precipitous cliffs at the head of the valley blocked escape. Kamehameha’s forces had the advantage of superior western weapons (muskets) as well as a cannon manned by the foreigners John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) and Isaac Davis [‘Aikake].

· In Kamehameha’s victory at ‘Īao Valley, dead bodies from both sides are said to have blocked the river, giving the battle its name, the Battle of Kepaniwai (“The Water Dam”). The bloody confrontation is also referred to as Ka‘uwa‘upali (“Precipice-clawing”), referring to the fleeing warriors climbing the steep cliffs of ‘Īao Valley as they tried to escape.[vii]

· Facing imminent defeat, Kalanikūpule, the son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu fled over a narrow mountain pass along with his high chiefs, and they sailed to O‘ahu where Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] began war preparations.

· Defeated in 1791 by forces of Kamehameha I off the northeast coast of Hawai‘i Island in the sea battle known as Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula (“War of the Red Mouthed Cannon”), the first Hawaiian sea battle in which both sides were armed with foreign gunners and cannons. (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1791.)

· Died in summer of 1794 and left his domains to his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], and his son, Kalanikūpule, who became enemies, instigating the battles that led to the rise of the young warrior Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I). (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1794.)

· The house of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] at Wailuku was known as Lanikeha.

· Known as the “Famous warrior chief of the Bays of Pi‘ilani,” “King of Maui of Kama,” and “Maui mō‘i ‘ai moku.”[viii]

(For more information about Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], see 1748; 1753; 1760; 1775; 1784; 1786; 1790; 1791; 1794; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

c.1720—c.1740—Hawai‘i Island is ruled by Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe], the great-grandnephew of Lonoikamakahiki [Lono].

1722 (Easter Sunday)—A Dutch navigator spots Rapa Nui, later known as Easter Island.

1728—James Cook is born in Yorkshire, England. Fifty years later, as captain of the HMS Discovery and the HMS Resolution, he becomes the first documented Westerner to reach the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1778, Jan.18.)

c.1736—Birth of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe to Keawepoepoe and Kūma‘aikū.

Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe 

Biographical Sketch: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (c.1736—1804)

Born: c.1736.

Died: 1804.

Father: Keawepoepoe.

Mother: Kūma‘aikū.

Wife: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Daughter: Ka‘ahumanu (queen as wife of King Kamehameha I).

Sons: Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]; Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox].

Older brothers (on father’s side): Sacred twins Kamanawa and Kame‘eiamoku (these brothers were allies of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe).

Granddaughter: Ka‘ua‘umokuokamānele [Kamānele] (daughter of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]).

Summary of Life of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe:

· Fought numerous interisland battles, eventually joining forces with Kamehameha I.

· Was the most prominent of Kona’s four high chiefs, leading canoe fleets and land battles supporting Kamehameha I.

· In 1782, at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai in Ke‘ei, Kona; the young warrior Kamehameha led his warriors to victory, and Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was killed, and when he died he was wearing an ‘ahu ‘ula (feathered cloak), which then became the property of Kamehameha (this feathered cloak is now in the collection of the Bishop Museum).

One account states that the injured Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe crawled to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], who also had been injured, and then Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe slit the neck of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] with a leiomano (shark-tooth weapon). (Accounts differ). (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

· Said to have killed Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] at Kawaihae in 1791. (See 1791, Summer.)

· Became governor of large areas of Hawai‘i Island.

· Died in 1804, likely of ma‘i ‘ōku‘u (thought to be cholera), during an 1804 invasion of O‘ahu with the troops of Kamehameha I.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “Ka aku la ka‘u lā‘au i ka ‘a‘ama kua lenalena.” (“My spear pierced the yellow-shelled crab.”). “This was the boast of the warrior who speared Ke‘eaumoku at the Battle of Moku‘ohai. Ke‘eaumoku revived and shortly after killed Kīwala‘ō. This battle was between the two cousins Kamehameha and Kīwala‘ō.”[ix]

(For more information about Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe, see 1753; 1768; 1776; 1780; 1782; 1785; 1790; 1791, Summer; 1802; 1804; 1805; 1822, Jan.7; 1830, Dec.11; 1834, Feb.9; 1838; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

1736—Warriors of Hawai‘i Island and Moloka‘i, led by Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i], battle O‘ahu’s warriors at Kawela in south Moloka‘i. Five days of fighting result in the defeat of O‘ahu’s forces and the death of O‘ahu’s chief Kapi‘ioho-o-kalani (“The head curls of the royal chief”).

Two years later, the warriors of Alapa‘inui again invade Maui. (See 1738; and Kawela in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1738—Warriors of Hawai‘i Island, led by Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i], invade Maui along with Moloka‘i warriors, and defeat the warriors of O‘ahu.

1748—Birth of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] to Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau.

Kā‘eokūlani

Kā‘eo 

Biographical Sketch: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]:

Born: 1748.

Died: 1794.

Father: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike].

Mother: Holau.

Wife: Kamakahelei.

Son: Kaumuali‘i.

Grandson: Kinoiki (daughter of Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] and Kaumuali‘i).

Great grandchildren: Kapi‘olani (II), Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani, and Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (children of Kūhiō and Kinoiki).

Great great grandchildren: Edward Keali‘ihonui, David Kawānanakoa, and Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi (children of Esther Kinoiki and David Kahalepouli Pi‘ikoi).

Half-brother: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. 

Summary of Life of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]: 

· Ruler of Kaua‘i.

· Helped Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] conquer Maui and O‘ahu.

· When Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] died in 1794, his domains were divided between Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kalanikūpule (son of Kahekili).

· Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kalanikūpule became enemies, and Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] was killed in a 1794 battle against Kalanikūpule, who was assisted by foreigners and foreign ships. The battle took place near what is now called Pearl Harbor. (See 1794, Dec. 12.)

(For more information about Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], see 1713; 1753; 1760; 1780; 1786; 1790; 1794, Summer; 1794, Dec. 12.)

c.1753—Birth of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I), to Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

King Kamehameha I

[Pai‘ea Kamehameha; Pai‘ea Kalaninuimehameha; Kalaninui Pai‘ea; Kalaninuimehameha; Kalaninui Pai‘ea; Kalaninuimehameha; Kalani Ali‘i Kamehameha; Pai‘ea Kalaninuimehameha; Pai‘ea Laninuimehameha]

Born: c.1753.

Died: 1819.

Father: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui]

Mother: Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

Grandparents: Kamaka‘īmoku and Ke‘eaumokunui [Kalanike‘eaumoku] (parents of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui]).

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa (II)). 

Great grandparents: Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] and Kalanikauleleiaiwinui (parents of Ke‘eaumokunui [Kalanike‘eaumoku]). 

Father of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū with Kānekapolei.

Grandfather of Konia [Laura Konia] (daughter of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū and Luahine).

Great grandfather of Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop (daughter of Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]).

Grandfather of Kalani Pauahi (daughter of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū and Keōuawahine).

Great grandfather of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (daughter of Mataio Kekūanaō‘a and Kalani Pauahi).

Great great grandfather of William Pitt Kīna‘u (son of William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I) and Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani).

Husband of Queen Ka‘ahumanu (his favorite wife).

Husband of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (sacred wife).

Father of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), and Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] with Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Father of Kīna‘u and Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] with Kalākua.

Grandfather of Moses Kekūāiwa, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) (children of Mataio Kekūanaō‘a and Kīna‘u).

Great grandfather of Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) (son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

Summary of Life of King Kamehameha I:

· Born at Kapākai in Kokoiki, near ‘Upolu Point in the North Kohala area of Hawai‘i Island. Soon after being born, Kamehameha was taken by canoe to Mo‘okini Heiau for a ritual, and then to ‘Āwini Valley, where he was kept safe from any potential enemies. An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “E ‘aki maka o ka lauhue.” (“Nip off the bud of the poison gourd.”) These words were “...uttered by some chiefs of the court of Alapa‘i, ruler of Hawai‘i Island, who wanted Kamehameha destroyed at birth.”[x]

· Kamehameha’s childhood name was Pai‘ea.

· As a young man, Kamehameha overturned the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone) on Hawai‘i Island in 1775. A high priestess had predicted that whoever could move this nearly 5,000-pound stone would conquer all of the Hawaiian Islands.

· In November of 1778, the young chief Kamehameha, with Kalani‘ōpu‘u (the ruler of Hawai‘i Island) went aboard Captain Cook’s ship, the HMS Resolution, which was anchored off Maui’s east side near Hāna. Kamehameha remained on board overnight, with six other chiefs.

· On January 17, 1779, Captain Cook sailed the Resolution into Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island’s Kona coast, seeking to restock his ships and let his men recover from their journey so they could press on for further exploration. During this visit, Cook met the young chief Pai‘ea Kamehameha (for the second time), along with Hawai‘i Island high (paramount) chief Kalani‘ōpu‘u. (See 1779, Jan. 17.)

· In 1780, Hawai‘i Island ruler Kalani‘ōpu‘u met with his chiefs in Waipi‘o Valley, telling them that, that after he died: his oldest son Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] would become the new ruler of Hawai‘i Island; his son Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] would get land; and Kamehameha (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s nephew) would become chief of Kohala, on land that was Kamehameha’s by inheritance.

Kamehameha was also to be given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku, along with the responsibility of caring for the heiau (sacred places of worship) associated with the war god.

Kalani‘ōpu‘u then captured an enemy chief of Puna named ‘Īmakakoloa [Imakaloa] for a human sacrifice ceremony to consolidate his chiefdom. ‘Īmakakoloa was taken to the Ka‘ū luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed) called Hālauwilua in Kamā‘oa in the ahupua‘a of Pākini;

When Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], initiated the sacrificial ceremony, Kamehameha boldly stepped in and finished the ritual, placing ‘Īmakakoloa on the altar.

This action by Kamehameha caused controversy and led to a rift between Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Kamehameha, who then returned to Kohala. (See 1780.)

· After Kalani‘ōpu‘u died in April of 1782, Kamehameha and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] were both slighted by the redivision of lands of Hawai‘i Island by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], which took away from Kamehameha and Kona chiefs lands formerly under their rule.

Chief counselor for Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at this time was Keawemauhili,[xi] who was given large portions of Kona and Hilo.

The redivision of lands on Hawai‘i Island by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] angered the Kona’s chiefs, causing them to unite with Kamehameha, who became their leader. (See 1780.)

Loyal to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] are chiefs of Ka‘ū, Puna, and Hilo, including Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother, Keawemauhili.

The following Kona chiefs become loyal to Kamehameha:

· Kalua‘apana Keaweāheulu (Kamehameha’s uncle).

· Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (the father of Ka‘ahumanu, the future queen as wife of King Kamehameha I).

· Kekūhaupi‘o (Warrior teacher of Kamehameha).

· Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū] (Son of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kamakaeheikuli; half-brother of Kamehameha).

· Kawelo‘okalani (Half-brother of Kamehameha).

· Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani], the brother of Kamehameha.

· Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa (sacred royal twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]), the sons of Keawepoepoe and Kanoena (Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa are depicted on the State of Hawai‘i’s official coat of arms).

Chiefs aligned against Kamehameha include:

· Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s oldest son, and heir to his rule of Hawai‘i Island).

· Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula (younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū).

· Keawemauhili (Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s half-brother).

I lele no ka lupe i ke pola.

It is the tail that makes the kite fly.

It is the number of followers that raises the prestige of the chief.

(Pukui: 1226—133)

· The forces of Kamehameha and Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] confronted each other in 1782 at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai in Ke‘ei, Kona. Kamehameha led the chiefs allied with him to victory. Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was killed and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] fled to Ka‘ū.

· Accounts differ on the sequence of events leading to the death of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]. One account states that an injured Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe crawled to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], who also had been injured, and then Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe slit the neck of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]with a leiomano (shark-tooth weapon).

Other accounts say Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was stabbed to death, or killed by stones. (See 1782 for more details about the Battle of Moku‘ōhai.)

· When Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] died he was wearing a cloak constructed with the yellow feathers of the ‘ō‘ō (Moho species), and adorned with red triangles made from feathers of ‘i‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea).

After Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] was killed, the cloak became the property of Kamehameha. (Note: This cloak is now in the Bishop Museum.)

· Keawemauhili was captured, but then allowed to escape, presumably because of his high rank.

· After the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, Hawai‘i Island was divided into three chiefdoms:

Keawemauhili ruled Hilo and a portion of Puna and Hāmākua;

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula ruled Ka‘ū and part of Puna;

Kamehameha ruled Kona, Kohala and northern Hāmākua.

· Kamehameha then campaigned for nearly a decade to control the rest of Hawai‘i Island. Kamehameha’s two opponents were:

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula (younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū); and

Keawemauhili (Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s half-brother).

· Kamehameha later began a military campaign to conquer the other Hawaiian Islands.

· In 1785, Kamehameha married Ka‘ahumanu, the daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (Kamehameha’s advisor) and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (sister of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]).

· In 1790, Kamehameha invaded Maui and fought the Battle of Kepaniwai. At the time, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] was the most powerful ali‘i (chief) in the Islands, ruling Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i, and in alliance with Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], the ruler of Kaua‘i who seized O‘ahu by killing the island’s chief and sacrificing him to his own war god.

Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] also killed lesser chiefs of O‘ahu and used their skeletons to construct a house of bones.

Fearing conquest of Hawai‘i Island by Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], Kamehameha decided to strike first, and landed his troops on Maui to fight against Kalanikūkupule, son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. When he landed on Maui, it was considered a good omen when the feathers of his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku bristled.

Fighting between the two groups of warriors began in Wailuku, and the battle proceeded up into ‘Īao Valley, where the precipitous cliffs at the head of the valley blocked escape.

Kamehameha’s forces had the advantage of superior western weapons (muskets) as well as a cannon manned by the foreigners John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Isaac Davis [‘Aikake]. Kamehameha’s forces prevailed, and thus the island of Maui came under Kamehameha’s rule.

In Kamehameha’s victory at ‘Īao Valley, dead bodies from both sides are said to have blocked the river, giving the battle its name, the Battle of Kepaniwai (“The water dam”). Kalanikūpule, the son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], fled over a narrow mountain pass along with his high chiefs, and they sailed to O‘ahu where Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] began war preparations.

· Kamehameha’s troops returned to Hawai‘i Island, but Kamehameha sailed to Moloka‘i with his chiefs and advisers. From Moloka‘i, Kamehameha sent Ha‘alo‘u, the grandmother of the future Queen Ka‘ahumanu, to O‘ahu to consult with Kapoukahi, a highly respected seer and kahuna (priest) of Kaua‘i, who was in Waikīkī at the time.

Kapoukahi answered the request from Kamehameha for an oracle, telling Kamehameha that he would be victorious over all the Hawaiian Islands only if he built a luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed) to his war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku. This heiau was to be built at Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island, and named Pu‘ukoholā. (See Heiau: Hawaiian Sacred Places, Chapter 3.)

Note: Pu‘ukoholā means “Whale hill”[xii] according to Pūku‘i, but was later explained by Frazier to instead be spelled Pu‘ukohola (no macron), and meaning “built as the house of the god, a pu‘u [desire] for death and not for life. The death which was to be bound securely within this heiau was in the lagoon (kai kohola) and not in the deep sea nor on land.”[xiii]

· Kamehameha was in control of Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i, but not O‘ahu. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (son of Kalani‘ōpu‘u, and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū districts) attacked Hilo and killed Kalua‘apana Keaweāheulu (Kamehameha’s uncle), and then plundered lands north of there along the Hāmākua Coast.

Kamehameha arrived to battle the invaders but the two resulting brutal confrontations did not lead to victory. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula proceeded to form a new army after a disaster at Kīlauea Volcano killed many of his troops (see 1790), and he set about recapturing the lands of Lāna‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i.

· In 1791, Kamehameha’s forces confronted the forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] at the battle known as Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula, or War of the Red Mouthed Cannon. Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] had already recaptured Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, and Maui, and then his army attacked Kamehameha’s northern coastal lands on Hawai‘i Island from Kohala to Waipi‘o.

The forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] met Kamehameha’s fleet off the northeast coast of Hawai‘i Island. Kamehameha’s counterattack began the first Hawaiian sea battle in which both sides were armed with foreign gunners and cannons.

Though the battle between the forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and Kamehameha did not lead to an outright victory for Kamehameha, the battle did force Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and his army to return to O‘ahu, and thwarted their intentions of attacking the site of the heiau construction at Kawaihae.

· The dedication of the heiau Pu‘ukoholā at Kawaihae took place in the summer of 1791. Kamehameha asked Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (chief of Hawai‘i Island’s Puna and Ka‘ū districts) to attend the dedication, saying his presence was important if there was to be peace between the rivals.

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and 26 of his chiefs and friends, including the highest chiefs of Ka‘ū, arrived at Kawaihae Bay in two large canoes. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula was in one of the canoes, and in the other canoe was the young chief Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū, the son of Kamehameha (his first child) and Kānekapōlei (who was also the mother of Keōuakuahu‘ula with Kalani‘ōpu‘u).

Greeting Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] and his men at Kawaihae were Kamehameha’s war canoes arranged in a great crescent shape surrounding Kawaihae Bay to prevent Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s escape. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula was killed, and many of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s chiefs and other members of his group were also slain.

The bodies of the killed chiefs (including Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula) were sacrificed on the altar of the luakini heiau atop the hill at Pu‘ukoholā Heiau. With the death of his rival, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], Kamehameha now controlled Hawai‘i Island.

· On February 25, 1794, during his third of three annual visits to the Hawaiian Islands, British Captain George Vancouver obtained an informal treaty of cession from Kamehameha I.

The two men were friends, and Kamehameha sought assurance that the Hawaiian Islands would be under British protection. Kamehameha received a gift of a British flag (a Union Jack) from Vancouver.

King Kamehameha flew his British flag for the next 22 years at various places where he lived, though it is uncertain what meaning Kamehameha attributed to the flag, since the apparent cession agreement with Vancouver was never ratified by British Parliament.

During his 1794 visit to Hawai‘i Island, Vancouver’s carpenters also helped Kamehameha in the construction of the 36-foot Britannia, the first foreign-designed ship built in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1794, Feb. 25.)

· In 1795, after spending more than a decade preparing for war, Kamehameha was determined to defeat the forces of Kalanikūpule (ruler of O‘ahu as the heir of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]). Kamehameha’s troops landed on O‘ahu’s south shore from Waikīkī to Wai’alae.

O‘ahu’s forces were gradually overpowered, and retreated up into Nu‘uanu Valley, where many were of the warriors were driven over the edge of the cliff at Nu‘uanu Pali (or jumped rather than surrender), meeting their death on the rocks hundreds of feet below.

Overall, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 warriors (from both sides) died in this encounter, which came to be known as the Battle of Nu‘uanu. The battle was Kamehameha’s final conquest, giving him control of all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, and furthering his attempt to establish a united Hawaiian kingdom. (See 1795, April for more details about the Battle of Nu‘uanu.)

· After his military victories, King Kamehameha I established a system of government wherein each island had a governor. There was also a Council of Advisers, a Treasurer, and a Prime Minister. Taxes were levied, and could be paid with handicrafts or produce.

Kamehameha also instituted a fee for licensing trade and wharfage, and encouraged the sandalwood trade with foreign ships. He initially ruled from Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island, then from Hilo (1796—1803), then Lahaina (1803). In 1804 the center of government was moved to Honolulu, which had the best available port. (See 1803; 1804.)

· In 1795, King Kamehameha married 17-year-old Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], who became his highest-ranking wife. (See 1795.)

With King Kamehameha I, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] gave birth to two future kings: Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II), born in 1797; and Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III), born in 1814.

King Kamehameha and Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] were also the parents of Princess, Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani], born in 1815. (See 1795; 1815.)

· In April of 1796, having already conquered O‘ahu and Maui, King Kamehameha’s invasion fleet set sail for Kaua‘i. The paramount ruler (king) of Kaua‘i at this time was Kaumuali‘i. Kamehameha’s troops left O‘ahu at midnight with an estimated 800 or more canoes and more than 8,000 soldiers.

In the channel between O‘ahu and Kaua‘i, a storm thwarted Kamehameha’s invasion attempt and destroyed many of the fleet’s canoes, which were swamped in the rough seas and stormy winds. The warriors were forced to turn back, but some of the advance troops made it to Kaua‘i and were killed when they reached shore.

· Upon the death of Kalola (the grandmother of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]), Kamehameha honored her during the mourning period by getting tattooed and having his eye teeth knocked out.

· The last battle of King Kamehameha I occurred in Hilo in September of 1796, when his warriors defeated an uprising known as Nāmakaehā’s rebellion. Nāmakaehā’s forces were in control of Hilo when Kamehameha’s forces arrived, and a battle ensued at Kaipaloa in south Hilo.

Nāmakaehā was taken captive, and then offered as a sacrifice to Kamehameha’s war god Kūkā‘ilimoku at the heiau at Pi‘ihonua. King Kamehameha remained in Hilo, the capital of the kingdom, for the next six years.

· In 1797, King Kamehameha I forgave a fisherman who 12 years earlier had hit him with a paddle. The man was brought to King Kamehameha to be punished, but instead Kamehameha forgave the man, gave him land, and set him free.

King Kamehameha passed what came to be known as Kānāwai Māmalahoe, or “Law of the Splintered Paddle,” with the intent of protecting weak people from injustices imposed by those who are stronger. This was the first law meant to protect commoners. (See 1797.)

A Hawaiian saying states: “‘Aole i ‘ena‘ena ka imu i ka māmane me ka ‘ūlei, i ‘ena‘ena i ka la‘ola‘o.” (“The imu is not heated by māmane and ‘ūlei wood alone, but also by the kindling.”), which is explained to mean, To be powerful, a ruler must have the loyalty of the common people as well as the chiefs.”[xiv]

· In 1801, Hualālai Volcano on Hawai‘i Island erupted above Ka‘ūpūlehu at an elevation of about 5,750 feet, and lava flowed to the ocean.

King Kamehameha I obeyed the warning of a kāula (prophet, seer) who told him that the volcano goddess Pele was angry and had to be calmed with gifts.

Kamehameha threw his offerings into the flowing lava to no avail as the eruption continued. Then Kamehameha cuts his own hair and threw it into the lava. This act was symbolic of giving his own self to Pele, and the flow of lava ceased. (See 1801.)

· In 1802, King Kamehameha I and Kalākua gave birth to Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano], the future queen as wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho). (See 1802.)

· In 1803, King Kamehameha I moved his capital from Hilo to Lahaina, and then in 1804 the capital was moved from Lahaina to Honolulu (see 1803; 1804).

An 1804 epidemic of ma‘i ‘ōku‘u (thought to be cholera) killed thousands of people made many more sick, including King Kamehameha and a significant number of his troops. This delayed (for the second time) Kamehameha’s attempt to conquer Kaua‘i.

The disease killed many of Kamehameha’s warriors, including chief Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe. In a renewed effort for a large-scale attack, Kamehameha began assembling an armada of sailing ships in Waikīkī, using foreigners to construct the vessels. (See 1804.)

· In 1810, Kaumuali‘i, ruler of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, met Kamehameha in Honolulu and signed a treaty ceding Kaua‘i to Kamehameha. Kaumuali‘i agreed to place Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau under Kamehameha’s control and to pledge allegiance to Kamehameha, though Kaumuali‘i was allowed to remain high chief of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau until he died. (See 1824.)

With this act, all the Hawaiian Islands were finally united under King Kamehameha, fulfilling the prophecy of the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone). King Kamehameha I declared the Hawaiian Islands to be one nation. (See 1810.) In 1812, King Kamehameha I returned to Hawai‘i Island to live in Kailua-Kona.

· King Kamehamea I died on May 8, 1819 at his Kailua-Kona home called Kamakahonu (“Eye of the Turtle”). His final reigning years were spent on Hawai‘i Island, where he ruled from the South Kona coast. When King Kamehameha became very sick, he refused the advice of a kahuna (priest) to offer one of his men as a human sacrifice to the gods, instead proclaiming “the men are kapu for the king.”

Before dying, King Kamehameha had given instructions to his trusted aid Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] that his bones should be hidden in a secret place so they would never be found.

This was a customary tradition with chiefs’ bones, which were believed to contain mana (divine power) that must be kept away from enemies. With the help of another man, named Ho‘olulu, Hoapili carried out King Kamehameha’s wish. (Note: To this day the location of King Kamehameha’s bones remains unknown.) (See 1819, May 8.)

· King Kamehameha I was Hawai‘i’s most famous warrior and king, and the first to unite all of the Hawaiian Islands under one rule. His dynasty of succession lived on until 1872. King Kamehameha I was also known as the known as “Kamehameha the Great”; the “Napoleon of the Pacific”; “Kamehameha the Conqueror”; and the “Lion of the Pacific.” 

· For more information about King Kamehameha I, see Statue of King Kamehameha I, and U.S. Army Museum of Hawai‘i: Chapter 2; Heiau: Hawaiian Sacred Places; The Hawaiian Flag, Chapter 3; Chapter 11, Timeline: 1713; 1736; 1756; 1753; 1760; 1765; 1767; 1768; 1775; 1776; 1778, Nov.; 1778; 1779, Jan.17; 1780; 1782; 1784; 1785; 1790; 1791, May 20; 1791; 1791, Summer; 1794, Feb.25; 1794, Summer; 1794; 1795; 1795, Feb.; 1795, April; 1796, Sept.; 1796, Oct.31; 1797; 1798; 1801; 1802; 1803; 1804; 1805; 1806-1816; 1808; 1809, Jan.27; 1810; 1812; 1814, Mar.17; 1815; 1816; 1817; 1818, Oct.; 1819, May 8; 1824; 1829, Dec.2; 1872, June 11; 1882; 1883, Feb.12; 1966; 1969; 1972, Aug.17; and The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.

c.1756—Birth of Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]

to ‘Ahu‘ula [Ahaula] and Kaupekamoku.

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula

Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula

Ka‘iana

Biographical Sketch:

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]

Born: c.1756.

Died: 1795.

Father: ‘Ahu‘ula [Ahaula].

Mother: Kaupekamoku.

Half-brother: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

Summary of Life of:

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]:

· First Hawaiian chief to travel to foreign countries. Went to Canton, China in 1787 on the Nootka with Captain John Meares, returning on the Iphigenia with Captain William Douglas in 1788.

· A warrior chief, Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] led battles for and against Kamehameha I.

· Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula had brought back muskets and cannons from his journeys, and his knowledge of foreign weapons and high rank made him a valuable ally of Kamehameha I. This is said to have diminished after 1793 when he is alleged to have had an affair with Queen Ka‘ahumanu, the wife of King Kamehameha I.

· Led Kamehameha I’s forces against Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (chief of Puna and Ka‘ū districts).

· During the 1795 invasion of O‘ahu, Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula deserted to Kalanikūpule’s side, and died fighting the forces of Kamehameha I in the Battle of Nu‘uanu.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “‘Eu kōlea i kona puapua; ‘eu ke kanaka i kona hanu.” (“A plover stirs its tail; a man stirs because of the breath within.”) “Said by Ka‘iana, who led an army in battle under Kamehameha I. When the Puna fighters refused to battle against Keouakuahu‘ula because of the close kinship between their own district and Ka‘ū, Ka‘iana said this to urge them to think of themselves and their own lives. Encouraged, the warriors resumed fighting and won the victory for Kamehameha.”[xv]

(For more information about Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula, see 1787, Aug.2; 1795, Feb.; 1795, April; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

1760—Birth of Kalanikūpule to Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and Kauwahine.

Kalanikūpule

Biographical Sketch: Kalanikūpule

Born: 1760.

Died: 1795.

Father: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

Mother: Kauwahine.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui].

Uncle: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

Summary of Life of Kalanikūpule:

· When his father died in 1794 he became ruler of Maui and O‘ahu.

· Fought with his uncle Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

· Suffered defeat to Kamehameha I at 1795 Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali, and then hid in the mountains for several months before being captured and sacrificed to Kamehameha’s war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku.

(For more information about Kalanikūpule, see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

1765—Birth of Kaikio‘ewa.

Kaikio‘ewa

Biographical Sketch: Kaikio‘ewa

Born: 1765.

Died: 1839.

Father: Ka‘ianaukupe Kaolohaka-a-keawe [Ka‘ianaukupe].

Mother: Kekiko‘ola Lalanikauleleaiwi.

Wife: Kalanikaulihiwakama (sister of King Kamehameha I); Keaweamahi.

Children:

Daughter (by Kalanikaulihiwakama): Kuwahine.

Daughter (by Nahaukapu): Likelike.

Summary of Life of Kaikio‘ewa:

· Cousin of King Kamehameha I through both mother and father.

· Supporter of Kamehameha I during the civil wars.

· Guardian of Kauikeaouli, who would later become King Kamehameha III.

· Appointed as governor of Kaua‘i in 1825 after Kaua‘i rebellion was thwarted, and remained governor until he died, at which time his wife, Keaweamahi took his place.

· Went into debt during the sandalwood era due to excesses in spending on novelties.

· Converted to Protestantism, and encouraged the expulsion of Catholic priests in 1830.

(For more information about Kaikio‘ewa, see 1814, Mar. 17.)

c.1767—Birth of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū (c.1767-1818) to Kamehameha I (his first son) and Kānekapōlei.

1768—Birth of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] to Kekuamanohā and Kamakahukilani.

Kalanimoku

Kālaimoku

William (Billy) Pitt

Biographical Sketch: [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt]

Born: 1768.

Died: 1827.

Father: Kekuamanohā.

Mother: Kamakahukilani.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u.

Wife: Kiliwehi.

Son: William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I), (husband of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani). 

Summary of Life of Kalanimoku:

· Treasurer and Principal Counselor (Kālaimoku) to King Kamehameha I, and later to Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, serving also as Ka‘ahumanu’s Treasurer, supervising all tax and fee collections.

· Present at the death of Captain Cook in 1779.

· Took the nickname of “Billy Pitt” after William Pitt, the English Prime Minister.

· Baptized a Roman Catholic in 1819 aboard the L‘Uranie, in the presence of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu and King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho). The scene was painted by Jacques Arago (1790—1855), the ship‘s artist, who wrote and illustrated accounts of the Hawaiian Islands during the French expedition.

[Illustration: Scene above depicted by Arago.]

· Guardian of young Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

· Helped defeat Kaua‘i rebellion of 1824 led by George P. Kaumuali‘i. (See 1824.)

· Sent ships on numerous trading voyages, including to America, the South Seas and the Russian-American colonies.

For more information about Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], see 1797; 1819; May 20, 1824.)

1768 1771—British explorer Captain James Cook takes his first voyage of “discovery” in the South Pacific.

1768—Birth of Ka‘ahumanu (at Hāna, Maui) to Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Queen Ka‘ahumanu

Biographical Sketch: Queen Ka‘ahumanu

Born: c.1768.

Died: 1832.

Father: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe.

Mother: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Brothers: Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox]; Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams].

Sister: Kalākua.

Husband: King Kamehameha I, and then later, Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler King Kamuali‘i, and his heir Keali‘iahonui.

Children: Foster mother of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (the future Kamehameha II).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keawepoepoe and Kūma‘aikū.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

Summary of Life of Queen Ka‘ahumanu:

· Queen as favorite wife of King Kamehameha I.

· Born in Hāna, Maui at Pōnahakeone (“Circle [of] the sand”).[xvi]

· When King Kamehameha I died, he established the office of Kuhina Nui (Premier, or Regent), allowing Ka‘ahumanu, his favorite wife, to become co-ruler with King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and she served in that capacity from 1819 to 1832. This severely diminished the power of King Kamehameha II.

· Within months of assuming the throne, King Kamehameha II ate food in public with the dowager queens Ka‘ahumanu and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], thus breaking the kapu against men and women eating together.

Since the defiant act brought no retribution from the gods, eating together was no longer kapu, and this began a process that eroded traditional Hawaiian religious beliefs, and eventually led to the complete overturning of the traditional kapu system. (See 1819, May 20.)

· Known as a strict ruler, Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu was left in charge of the government of the Hawaiian Kingdom when the royal party visited London in 1823, and with the assistance of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] she helped to stop the Kaua‘i rebellion that was led by George P. Kaumuali‘i.

· Became a strong proponent of Protestantism, and was baptized in December of 1825. Ka‘ahumanu was taught to read and write by the Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869), who was the first to translate the New Testament into the Hawaiian language. Bingham presented Ka‘ahumanu with the first copy of the new translation shortly before her death in 1832.

· Died on June 5, 1832 at her Mānoa Valley home called Puka‘ōma‘o, which means “Green opening” (the home had green shutters).

· Ka‘ahumanu means “The bird [feather] cloak.”[xvii]

(For more information about Ka‘ahumanu, see 1768; 1780; 1782; 1785; 1797; 1803; 1805; 1814, Mar.17; 1819, May 8; 1819, May 20; 1821, July 21; 1823, Nov. 27; 1824; 1829, Dec. 2; 1831; 1832, June 5; 1838; 1843, Feb.10.)

1772 1775—British explorer Captain James Cook completes a second successful journey in southern waters, covering more than 60,000 miles (96,561 km).

1775—The Hawai‘i Island warriors of Kalani‘ōpu‘u, including the young warrior chief, Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I), battle the Maui warriors of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] in the Battle of Kalaeoka‘īlio (“The Cape of the Dog”). This is Kamehameha’s first major battle.

The battle is instigated by Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], who is angered by the recent slaughter of his people at Kaupō on Maui and raises an army led by the famous warrior Kāne‘ōlaelae. Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] orders his forces to avenge the attack on his people at Kaupō, and a heated battle takes place at Kaupō between the warriors of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

The conflict becomes known as the Battle of Kalaeoka‘īlio (“The Cape of the Dog”). Kekūhaupi‘o, the mentor and war instructor of Kamehameha, shows fearless bravery in this battle, and when Kekūhaupi‘o is suddenly surrounded my Maui warriors he is rescued by the young Kamehameha. This is the first major battle of the rising warrior chief Kamehameha, fighting on the side of Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

Despite the valiant fighting of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s forces, they are outnumbered and have to flee the battlefield, and the Maui warriors are victorious. Many Hawai‘i Island warriors die in this battle. Those who survive returned to Hawai‘i Island where Kalani‘ōpu‘u again prepares to avenge his defeat by Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

The young warrior Kamehameha is displeased at having been ordered to attack the Kaupō people, and tells Kalani‘ōpu‘u that the such cowardly acts of war will not be supported by the war god.

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is informed of the valiant fighting of the two warriors Kamehameha and Kekūhaupi‘o, and he mentions to some of his chiefs that perhaps this brave warrior Kamehameha is his son.

[Note: Though the father of King Kamehameha is usually listed as Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui], many think Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is indeed the true biological father because Kamehameha’s mother Keku‘iapoiwa had visited Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] before the young ali‘i Pai‘ea Kamehameha was born.]

Kalani‘ōpu‘u then orders his most proficient fighters, the 800 warriors of the Chiefly Army of Keawe, to move inland to Wailuku toward the plain of Kama‘oma‘o. There they will confront the Maui warriors of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] who are also supported by the O‘ahu warriors of Kahāhana.

The Maui and O‘ahu warriors hide at the sand dunes of Waikapū and nearby at a spot seaward of Wailuku, awaiting the arrival of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s forces, who are soon surrounded.

All of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s Chiefly Army is slain except for two messengers who are left alive so they may bring the news of the slaughter to Kalani‘ōpu‘u. This battle comes to be known as ‘Ālapa and Pi‘ipi‘i Heaped Up at Kakanilua, or Battle of the Sand Dunes.[xviii] (See Kamehameha’s First Major Battle, Chapter 12.)

1775—Kamehameha I overturns the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone) on Hawai‘i Island. A high priestess predicted that whoever could move this nearly 5,000-pound (2,268-kg) stone would conquer all of the Hawaiian Islands. In attendance was the prophetess Kalaniwahine. (See Naha Stone and Pinao Stone in Hawai‘i Island section, Chapter 2.)

1775, April 19—In North America, the Revolutionary War begins.

1776, July—The British government sends Captain James Cook to the North Pacific in search of a “Northwest Passage,” a sea route (that did not exist and so was never found) across the North American continent from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean.

1776, July 4—In the United States, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Declaration of Independence is proclaimed.

1776—Birth of Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] to Kame‘eiamoku and Keali‘iokahekili.

Ulumāheihei

Ulumāheiheihoapili

Hoapili

Biographical Sketch:

Ulumāheihei[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili]

Born: 1776.

Died: 1840.

Father: Kame‘eiamoku (one of the sacred royal twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]).

Mother: Keali‘iokahekili.

Summary of Life of:

Ulumāheihei[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili]:

· A close friend of Kamehameha I, Ulumāheihei was given the name Hoapili because of his close friendship with Kamehameha I (Hoapili means “Close personal friend”).

· After King Kamehameha I’s death in 1819, Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] was entrusted with hiding the King Kamehameha’s bones. (See 1819, May 8.)

· Hoapili was supportive of the overthrow of the traditional kapu system in 1819.

· After Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] died, Hoapili married Kalākua (the daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]), and had a child, Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea], who later gave birth, with Charles Kana‘ina, to the future King Lunalilo. Kalākua also gave birth (with King Kamehameha I) to Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (queen as wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho)).

· Hoapili married King Kamehameha’s sacred wife, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], becoming her sole husband when she abandoned polygamy.

· From 1836 to 1840, Hoapili was governor of Lāna‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “Ulumaheihei wale no, iāia o loko, iāia o waho.” (“Ulumaheihei knows everything inside and out.”) “One who knows everything. Ulumaheihei was a very close friend of Kamehameha, who renamed him Hoapili. He was the king’s most trusted friend and knew every affair of the kingdom. It was to him that Kamehameha entrusted his bones after death.”[xix]

(For more information about Ulumāheihei, see 1819, May 8; 1836-1840.)

1778, January 18—British Captain James Cook (see 1728), on a voyage of discovery for England and in command of the HMS Discovery and the HMS Resolution, comes into view of O‘ahu, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and thus the ships’ crews become the first (documented) Westerners and the first non-Polynesians to reach the Hawaiian Islands.

On January 19, Cook anchors his ships off the mouth of Kaua‘i’s Wailua River and barters with the natives. The ships’ crews trade nails and pieces of iron for water, pigs, fowl, plantains, sweet potatoes, and taro corms. Then on Jan. 20, 1778, Cook and some of his men go ashore for the first time at Waimea Bay, Kaua‘i.

Cook names the islands the Sandwich Islands, in honor of his patron, the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook’s visit also introduces goats and a different (larger) breed of boar to the Hawaiian Islands.

The population of the Hawaiian Islands at this time is later estimated by Captain Cook’s crew to be about 400,000. (Note: Later estimates vary from less than 300,000 to more than 700,000.) (See Captain Cook Establishes Western Contact, Chapter 12.)

1778, February 2— British Captain James Cook visits the island of Ni‘ihau, and leaves behind three goats, including one ram and two ewes. These were the first goats in the Hawaiian Islands. Cook leaves the Hawaiian Islands and sets sail for the American west coast, renewing his search for the elusive (because it is non-existent) “Northwest Passage,” a northwest route to the Atlantic Ocean.

1778, November 25—After a fruitless journey in search of a northwest route to the Atlantic, Cook is back in Hawaiian waters. He first sees the island of Maui, and then continues on to the south in search of safe anchorage.

1778, November—The young ali‘i (royal) chief Kamehameha goes aboard Captain Cook’s ship, the HMS Resolution anchored off Maui’s east side near Hāna. Kamehameha remains on board overnight with six other chiefs, and the following day the Hawai‘i Island ruling chief Kalani‘ōpu‘u visits the ship.

1778—Birth of Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (the future queen of Hawai‘i) to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]

Biographical Sketch:

Queen Keōpūolani

[Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]

Born: 1778.

Died: 1823.

Father: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli].

Mother: Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]).

Great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu]).

Husband: King Kamehameha I.

Children: King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), and Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

Summary of Life of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]:

· Keōpūolani means “The gathering of the clouds of heaven,” also translated as “The cluster of royal chiefs.” [xx]

· Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] is a descendent of four high-chiefly lines, including her father, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], and her mother Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

· As the granddaughter of Kalola, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] was raised under many kapu (prohibitions) as a sacred person.

· In 1795, at the age of 17, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] became the sacred wife of King Kamehameha I. When Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] was about 11 years old, Kalola had promised her to Kamehameha in marriage.

· With King Kamehameha I, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] gave birth to two future kings, Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), and a princess, Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

· An hour before her death, queen mother Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] became the first native Hawaiian to receive the Protestant rite of baptism. (See 1823, September 16.)

(For more information about Keōpūolani, see 1768; 1776; 1795; 1797; 1814, Mar. 17; 1815; 1819, May 20; 1823, Sep. 16.)

1779, January 17—Captain Cook sails the Resolution into Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island’s Kona coast, seeking to restock his ships and let his men recover from their journey so they may press on for further exploration.

Captain Cook is unaware that he is visiting the Hawaiian Islands during the ancient Hawaiian harvest festival known as Makahiki, which began with the first appearance of the crescent moon following the new moon after the appearance of the constellation Makali‘i (Pleiades) rising in the east after sunset (around the middle of October), and lasted several months.

During the Makahiki, time was taken away from work for feasts, sports games, and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility.

Processions and celebrations, unlike any he had encountered before, greet Cook, who is apparently received as the god Lono. Accounts of this vary, and some dispute whether Cook was indeed revered as Lono, or whether Cook was bestowed with honors for other reasons. (See Appendices 1,2.) Hawaiian beliefs held that Lono had long ago departed from Kealakekua Bay, promising to return.

Cook is brought to Hikiau Heiau, a luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed). (Note: Hikiau Heiau is now a State Monument; see Hawai‘i Island section, Chapter 2.)

Though the exact details of Cook’s treatment by the native Hawaiians remains uncertain, many accounts say that kāhuna (native priests) praise Cook as the god Lono, putting sacred red kapa (tapa) barkcloth on him and offering sacred chants. During this visit, Cook meets the young chief Kamehameha (for the second time), along with Kalani‘ōpu‘u, the ruler of the island of Hawai‘i. (See 1778, Nov.)

[Illustration: Map of Cook’s route to Hawaiian Islands in 1778, and then north, returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1779.]

1779, February 4—Captain Cook leaves Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island to survey the other Hawaiian Islands before heading off again on his explorations. As Cook and his crew depart, the foremast of the HMS Resolution breaks. Cook returns to Kealakekua Bay.

1779, February 14—British Captain James Cook is killed during a violent encounter with native Hawaiians on the shore of Kealakekua Bay.

Varying written accounts detail how Captain Cook died. The story is generally told as follows: One of Cook’s boats (a cutter, the Discovery’s largest boat) was stolen during the night of February 13.

In the morning Cook’s men blockade the harbor so no one can escape. Cook goes ashore with nine of his men to retrieve the boat. Their plan is to bring Kalani‘ōpu‘u (the ruler of the island of Hawai‘i) back to the ship, and then hold him captive until the stolen boat is returned.

Cook and his men awaken the chief and compel him to come to the ship, and then they proceed toward shore. Meanwhile, a canoe attempts to pass the harbor blockade, and members of Cook’s crew fire on the natives, killing a chief. A large crowd gathers nearshore when the natives learn that one of their chiefs has been killed. Just then Cook and his men, with Kalani‘ōpu‘u, reach shore to go out to the ship.

In an encounter with the angry natives, Cook and his men fire upon the group. As they reload they are attacked. Cook yells for his men to “Take to the boats!,” but it’s too late.

Cook is stabbed in the neck and killed, and floats face down in the water. At least four of Cook’s men are also killed. (Note: Accounts of this event vary—see Captain Cook section, Chapter 3; and The Death of Captain Cook, Chapter 12.)

1780—Birth of Kaumuali‘i to Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei.

King Kaumuali‘i

Biographical Sketch: King Kaumuali‘i 

Born: c.1780.

Died: 1824.

Father: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

Mother: Kamakahelei.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Son: George P.(Prince) Kaumuali‘i (Humehume).

Grandchildren: Queen Kapi‘olani, Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani, and Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (children of Kūhiō and Kinoiki).

Favorite Queen: Deborah Kapule [Kekaiha‘akūlou]

Summary of Life of King Kaumuali‘i:

· Paramount ruler (king) of Kaua‘i.

· Ceded the island of Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810, allowing King Kamehameha I to declare the Hawaiian Islands one nation (the united Hawaiian Kingdom).

· Supported (unauthorized) Russian occupation (led by Georg Anton Schäffer) of Kaua‘i in 1816—1817.

· Pledged his allegiance to King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) on September 16, 1821, at Waimea, Kaua‘i, and accepted Liholiho’s sovereignty.

· Taken prisoner by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) on September 16, 1821, aboard the royal ship, Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i) and then taken to O‘ahu.

· On October 9, 1821, Kaumuali‘i married Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, former favorite wife of King Kamehameha I. 

(For more information about Kaumuali‘i, see 1768; 1796, April; 1797; 1798; 1810; 1815; 1820, May 3; 1821; 1824, July 21.)

1780—Kalani‘ōpu‘u, the ruler of the island of Hawai‘i, meets with chiefs in Waipi‘o Valley, telling them that, that after he dies: his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], will be the new ruler of Hawai‘i Island; his son Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] will get land; Kamehameha (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s nephew) will become chief of Kohala, on land that was Kamehameha’s by inheritance; and Kamehameha will also be given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku, along with the responsibility of caring for the heiau (sacred places of worship) that are associated with the war god.

Kalani‘ōpu‘u then captures an enemy chief of Puna named ‘Īmakakoloa [Imakaloa] for a human sacrifice ceremony to consolidate his chiefdom. ‘Īmakakoloa is taken to the Ka‘ū luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed) called Hālauwilua in Kamā‘oa in the ahupua‘a of Pākini; When Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], initiates the sacrificial ceremony, Kamehameha boldly steps in and finishes the ritual, placing ‘Īmakakoloa on the altar. This action by Kamehameha causes controversy and leads to a rift between Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Kamehameha, who then returns to Kohala.

1781—In a battle known as Kaumupīka‘o, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] regains control of East Maui, including the fort at Hāna.

1781—Birth of Kapi‘olani (I) to Keawemauhili[xxi] and Ululani.

Kapi‘olani (I)

Kapi‘olaninui

Biographical Sketch: Kapi‘olani

Born: 1781.

Died: 1841.

Father: Keawemauhili, high chief of Hilo.

Mother: Ululani.

Brother: Keaweokahikona.

Husband: Nāihe.

Summary of Life of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui]:

· As a child, Kapi‘olani (I) was captured with her parents after being defeated in the Battle of Moku‘ōhai; they escaped, but the infant Kapi‘olani (I) was abandoned in the forest, and later found.

· Converted by Protestant missionaries, Kapi‘olani led a march in 1824 on Hawai‘i Island, from Kona to Kīlauea Volcano, where she defied Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes, by proclaiming the power of Jehovah. When the marchers were not engulfed by lava, at least 90 more converts joined with her.

· Kapi‘olani means “The arch of heaven,” referring to a rainbow, which is a traditional sign of royalty.

· Kapi‘olani’s niece and namesake was Queen Kapi‘olani (1834—1899), wife of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

· “Kapiolani,” a dramatic poem about Kapi‘olani’s march to the volcano, was written by English poet laureate, Lord Tennyson.

Kapiolani, by Lord Alfred Tennyson

When from the terrors of Nature a people have fashion’d and worship a Spirit of Evil

Blest be the Voice of the Teacher who calls to them,

“Set yourselves free!”

Noble the Saxon who hurled at his Idol a valorous weapon in olden England!

Great, and greater, and greatest of women, island heroine Kapiolani

Clomb the mountain, and flung the berries and dared the Goddess, and freed the people

Of Hawa-i-ee!

A people believing that Peelè the Goddess would wallow in fiery riot and revel

On Kilauea,

Dance in a fountain of flame with her devils or shake with her thunders and shatter her island,

Rolling her anger

Thro’ blasted valley and flowing forest in blood-red cataracts down to the sea!

Long as the lava-light

Glares from the lava-take,

Dazing the starlight;

Long as the silvery vapor in daylight

Over the mountain

Floats, will the glory of Kapiolani be mingled with either on Hawa-i-ee.

What said her Priesthood?

“Woe to this island if ever a woman should handle or gather the berries of Peelè

Accursed were she!

And woe to this island if ever a woman should climb to the dwelling of Peelè the Goddess!

Accursed were she!”

One from the Sunrise

Dawned on His people and slowly before him

Vanished shadow-like

Gods and Goddesses,

None but the terrible Peelè remaining as Kapiolani

Ascended her mountain,

Baffled her priesthood,

Broke the Taboo,

Dipt to the crater,

Called on the Power adored by the Christian and crying, “I dare her, let Peelè avenge herself!”

Into the flame-billows dashed the berries, and drove the demon from Hawa-i-ee.

1782—The young ali‘i (royal) warrior chief Kamehameha leads his warrior army to victory at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, fought in Ke‘ei, Kona on Hawai‘i Island. The high chief Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] is killed, and Kamehameha leads his chiefs to victory.

When Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli dies he is wearing a cloak constructed with the yellow feathers of the ‘ō‘ō (Moho species), and adorned with red triangles made from feathers of ‘i‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea). After Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli is killed, the cloak becomes the property of Kamehameha. Note: This cloak is now in the Bishop Museum.

Accounts differ on the sequence of events leading to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli’s death. One account states that an injured Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe crawled to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli, who also had been injured, and then Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe slit the neck of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli with a leiomano (shark-tooth weapon). Other accounts say Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli was stabbed to death, or killed by stones.

After Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli is killed, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] flees to Ka‘ū and Keawemauhili is captured, but then is allowed to escape, presumably because of his high rank. After the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, the island of Hawai‘i is divided into three chiefdoms:

· Keawemauhili rules Hilo and a portion of Puna and Hāmākua.

· Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula rules Ka‘ū and part of Puna.

· Kamehameha rules Kona, Kohala and northern Hāmākua.

Kamehameha then campaigns for nearly a decade to control the rest of the island of Hawai‘i. Kamehameha’s two opponents are: Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula (the younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū) and Keawemauhili (Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother).

Kamehameha also begins a military campaign to conquer other Hawaiian Islands. (See The Death of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, Chapter 12.)

1782, April—Hawai‘i Island ruler Kalani‘ōpu‘u dies and his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], brings the deceased ruler’s bones to Hale-o-Keawe, the Royal Mausoleum at Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau in Kona on Hawai‘i Island.

As specified by Kalani‘ōpu‘u before his death (see 1780), his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli, becomes the new ruler of Hawai‘i Island, and his other son, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], is given land.

Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s nephew, Kamehameha, is given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku, and also becomes chief of Kohala on the island of Hawai‘i.

Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli then redivides the lands of Hawai‘i Island. Chief counselor for Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at this time is Keawemauhili, who is given large portions of Kona and Hilo. Kamehameha and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] are both slighted by the redivision of lands, which takes away from Kamehameha and the Kona chiefs lands that were formerly under their rule.

The redivision of lands on Hawai‘i Island by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli angers the Kona’s chiefs. When Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli attempts to strip away the ahupua‘a (natural watershed land divisions extending from the mountains to the sea), this causes Kamehameha to unite with the chiefs of Kona, and he becomes their leader.

Loyal to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli are chiefs of Ka‘ū, Puna, and Hilo, including Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother, Keawemauhili. (See The Rise of the Warrior Kamehameha, Chapter 12.)

The following Kona chiefs become loyal to Kamehameha:

· Kalua‘apana Keaweāheulu (Kamehameha’s uncle).

· Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (Queen Ka‘ahumanu’s father).

· Kekūhaupi‘o (Warrior teacher of Kamehameha).

· Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū] (Son of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kamakaeheikuli; half-brother of Kamehameha).

· Kawelo‘okalani (Half-brother of Kamehameha).

· Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani], the brother of Kamehameha).

· Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa (sacred royal twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike], the sons of Keawepoepoe and Kanoena (Kame‘eiamoku and Kamanawa are depicted on the State of Hawai‘i’s official coat of arms).

Chiefs aligned against Kamehameha include:

· Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s oldest son, and heir to his rule of the island of Hawai‘i).

· Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula (the younger brother of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū).

· Keawemauhili (Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s uncle and Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s brother).

I lele no ka lupe i ke pola.

It is the tail that makes the kite fly.

It is the number of followers that raises the prestige of the chief.

(Pukui: 1226-133)

1783—The forces of Maui’s ruler Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] attack Kahāhana’s forces on O‘ahu, and Kahekili emerges victorious as the ruler of O‘ahu.

1783—The warriors of Kamehameha battle the warriors of Keawemauhili, his twin brother Keōuape‘e‘ale, and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], at Pua‘aloa near Pana‘ewa (near Hilo).

Kamehameha and Kekūhaupi‘o lead the land forces, totaling about 12,000 warriors, while Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe leads the sea forces, totaling about 20,000 warriors with 800 canoes.

The fleet lands at Kawaihae during a storm known as Kaua‘awa, and thus the battle is known as Kaua Kaua‘awa (“Battle of the Bitter Rain”). Kamehameha’s warriors are thwarted and retreat to Laupāhoehoe.

1784—Kamehameha’s warrior teacher and mentor, Kekūhaupi‘o (“The standing [of the] arched hau tree”[xxii]), dies while engaged in a mock battle in Nāpō‘opo‘o on Hawai‘i Island.

Kekūhaupi‘o had fought in several battles with, and for, Kamehameha, and Kamehameha had saved Kekūhaupi‘o’s life in the 1775 battle against the forces of Maui’s ruler Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (see 1775).

Kekūhaupi‘o was also present at Kealakekua Bay when Captain Cook was killed. (See 1779, Feb.14.) It was also Kekūhaupi‘o’s message about the death of a chief across the bay that agitated the Hawaiians against Cook’s group, resulting in Cook’s death.

An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “O ke ali‘i lilo i ka le‘ale‘a a mālama ‘ole i ke kanaka me ke kapu akua, ‘a‘ole ia he ali‘i e ku ai i ka moku.” (“The chief, who is taken with pleasure seeking and cares not for the welfare of the people or the observation of the kapu of the gods, is not the chief who will become a ruler.”) “Said by Kekuhaupi‘o to Kamehameha. Advice to young people that success comes not by seeking idle pleasure but by living up to one’s beliefs and caring for the welfare of others.”[xxiii]

1784—The official account of Captain James Cook’s third voyage includes the first published chart of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1785—The rising warrior Pai‘ea Kamehameha, the future King Kamehameha I, marries Ka‘ahumanu, the daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (the sister of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]).

1785—Under the command of Captain James Hanna, an unnamed fur-trading brig on its way to China becomes the first trading ship to stop in the Hawaiian Islands.

1785— Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] defeats a conspiracy and revolt against him on O‘ahu. This insurrection is known as Waipi‘o-Kimopo.

 

1785—The warriors of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] battle the warriors of Kamehameha on Hawai‘i Island at a battle called Hapu‘u. Neither side is victorious, and Kamehameha returns to Kohala.

1786, March 6—French navigator Count de la Pérouse surveys an atoll reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which later comes to be known as French Frigate Shoals.

Two frigates, the Boussole and the Astrolabe, almost wreck on the reef, and the French Frigate Shoals gain their name in honor of this near mishap. This was the first documented Western discovery of French Frigate Shoals. (See 1786, May 29; 1790.)

1786, May 24— Nathaniel Portlock in command of the King George and George Dixon in command of the Queen Charlotte become the first foreign captains to reach the Hawaiian Islands after the death of Captain Cook in 1779 when they arrive at Kealakekua Bay from London.

The two ships stop in the Hawaiian Islands on their way from London to China after having stopped at America’s Northwest Coast.

Both the Queen Charlotte and the King George are sponsored by the King George Sound Company, which had gained exclusive trading rights on America’s Northwest Coast in an attempt to avoid conflict with the East India Company and the South Sea Company.

The ships sail on to Waimea, Kaua‘i, and scout out likely ports for rest and provisioning for future fur trading vessels sailing to China from the Pacific Northwest.

George Dixon had been an armorer on the Discovery under Captain Cook. Nathaniel Portlock also had sailed with Cook on his third Pacific voyage, which was the first to establish Western contact with the Hawaiian Islands.

The King George: first arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on May 24, 1786; leaves June 13, 1786; returns November 16, 1786; spends the winter in the Hawaiian Islands, leaves March 3, 1787; arrives again September 27, 1787; and then leaves on October 7, 1787.

The Queen Charlotte first arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on May 20, 1786; leaves June 13, 1786; returns on November 16, 1786; departs on March 15, 1787, arrives again on September 5, 1787; and then leaves on September 18, 1787.

1786, May 29—Under the command of French navigator Count de la Pérouse, two French naval frigates, the Boussole and the Astrolabe, arrive at Maui.

Pérouse had been chosen by Louis XVI to command the two, 500-ton (452-mton) armed frigates. Sailing along Maui’s southwest coast he is met by about 150 canoes. Pérouse first makes a landing on Maui on May 30, 1786 at the spot now known as La Pérouse Bay (Hawaiian name: Kalepolepo). The next day Pérouse goes ashore with an armed party and exchanges gifts.

The ships also visit the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (see 1786, March 6) and name Necker Island after a French statesman. After other adventures, the ships, carrying goods to trade, leave Australia in 1788 and then mysteriously vanish.

Some 40 years later it is revealed that the ships were caught in a storm off the island of Vanicoro, part of the Santa Cruz group. (See 1786, March 6; 1790.)

1786— Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] rules Maui and O‘ahu, and his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] rules Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau. Western weapons are sought after by warring chiefs for use in battles.

1786—Kamehameha’s younger brother Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] is sent to Maui to retake Hāna and Kīpahulu, but the campaign is unsuccessful.

1787, May 20—Under the command of Charles William Barkley, the fur-trading British ship Imperial Eagle, en route to Canton China and flying Australian colors, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

On board the Imperial Eagle is Mrs. Frances Hornsby Trevor Barkley, thought to be the first European woman to come to the Hawaiian Islands, and John MacKay, a former surgeon’s mate who is thought to have been the first white resident of the Hawaiian Islands (he was known to have settled on the Kona Coast in 1790).

The Imperial Eagle sails away from the Hawaiian Islands with the first Hawaiian woman to leave the Hawaiian Islands for foreign lands. This woman’s name was said to be “Wynee,” which may be a confused interpretation of wahine, the Hawaiian word for woman. She left the Hawaiian Islands because she was hired to be the maid for Mrs. Barkley.

1787, August 2—John Meares, a former British Navy lieutenant and a pioneer fur trader on America’s Northwest Coast, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on the Nootka. His stop in the Hawaiian Islands was en route to China.

When Meares leaves the Hawaiian Islands on the Nootka, he takes with him Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (c.1756-1795), the half-brother of the high chief Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula thus becomes the first Hawaiian chief to travel to a foreign country (Canton, China).

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula goes to Canton in 1787, and then returns to the Hawaiian Islands in 1788 on the Iphigenia with Captain William Douglas. Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula later fights as an ally of King Kamehamaha I before being killed fighting against Kamehameha in the 1795 Battle of Nu‘uanu.

Meares returns to the Hawaiian Islands again in 1788 in command of the Felice Adventurer.

1787—In the United States a Constitutional Convention is held, and the United States Constitution is adopted.

1788, January 2—Two British trading ships arrive in the Hawaiian Islands: The Prince of Wales, commanded by James Colnett (c.1755-1806), and the Princess Royal, commanded by Charles Duncan. Both ships remain in Hawaiian waters until March 18, 1788.

Archibald Menzies (1754-1842) is a naturalist on the crew of The Prince of Wales. He later returns to the Hawaiian Islands with the expeditions of Captain George Vancouver in 1792, 1793, and 1794, and becomes the first foreigner to climb to the summit of Mauna Loa on Hawai‘i Island.

Menzies brings many seeds to the Hawaiian Islands and disperses them. Menzies’ writings yield many insights into the agriculture of the time period.

In 1789, the Prince of Wales and the Argonaut are captured by the Spanish. When the Argonaut is returned to Colnett, he comes to the Hawaiian Islands in April of 1791. Also in the Hawaiian Islands at this time is the Princess Royal, a vessel formerly captained by Colnett and captured by the Spanish in 1879. Flying Spanish colors, the Princess Royal is under the command of Manuel Quimper.

Colnett (on the Argonaut) and Quimper (on the Princess Royal) meet off the coast of Hawai‘i Island. Seeing the Princess Royal under Spanish colors, and thinking the Spanish are attempting to take control of the Hawaiian Islands, Colnett comes very close to firing a broadside at the ship (which he formerly captained). (Note: This later becomes known as the “Nootka Sound controversy.”)

1789, August—The Columbia Rediviva, an armed ship sailing out of Boston, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands under the command of Robert Gray (1775-1806) and becomes the first American ship to visit the Hawaiian Islands, and later the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe.

Gray takes aboard a Kauaian named Opai, who becomes the first native Hawaiian to visit the United States. Opai returns to Hawai‘i in 1791 on the vessel Hope under the command of Joseph Ingraham.

In May of 1792, Gray enters and names the Columbia River on the Northwest coast of America. Gray then returns to the Hawaiian Islands on the Columbia Rediviva in the fall of 1792.

1789—By this date, traders and explorers from America and Europe are making the Hawaiian Islands a standard port of call for provisions and rest.

1789—In America, George Washington is elected as the first President of the United States.

1785—On Hawai‘i Island, the warriors of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] battle the warriors of Kamehameha at a battle called Hāpu‘u. Neither side is victorious, and Kamehameha returns to Kohala.

1790s—Foreigners on ships visiting Kaua‘i are increasingly asked to provide firearms to the native Hawaiians. Vegetables are traded for iron, but Kauaians demand firearms as trade for hogs.

The increasing presence of foreigners causes many Hawaiians to contract diseases to which they have little immunity, leading to the deaths of many native Hawaiians.

1790—The Battle of Kepaniwai—Kamehameha Invades Maui

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is the most powerful ali‘i (chief) in the Hawaiian Islands, ruling Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i. He is in alliance with Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], ruler of Kaua‘i, who seizes O‘ahu by killing its chief and sacrificing him to his own war god. He also kills lesser chiefs of O‘ahu and uses their skeletons to construct a house of bones.

Fearing conquest of the island of Hawai‘i by Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (ruler of Kaua‘i) and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (ruler of Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i), Kamehameha decides to strike first, and lands his troops on Maui to fight against Kalanikūkupule, son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Kamehameha lands on Maui, and it is considered a good omen when the feathers of his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku bristle.

Kamehameha first lands his fleet of war canoes at Hāna, Maui and fights some minor battles along the windward coast. Then Kamehameha’s warriors meet the forces of Maui in a battle at the village of Kokomo, where Kamehameha fights and kills Kapakāhili, a prominent Maui chief. Kamehameha’s forces travel in their canoes to Kahului, coming ashore in the bay and on the nearby beaches.

Maui’s chief, Kalanikūpule, is warned in advance of the arriving warriors, and sends the residents to safety on the steep trails on the sides of the valleys.

Fighting between the two groups of warriors begins in Wailuku. The battle proceeds up into ‘Īao Valley, where the precipitous cliffs at the head of the valley block escape. Kamehameha’s forces have the advantage of superior western weapons (muskets) as well as a cannon named Lopaka (Robert), and manned by the foreigners John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Isaac Davis [‘Aikake].

Kamehameha climbs to a high spot on the battlefield and yells out the following encouragement to his troops: “Imua e na pōki‘i a inu i ka wai ‘awa‘awa.” (“Forward, my younger brothers, until you drink the bitter water [of battle]).”[xxiv]

[Illustration: Kamehameha at Battle of Kepaniwai; ‘Īao Valley]

As the warriors meet, the sounds of the guns and cannon and clashing of weapons mix with the horrified wails and screams of the spectators perched on the sides of the steep valley. Kamehameha’s forces prevail, and the island of Maui comes under Kamehameha’s rule.

In Kamehameha’s victory at ‘Īao Valley, dead bodies from both sides are said to have blocked the river, giving the battle its name, the Battle of Kepaniwai (“The Water Dam”). The bloody confrontation is also referred to as Ka‘uwa‘upali (“Precipice-clawing”), referring to the fleeing warriors encountering the steep cliffs of ‘Īao Valley.

A Hawaiian proverb states, “Ke pani wai o ‘Īao” (“The dam of ‘Īao”), referring to the “...battle between Kamehameha and Kalanikūpule at ‘Īao, Maui, the latter escaped and fled to O‘ahu. The stream of ‘Īao was dammed by the bodies of the dead. This battle was called Ka‘uwa‘upali (Precipice-clawing) because the defeated warriors clawed the hillside in an attempt to escape.”[xxv]

Facing imminent defeat at the Battle of Kepaniwai, Kalanikūpule, the son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], flees over a narrow mountain pass along with his high chiefs, and they sail to O‘ahu where Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] begins war preparations. Kamehameha’s troops return to Hawai‘i Island but Kamehameha sails to Moloka‘i with his chiefs and advisers.

On Moloka‘i at this time is the aging chiefess Kalola (whose health is failing), and her high ranking daughters, Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu] and Kalaniakua, as well as Kalola’s granddaughter, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (who later becomes queen as wife of Kamehameha).

Kalola promises her daughters and granddaughter to the care of Kamehameha, who agrees to care for them on the island of Hawai‘i. When Kalola dies, Kamehameha honors her during the mourning period by getting tattooed and having his eye teeth knocked out.

From Moloka‘i, Kamehameha sends Ha‘alo‘u, the grandmother of the future Queen Ka‘ahumanu, to O‘ahu to consult with Kapoukahi, a highly respected seer and kahuna (priest) of Kaua‘i, who is in Waikīkī at the time.

Kapoukahi answers the request from Kamehameha for an oracle, telling Kamehameha that he will be victorious over all the Hawaiian Islands only if he builds a luakini heiau (where human sacrifices are performed) to his war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku. This heiau is to be built at Kawaihae on the island of Hawai‘i, and named Pu‘ukoholā (“Whale hill”[xxvi]). (See Heiau: Hawaiian Sacred Places, Chapter 3.)

Kapoukahi travels from Kaua‘i to assist Kamehameha in the construction of the massive luakini heiau at Kawaihae. Kapoukahi becomes Kamehameha’s royal architect and oversees the heiau’s construction and consecration.

Kamehameha is in control of Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i, but not O‘ahu. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (son of Kalani‘ōpu‘u, and chief of Puna and Ka‘ū districts) attacks Hilo and kills Keawemauhili, and then plunders lands north of there along the Hāmākua Coast.

Kamehameha arrives to battle the invaders but two resulting brutal confrontations do not lead to victory. (See The Battle of Kepaniwai, Chapter 12.)

1790—On Hawai‘i Island, the chief Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] and his warriors head for Ka‘ū after plundering Kamehameha’s lands in Waipi‘o, Kohala, and Waimea.

As they pass over an area near Kīlauea Volcano, a chance eruption (at the volcanically active area now known as Halema‘uma‘u Fire Pit) spews ash and poisonous gases over many of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s group.

The explosion rains down hot cinders along with a thick shroud of acidic smoke that burns and suffocates many of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s people, killing numerous men, women and children.

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] proceeds to form a new army after his disaster at Kīlauea Volcano, and sets about recapturing the lands of Lāna‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i.

Kamehameha puts all his attention and all his workers (including senior chiefs and himself) to work carrying stones for the construction of a heiau at Kawaihae (see above). Kamehameha’s younger brother does not assist in the construction because a ceremonially pure ali‘i is needed to consecrate the heiau.

1790—The Olowalu Massacre

Simon Metcalfe (a pioneer trader on America’s Northwest Coast), is in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs is stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki.

To exact revenge, Metcalfe lures many natives in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opens cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians. (Note: This later comes to be known as the Olowalu Massacre.)

Off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punishes Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him.

Some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacks the Fair American, which is under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas. Thomas and all of the Fair American’s crew are killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake) (1758-1810), who is tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead. It is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting.

Simon Metcalfe leaves his boatswain, John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749-1835), onshore and sails away from the Hawaiian Islands without even knowing if his son has been killed.

The Fair American is then taken over by Kamehameha. Davis and Young become Kamehameha’s supporters (and advisers), manning large guns from canoes during the invasion of the northern coast of Hawai‘i Island (see 1791) as well as during a later attack on O‘ahu.

Young (known as ‘Olohana) eventually becomes governor of several Hawaiian Islands and has estates on all the Islands. Davis (known as ‘Aikake) eventually becomes a chief, marries a relative of King Kamehameha I, becomes Governor of O‘ahu, and owns estates on O‘ahu, Maui, Moloka‘i, and Hawai‘i Island.

Young’s granddaughter was Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885), wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani). Young’s grandson, Isaac Young Davis, became Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani’s second husband. (See The Olowalu Massacre, Chapter 12.)

1790—John Kendrick (c.17401794) leaves two of his crew on the island of Kaua‘i to collect sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi). This is a prelude to the sandalwood trade.

1790—Birth of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams] (1790-1844) to Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (daughter of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u). Kuakini’s sisters are Queen Ka‘ahumanu and Kalākua. Kuakini eventually becomes the Governor of Hawai‘i Island.

1790—Maui’s Haleakalā Volcano releases an estimated 22 square miles (57 sq. km) of lava, totaling nearly one billion cubic feet (28,316,847 cu. m) of lava.

The lava flows reach the sea where they cool and harden, forming the Cape Kīna‘u Peninsula, changing the shape of the southwest Maui coastline, and forming La Pérouse Bay. (See 1786, Mar. 6; 1786, May 29.)

1791—Beginning of the sandalwood trade.

A ship captain visiting Kaua‘i trades for a load of firewood in which he finds sticks from the fragrant ‘iliahi (Santalum species, sandalwood tree).

The Hawaiian name, ‘iliahi, refers to the tree’s reddish blooms and new leaves. It is soon discovered that sandalwood can be sold for a high price in Canton, China, and this begins the Hawaiian sandalwood trade.

China’s market for the fragrant sandalwood is virtually insatiable. Hawaiian commoners (maka‘āinana) are forced by their chiefs to climb high in the mountains to cut the sandalwood trees, which may be up to 50 feet (15 m) tall.

Harvesting the wood and carrying it down from the mountains is extremely hard work, and occurs at the expense of taro farming and other traditional cultural practices, negatively affecting food supplies and health of native Hawaiians.

(See 1806; 1810-1820; and ‘Iliahi in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8; and The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade, Chapter 12.)

1791, April—Captain James Colnett, in command of the merchant ship Argonaut, unloads a ram and two ewes on Kaua‘i, introducing the first sheep to the Hawaiian Islands.

1791, May 20—Under the command of Joseph Ingraham, the American brigantine Hope arrives in the Hawaiian Islands and barely avoids being captured by Kamehameha. Ingraham had been the second mate of the Columbia when it came to the Hawaiian Islands under the command of Robert Gray in 1789.

1791—Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula—War of the Red Mouthed Cannon

Having already recaptured Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, and Maui, the warrior army of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] attacks Kamehameha’s northern coastal lands on Hawai‘i Island from Kohala to Waipi‘o.

The forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] meet Kamehameha’s fleet off the northeast coast of Hawai‘i Island. Kamehameha’s counterattack begins the first Hawaiian sea battle in which both sides are armed with foreign gunners and cannons. This engagement is called Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula, which means “War of red-mouthed cannon.”

Though the battle between the forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and Kamehameha does not lead to an outright victory for Kamehameha, the battle does force Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and his army to return to O‘ahu, and thwarts the intentions of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] to attack the site of the heiau construction at Kawaihae.

An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “Pā‘ele ku lani.” (“The chiefly blackening.”) “This expression, used in chants and songs, refers to the tattooing of Kahekili, ruler of Maui. Because he was named for the god of thunder, who was believed to be black on one side of his body, Kahekili had himself tattooed on one side from head to foot.”[xxvii]

1791, Summer—Dedication of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau

Kamehameha completes a heiau at Kawaihae on Hawai‘i Island named Pu‘ukoholā (“Whale hill”)[xxviii] dedicated to his war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku.

With construction of the heiau Pu‘ukoholā at Kawaihae completed, Kamehameha asks Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (ruling chief of the island of Hawai‘i’s Puna and Ka‘ū districts) to attend the dedication, saying his presence is important if there is to be peace between the rivals.

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and 26 of his chiefs and friends, including the highest chiefs of Ka‘ū, arrive at Kawaihae Bay in two large canoes.

Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] is in one of the canoes, and in the other canoe is a young chief named Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū, the son of Kamehameha (his first child) and Kānekapōlei (also the mother of Keōuakuahu‘ula with Kalani‘ōpu‘u).

Greeting Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and his men are Kamehameha’s war canoes arranged in a great crescent shape surrounding Kawaihae Bay to prevent Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s escape. Kamehameha’s men onshore have muskets and cannons. Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and many of his chiefs and other members of his group are killed.

[Note: Historical accounts of this event (by prominent early historians) differ considerably on various points.[xxix]

In most but not all accounts, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] is killed by Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (see 1736), who is said to either have killed Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula with a spear, or put Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula in a lua (fighting) hold and drowned him (said to have been done to keep Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s body unmarred for the human sacrifice at the heiau).

Another account has Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula killed by an ‘alā o ka ma‘a (slingstone)[xxx] that was hurled from on shore and hitting Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula in the temple.

Also uncertain about this event: whether the killing of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] was ordered by Kamehameha or was done by Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe without Kamehameha’s approval; the number of other chiefs with Keōuakūahu‘ula who were killed; and other significant facts. (See Appendix 2: Writings of Ancient Hawaiian History)]

After the initial attack on Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], Kamehameha reportedly prevents his men from attacking the people in the other canoe, including his son.

The bodies of the killed chiefs (including Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula) are sacrificed on the altar of the luakini heiau atop the hill at Pu‘ukoholā. With his rival, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula, dead, Kamehameha controls the island of Hawai‘i.

According to accounts of the event, a kahuna (priest) said to Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], “Hele aku ‘oe ma‘ane‘i, he wa‘a kanaka; ho‘i mai ‘oe ma‘ō he wa‘a akua.” (“When you go from here, the canoe will contain men; when you return, it will be a ghostly canoe.”), and this was a “...warning to Keouakuahu‘ula by his kahuna not to go to meet Kamehameha at Kawaihae. He went anyway and was killed.”[xxxi]

Pu‘ukoholā Heiau was declared a registered National Historic Landmark in 1966, and a congressionally authorized National Historic Site in 1972. (See Dedication of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, Chapter 12.)

Note: Pu‘ukoholā means “Whale hill”[xxxii] according to Pūku‘i, but was later explained by Frazier to instead be spelled Pu‘ukohola (no macron), and meaning “built as the house of the god, a pu‘u [desire] for death and not for life. The death which was to be bound securely within this heiau was in the lagoon (kai kohola) and not in the deep sea nor on land.”[xxxiii]

1791, October—Under the command of John Kendrick (c.17401794), the American brigantine Lady Washington arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. Three years later Kendrick is killed by a victory salute (accidentally loaded with grapeshot) after a battle in which the foreigners had assisted Kalanikūpule. (See 1794, December 12.)

1791, October—Under the command of Etienne Marchand (1755—1793), the Solide visits the Hawaiian Islands, becoming the first French trading ship to come to the Hawaiian Islands. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1792—Birth of ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia.

‘Ōpūkaha‘ia

Biographical Sketch: ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia

Born: 1792.

Died: 1818.

· Parents and brother killed at Kaipalaoa on Hawai‘i Island in Nāmakaehā’s rebellion.

· Raised in Nāpō‘opo‘ō on Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island by his kahuna (priest) uncle.

· In 1809, Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia left the Hawaiian Islands for New England (Connecticut) on the ship Triumph, which was under the command of Captain Caleb Brintnall. The ship first went to the Seal Islands in the American northwest, and then stopped in the Hawaiian Islands before going to Canton, China, and then to New York, and finally to New Haven, Connecticut.

· Influenced by students of Andover Seminary and Yale College, ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia became a Christian, taking the name Henry Obookiah. He is considered the first Hawaiian Christian.

· Began translating the Bible into Hawaiian and had plans to travel back to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of missionaries (but died before these goals were realized).

· Died of typhus fever in Cornwall, Connecticut on February 17, 1818, at the age of 26.

· ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s death inspired the first American Christian mission to the Hawaiian Islands.

· On July 26, 1993, ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s remains, which had been buried in Connecticut since 1818, were returned to the Hawaiian Islands, and then on August 15, 1993 the remains were reburied on the island of Hawai‘i, at Kahikolu Cemetery in Nāpō‘opo‘o, South Kona.

(For more information about ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia, see 1809; 1818.)

1792—The American ship Margaret arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. On the ship is Oliver Holmes, who will become one of the first foreigners to take up residency in the Hawaiian Islands. Holmes later becomes Governor of O‘ahu.

1792, March 5—British Captain George Vancouver (1758-1798) arrives in the Hawaiian Islands in command of the Chatham and the Discovery, returning again in 1793 and 1794 and bringing many plant and animal species not found in Hawai‘i.

Vancouver had served under Captain Cook on Cook’s second Pacific voyage, and was Cook’s midshipman on his third voyage when Cook first found the Hawaiian Islands.

Vancouver returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1792 on the Discovery (not the same ship that Cook sailed) and the Chatham, a ship that was first commanded by Lieutenant William Robert Broughton and then by Lieutenant Peter Puget.

During Vancouver’s three winter visits to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1792, 1793 and 1794), he meets with many important chiefs. Vancouver also gives the Hawaiians sheep, cattle, goats and geese as well as a variety of seeds and plants, including almond and orange trees as well as grapevines, with the hope that the food products will be raised and cultivated by the Hawaiians and then will later help to supply food for ships of British seamen stopping in the Hawaiian Islands.

Vancouver writes of his Hawaiian adventures in Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean (London: C.J. and J. Robinson, J. Edwards, 1798). (See 1793; 1794, Feb. 25; and George Vancouver Visits the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1793, February—Under the command of William Brown, the British trading ship Butterworth arrives in the Hawaiian Islands under the command of William Brown.

The Butterworth is thought to be the first foreign vessel to enter Honolulu Harbor (which for a time was named Brown’s Harbor). The Hawaiian name for Honolulu Harbor was Kou.

1793—In the United States, Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, vastly improving agricultural opportunities.

1793, February 22—English Captain George Vancouver unloads five cows, including two calves, at Kealakekua Bay on his second of three annual visits to the Hawaiian Islands.

The animals are transported from the ship to shore in King Kamehameha’s canoes, and Kamehameha places a kapu (prohibition) on the killing of the animals so they may multiply. (See 1815; and Parker Ranch, Chapter 12.)

1794, February 25—During his third of three annual visits to the Hawaiian Islands (see 1792, Mar. 5; 1793), British Captain George Vancouver obtains an informal treaty of cession from Kamehameha I. The two men are friends, and Kamehameha seeks assurance that the Hawaiian Islands will be under British protection.

Kamehameha receives a gift of a British flag (a Union Jack) from Vancouver, though British protection is something that must be approved by British Parliament.

Kamehameha flies his British flag for the next 22 years at various places where he lives, though it remains uncertain what meaning Kamehameha attributes to it, since the apparent cession agreement with Vancouver is never ratified by British Parliament.

During his 1794 visit, Vancouver’s carpenters also help Kamehameha in the construction of the 36-foot (11-m) Britannia, the first foreign-designed ship built in the Hawaiian Islands.

1794, Summer—Death of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], ruler of Maui, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Kaua‘i, Ni‘ihau, and Kaho‘olawe, leading to war between his heirs.

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] leaves his domains to his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], and his son Kalanikūpule, who become enemies. Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] had earlier relayed a message to Kamehameha (by Kīkane) that after the death of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili, the time would be right for Kamehameha to take control of O‘ahu.

E nānā mai a uhi kapa ‘ele‘ele ia Maui, a kau ka pua‘a i

ka nuku, ki‘i mai i ka ‘āina a lawe aku.

Watch until the black tapa cloth covers Maui and the sacrificial

hog is offered, then come and take the land.

Said by Kahekili, ruler of Maui, to a messenger sent by Kamehameha I with a question whether to have war or peace. Kahekili sent back this answer—“Wait until I am dead and all the rites performed, then invade and take the island of Maui.”

Pukui (357-43)[xxxiv]

1794, December 12—Kalanikūpule defeats Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], ruler of Kaua‘i, Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i, near what is now called Pearl Harbor. (See 1748 for more information about Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].)

This victory for Kalanikūpule on O‘ahu is achieved with the assistance of foreigners, including Captain William Brown and Captain John Kendrick (c.17401794).

Brown first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1793 on the Butterworth, and returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1794 in command of the Jackal. Brown sold arms to Kalanikūpule. Eight foreigners from the Jackal, and from the Prince Lee Boo (under Captain Gordon), fight with Kalanikūpule against Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

From November 16, 1794 to December 12, 1794, the battle was contested in an area between Kalauao and ‘Aiea Heights, resulting in the death of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

A victory salute after the battle is accidentally loaded with grapeshot, and it hits the Lady Washington and kills its captain, John Kendrick, and several of his officers. Later both Gordon and Brown are killed by the warriors of Kalanikūpule in an attempt to take over their ships.

1794—Birth of Mataio Kekūanaō‘a (1794—1868), the future father (with Kīna‘u, the daughter of King Kamehameha I) of Moses Kekūiawa, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

Mataio Kekūanaō‘a was also the father of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani with Pauahi (the granddaughter of King Kamehameha I).

1794—Birth of Kekāūluohi (Miriam ‘Auhea) (1794—1845) to Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū] and Kalākua.

Kekāūluohi eventually becomes one of the wives of King Kamehameha I, and after Kamehameha’s death, she becomes the wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and then the wife of Charles Kana‘ina in 1834, with whom she has William Charles Lunalilo (1835-1874), who later becomes king after the death of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

1794—James Boyd becomes a shipbuilder for Kamehameha (I). Boyd’s grandson, Robert N. Boyd, is later sent to Italy (with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903)) by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to receive a military education.

1795—Birth of David Malo (c.1793-1853), who later becomes a prominent Hawaiian historian, collecting and documenting many legends, genealogies, chants, and details of historical events of the Hawaiian Islands in pre-contact times. (See 1838; and Writings of Ancient Hawaiian History, Appendix 2.)

1795, January 1—The chief Kalanikūpule orders the killing of captains Brown and Gardner of the English ships Prince Lee Boo and Jackal along with some members of the ships’ crews in Honolulu Harbor. Kalanikūpule then loads war supplies onto the ships in preparation for an invasion of Kamehameha’s domains on O‘ahu.

The surviving members of the ships’ crews later force Kalanikūpule’s warriors ashore, sail to Hawai‘i Island, and give Kalanikūpule’s war supplies to Kamehameha before leaving for China.

1795, January—After spending more than a decade preparing for war, Kamehameha is determined to defeat the forces of Kalanikūpule (ruler of O‘ahu as the heir of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]).

Kamehameha has his craftsmen carve many large war canoes, and also acquires arms and ammunition taken from O‘ahu’s chief Kalanikūpule. (See 1795, Jan. 1.)

1795, February—Kamehameha’s warriors sail from Kohala on Hawai‘i Island, first stopping in Lahaina, Maui, to take on food and other provisions. The war party then sails to Kaunakakai, Moloka‘i and prepares to invade O‘ahu.

On Moloka‘i, Kamehameha meets with his chiefs to plan the attack. The chief warrior Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (half-brother of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] and the first Hawaiian chief to travel to foreign countries), is not invited to attend these secret meetings, and becomes convinced that the chiefs are conspiring against him.

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula had earlier secured ammunition and other war materials from China, and had given the war supplies to Kamehameha.

1795, April—The Battle of Nu‘uanu

Kamehameha and his warriors set sail from Moloka‘i to invade O‘ahu. Kamehameha has an estimated 960 canoes (estimates vary) as well as 20 armed foreign ships (20 to 40 ton vessels).

Kamehameha’s troops total about 16,000 soldiers (estimates vary widely), many trained in modern musketry. Also allied with Kamehameha are 16 foreigners, including Isaac Davis [‘Aikake], John Young (I) [‘Olohana], and Peter Anderson, who man the cannons.

While en route to O‘ahu, Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] and an estimated 2,000 warriors and retainers loyal to him split away from Kamehameha’s troops, land on O‘ahu’s Ko‘olau shores, and then travel over the mountains to Nu‘uanu Valley where they join the forces of Kalanikūpule in preparing to repel the invasion of Kamehameha.

Kamehameha’s troops land on O‘ahu’s southern shores from Waikīkī to Wai’alae, and then spend the next several days preparing to meet the forces of O‘ahu’s chief Kalanikūpule. The army of Kalanikūpule, has about 9,000 warriors (estimates vary), and they are arrayed throughout Pū‘iwa and La‘imi, and mauka (toward the mountains) all the way to Luakaha.

Kamehameha’s warriors that land at Wai‘alae march over the plains of Kaimukī to Mō‘ili‘ili where they join with the troops marching from Waikīkī. Kamehameha’s united army then proceeds behind Pūowaina (now called Punchbowl Crater) to Nu‘uanu where Kamehameha’s warriors confront the forces of Kalanikūpule and Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula.

The first confrontations occur at La‘imi and Pū‘iwa, and no clear advantage is gained by either side. At La‘imi, the chief Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula and his forces are stationed atop a steep slope behind a stone wall, which is struck by a cannon ball fired by John Young (I) [‘Olohana] that kills Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula and scatters his troops.

The O‘ahu forces are gradually overpowered and retreat up into Nu‘uanu Valley. Many of the fleeing warriors climb the valley’s sides while many others retreat up to Nu‘uanu Pali at the head of the valley.

Ke ‘īnana la me he ‘ōpae ‘oeha‘a.

Active like freshwater shrimp.

Said of scattered warriors who climb rocks and hillsides to escape death.

(Pukui: 1710-184)

[Illustration: Nu‘uanu Pali battle scene]

Some of Kalanikūpule’s warriors escape over the valley’s ridges and others make it down the trail at the end of the pali (cliff). Many don’t escape, and are confronted by Kamehameha’s soldiers at the edge of the precipice at Nu‘uanu Pali. Many of the O‘ahu warriors are driven over the edge of the cliff at Nu‘uanu Pali, and meet their death on the rocks hundreds of feet below.

Chief Kalanikūpule escapes from the battlefield and hides in the Ko‘olau mountains. He is captured several months later in the upper Waipi‘o-‘Ewa area. The defeated chief is killed and then presented to Kamehameha, who offers the body as a sacrifice to his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku. This is said to have occurred on the altar called Pu‘ukapa at Moanalua.

The Battle of Nu‘uana is Kamehameha’s final military conquest. With this victory, Kamehameha gains control of all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, furthering his attempt to establish a united Hawaiian Kingdom.

King Kamehameha I establishes a system of government wherein each island has a governor. There is also a Council of Advisers, a Treasurer, and a Prime Minister. Taxes are levied, and may be paid with handicrafts or produce.

Kamehameha also institutes a fee for licensing trade and wharfage, and encourages the sandalwood trade with foreign ships. He initially rules from Kawaihae on the island of Hawai‘i, then from Hilo (1796), then Lahaina (1803). In 1804 the center of government is moved to Honolulu, which has the best available port.

[Note: Historical accounts of the events that occurred at Nu‘uanu Pali vary considerably, and it is possible that some warriors jumped off the precipice rather than surrender. The number of soldiers that died at the head of Nu‘uanu Pali is also uncertain, with estimates varying from 300 to more than 2,000.

Overall, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 warriors (from both sides) died in the Battle of Nu‘uanu, making the confrontation the deadliest event ever in the Hawaiian Islands, including Pearl Harbor.] (See The Battle of Nu‘uanu, Chapter 12.)

1795—King Kamehameha I marries 17-year-old Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], whose name means “The gathering of the clouds of heaven,” also translated as “The cluster of royal chiefs.” [xxxv] Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] becomes King Kamehameha’s highest-ranking wife.

As the granddaughter of Kalola, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] was raised under many kapu (prohibitions) as a sacred person, and was a descendent of four high-chiefly lines, including her father, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], and her mother, Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

When Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] was about 11 years old, Kalola had promised Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] to Kamehameha in marriage. (See 1778.)

With King Kamehameha I, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] gives birth to three children, including two future kings, Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II), Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III), and Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

1796, January—Under the command of William Broughton, the British sloop Providence arrives in the Hawaiian Islands, bringing the first grapes to the Islands.

1796, April—Having already conquered O‘ahu and Maui, King Kamehameha’s invasion fleet sets sail for Kaua‘i. The paramount ruler (king) of Kaua‘i at this time is Kaumuali‘i. Kamehameha’s troops leave O‘ahu at midnight, with an estimated 800 or more canoes and more than 8,000 soldiers.

In the channel between O‘ahu and Kaua‘i, a storm thwarts Kamehameha’s invasion attempt and destroys many of the fleet’s canoes, which are swamped in the rough seas and stormy winds. The warriors are forced to turn back, but some of the advance troops make it to Kaua‘i and are killed when they reach shore. (See 1804.)

[Illustration (or existing painting) of invasion fleet of King Kamehameha sailing for Kaua‘i.]

1796, September—The last battle of King Kamehameha I, known as Nāmakaehā’s Rebellion, occurs in Hilo when Kamehameha’s warriors defeat an uprising led by Nāmakaehā, the cousin of Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana], the half-brother of the high chief Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

Nāmakaehā’s forces are in control of Hilo when Kamehameha’s forces arrive, and a battle ensues at Kaipaloa in south Hilo. Nāmakaehā is taken captive, and then offered as a sacrifice to Kamehameha’s war god Kūkā‘ilimoku at the heiau at Pi‘ihonua.

Nāmakaehā’s son later becomes the first Christian convert. King Kamehameha remains in Hilo, the capital of the kingdom, for the next six years.

A noted saying was: “He aupuni ko Kamehameha.” (Kamehameha has a government.”), which is explained as, a warning not to steal. Kamehameha united the islands and made laws that gave everyone peace and safety. Killing and stealing were utterly prohibited.”[xxxvi]

(See ‘Ōpūkaha‘iaThe First Christian Hawaiian, Chapter 12.)

1796, October 31—Under the command of Captain Henry Barber, the snow Arthur, a British brig from Bengal, hits a coral shoal and wrecks on an O‘ahu peninsula (now known as Barbers Point). In their struggle to launch a boat, six of the crew of 22 die.

The vessel is eventually salvaged by John Young (I) [‘Olohana]. King Kamehameha I takes ten cannons from the ship and mounts them in front of his house. After adventures in Alaska, Barber returns to the Hawaiian Islands in 1802 and seeks the return of his ship’s cargo (sea otter skins from America’s Northwest Coast).

King Kamehameha refuses, and demands that Barber provide him with gunpowder (which Barber does) in order to provision Kamehameha’s ship, the Myrtle, in preparation for a journey to Sitka, Alaska.

1796, December 2—Under the command of Ebenezer Dorr, the Boston trading ship Otter arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. The ship’s first officer is Pierre Francois Perón (1769-1830). On January 1, 1797, the Otter leaves for China.

Perón later writes Memoires du Capitaine Perón Sur Ses Voyages, published in two volumes in Paris in 1824. In his writings, Perón states that there were about 27 foreigners living in the Hawaiian Islands in 1796. Perón later becomes mayor of the French town of Saumur.

1797—Birth of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (the future King Kamehameha II) to King Kamehameha I and Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho

King Kamehameha II

Born: 1797.

Died: July 14, 1824.

Reign: May 20, 1819—July 14, 1824.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Great grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

On his father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

Guardian: Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt]

Foster Mother: Ka‘ahumanu.

Brother: Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III).

Sister: Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

Wife: Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano].

Summary of Life of:

Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho [King Kamehameha II]:

· When King Kamehameha I died, he established the office of Kuhina Nui (Premier, or Regent), allowing Ka‘ahumanu, his favorite wife, to become co-ruler with King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), severely diminishing the powers of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

· Within months of assuming the throne, Kamehameha II ate food in public with the dowager queens Ka‘ahumanu and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], thus breaking the kapu against men and women eating together. Since the defiant act brought no retribution from the gods, eating together was no longer kapu, and this began a process that eroded traditional Hawaiian religious beliefs and eventually led to the complete overturning of the traditional kapu system.

· King Kamehameha II sailed to Kaua‘i on July 21, 1821, on the royal yacht Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i) to meet with Kaumuali‘i. At Waimea, Kaua‘i on July 22, 1821, Kaumuali‘i pledged his allegiance to King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) and accepted his sovereignty. Then the king completed a 42-day tour of Kaua‘i. On September 16, King Kamehameha II invited Kaumuali‘i to come aboard his ship, Pride of Hawai‘i, which was anchored in Waimea Bay. King Kamehameha II then set sail for O‘ahu, taking Kaumuali‘i as a prisoner.

· King Kamehameha II left for England on Nov. 27, 1823, on the whale ship L’aigle, leaving Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu in charge of the government of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

· King Kamehameha II died of measles in London, England on July 14, 1824, just six days after the death of his wife, Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano], who passed away on July 8, 1824.

(For more information about King Kamehameha II, see Chapter 11, Timeline: 1768; 1778; 1780; 1795; 1797; 1800; 1802; 1819, May 8; 1819, May 20; 1821, July 21; 1823, Sep. 16; 1823, Nov. 27; 1824.)

1797—King Kamehameha I forgives a fisherman who 12 years earlier had hit him with a paddle. The man is finally caught and brought to King Kamehameha to be punished, but instead Kamehameha forgives the man, gives him land, and sets him free.

King Kamehameha passes what comes to be known as Kānāwai Māmalahoe, the “Law of the Splintered Paddle,” with the intent of protecting weak people of the society from injustices imposed by those who are stronger. This is the first law meant to protect maka‘āinana (commoners).

1798—Birth of George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i (Humehume), to Kaumuali‘i, the paramount ruler of Kaua‘i. At the age of 6, George P. Kaumuali‘i sails for America (by way of the Orient) and in June of 1805 he arrives in Rhode Island, eventually serving in the U.S. Navy.

George P. Kaumuali‘i returns to the Hawaiian Islands in 1820, sailing as a passenger on the Thaddeus with the First Company of American missionaries. (See 1819, Aug. 23.) Prince George marries Betty Davis, the daughter of Isaac Davis (also known as ‘Aikake, an adviser to King Kamehameha I).

In 1824, Prince George leads an unsuccessful attempt at rebellion against King Kamehameha I. (See 1824.) George P. Kaumuali‘i dies on May 3, 1826, of influenza.

1798—Birth of Kekaiha‘akūlou (1798-1853), later known as Deborah Kapule, who becomes the favorite queen of Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler Kaumuali‘i.

After Kaumuali‘i’s death in 1824 Deborah Kapule weds Simon Kaiu. Though she is against the Kaua‘i rebellion led by Kaumuali‘i’s son, George P. Kaumuali‘i (Humehume), Deborah Kapule loses most of her property and is imprisoned for a time on O‘ahu.

1800—Birth of John Papa ‘Ī‘ī (1800-1870), who later serves in the royal court as a personal attendant of Liholiho (the future King Kamehameha II) and as a childhood guardian of Princess Victoria Kamāmalu.

John Papa ‘Ī‘ī is appointed to the House of Nobles and Privy Council under King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). ‘Ī‘ī serves as a language advisor to missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869), helps draft the Hawai‘i Constitution of 1852, and is a justice on Hawai‘i’s Supreme Court from 1852 to 1864.

From 1866 to 1870, ‘Ī‘ī writes articles for the Hawaiian language newspaper Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a. Mary Kawena Pūku‘i translated articles ‘Ī‘ī wrote for the newspaper Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a from 1866 to 1870.

Pūku‘i’s translations of ‘Ī‘ī’s writings were entitled Fragments of Hawaiian History,[xxxvii] edited by Dorothy Barrère and published by Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in 1959. (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

1801—Hualālai Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i erupts above Ka‘ūpūlehu, at an elevation of about 5,750 feet (1753 m), sending lava flows to the ocean.

King Kamehameha I obeys the warning of a kāula (prophet, seer) who tells him that Pele is angry and must be calmed with gifts. Kamehameha throws his offerings into the flowing lava to no avail as the eruption continues. Then Kamehameha cuts his own hair and throws it into the lava. This act is symbolic of giving his own self to Pele, and the flow of lava ceases.

The 1801 eruption of Hualālai Volcano was Hualālai’s last known volcanic activity. Hualālai is considered dormant, but not extinct.

1801—Birth of Charles Kana‘ina (c.1801—1877), the future husband of Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea], and father of King Lunalilo (William Charles Lunalilo). Charles Kana‘ina also adopted Kalama, who became queen as wife of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

1802—A Chinese man on Lāna‘i sets up a stone sugar mill and boilers, becoming the first person in the Islands to process and refine sugarcane. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1802—Birth of Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (the future queen) to King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Queen Kamāmalu

Biographical Sketch: Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802—1824) 

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Kalākua.

Husband: King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

Brother: Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] (mother of Lunalilo).

Half-Sister: Kīna‘u (daughter of Kalākua and King Kamehameha I).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Great grandparents Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (father of King Kamehameha I).

Summary of Life of Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano]:

· Queen as favorite wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

· Visited London with her husband, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and died there of measles on July 8, 1824, six days before her husband (King Kamehameha II) succumbed to the disease. (See 1824.)

(For more information about Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano], see 1776; 1797; 1824; 1829, Dec. 2.)

1803—King Kamehameha I moves his capital from Hilo to Lahaina (and then in 1804 to Honolulu). In Lahaina, King Kamehameha lives in a red stone house that was originally built for his wife, Queen Ka‘ahumanu.

Between 1802 and 1812, John Young (I) [‘Olohana] is Governor of Hawai‘i Island in King Kamehameha’s absence.

1803—The United States’ domain is doubled with the $15 million Louisiana Purchase.

1803—Under the command of American trader William Shaler (c.1773-1833), the American brig Lelia Byrd brings the first horses to the Hawaiian Islands, from California. Shaler is an American trader in partnership with Richard Cleveland.

A foal and a mare are unloaded at Kawaihae Bay for John Young (I) [‘Olohana], and a mare and a stallion are landed at Lahaina, Maui for King Kamehameha I, who becomes the first in the Hawaiian Islands to practice horsemanship.

1804—King Kamehameha I moves his capital from Lahaina to Honolulu, and continues planning to attack Kaua‘i.

An epidemic of ma‘i ‘ōku‘u (likely cholera) kills thousands, and also infects King Kamehameha and many of his troops. Many of Kamehameha’s warriors die from the disease, including the high chief Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (see 1736).

The sickness delays (for the second time) Kamehameha’s attempt to invade and conquer Kaua‘i. (See 1796, April.) Kamehameha renews his attack plans, and begins assembling a large armada of sailing ships in Waikīkī, using foreigners to construct the vessels.

1804, June 7—The first ships of the Imperial Russian service arrive in the Hawaiian Islands.

The Russian ships arriving in the Hawaiian Islands include the Neva under the command of Captain Urey [Yurii; Iurii] Lisiansky [Lisianskii], and the Nadeshda, under the command of Captain Adam Johann von Krusenstern (1770—1846). On a three-year around-the-world journey (1803—1806) their mission is to re-establish trade with China and Japan, and to find more opportunities for fur trading.

After the Neva leaves the main Hawaiian Islands for Canton, China, the ship runs aground twice on October 15, 1805 on what is now named Neva Shoal, located southeast of a small islet now named Lisianski Island (Hawaiian name: Papa‘āpoho) near Midway Atoll.

Lisianski Island is a relatively flat coral island with sandy, white beaches and about 381 acres (154 ha) of dry land. The island’s maximum height is a sand dune that rises to about 40 feet (12 m) in height. The Neva’s crew has to toss cargo overboard to free their vessel.

The Neva returns to the Hawaiian Islands in 1809 under the command of Captain Leonth Andreanovic[h] Hagemeister. (See 1809, Jan. 27; and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

1805—Birth of Kīna‘u to King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Kīna‘u

Biographical Sketch: Kīna‘u

Born: 1805.

Died: 1839.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Kalākua.

Sister: Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano].

Husband: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Children: King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu; and Moses Kekūāiwa.

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana])

Summary of Life of Kīna‘u:

· In 1832, Kīna‘u became Kuhina Nui (Premier, sharing power with King Kamehameha III [Kauikeaouli]), succeeding Ka‘ahumanu.

· Kīna‘u continued Ka‘ahumanu’s policy of supporting missionary teachings and associated laws. This was not supported by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), who was prevented from recovering certain properties due to the laws.

· Kīna‘u and King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) reconciled in 1835 when King Kamehameha III proclaimed a code of laws in line with Kīna‘u’s beliefs.

(For more information about Kīna‘u, see 1794; 1814, Mar.17; 1829; 1830, Dec.11; 1834, Feb.9.)

1805—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 264,160.

1806-1816—Jonathan and Nathan Winship visit the Hawaiian Islands.

Under the command of Jonathan Winship, the O’Cain, a Boston trading ship, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands in the spring of 1806. Chief mate of the ship is Jonathan’s brother, Nathan Winship.

The brothers return to O‘ahu in October. In the spring of 1810, Nathan returns as captain of the Albatross, and transports Kaua‘i’s ruler, Kamuali‘i, to O‘ahu so he may cede his land to King Kamehameha I. (See 1810.)

In the winter of 1811, the two brothers return to O‘ahu (Jonathan on the O‘Cain and Nathan on the Albatross). They take away a load of sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), and when King Kamehameha is happy with his profits, he grants the Winships (along with Captain William Davis) an exclusive ten-year contract for sales of sandalwood on all the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i.

The two brothers become pioneers in the sandalwood trade in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1812.)

Due to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States, however, the Winships’ contract is cancelled after their 1813 voyage. In 1816 the Winships return to Boston, but sandalwood remains the main source of income for the Hawaiian Islands for the next 15 years.

(See 1791; 1810-1820; and ‘Iliahi in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

1808, July 13—Birth of Abner Pākī (1808—1855) to Kalanihelemai‘iluna and Kuho‘oheiheipahu. Abner Pākī later becomes the husband of Konia [Laura Konia], and father of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884).

1808—Birth of Konia [Laura Konia] (1808-1857) to Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū (son of King Kamehameha I) and Luahine. Konia later becomes the husband of Abner Pākī and the mother of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884).

1809, January 27—Under the command of Captain Leonth Andreanovic[h] Hagemeister, the Neva (see 1804, June 7) returns to the Hawaiian Islands. On board the Neva is Archibald Campbell (17871821), who later becomes a sailmaker for King Kamehameha I.

Campbell remains in the Hawaiian Islands for more than one year and writes extensively about native Hawaiian life. Campbell’s writings include observations of King Kamehameha I as the ruler of all of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

1809—‘Ōpūkaha‘ia leaves Hawai‘i on the ship Triumph, eventually reaching New England (Connecticut) where he converts to Christianity and takes the name Henry Obookiah.

‘Ōpūkaha‘ia is considered the first Hawaiian convert to Christianity, (see 1792) and his death in Connecticut in 1818 inspires the first American Christian mission to the Hawaiian Islands. (See ‘Ōpūkaha‘iaThe First Christian Hawaiian, Chapter 12.)

1810—Kaumuali‘i, ruler of Kaua‘i, cedes the island of Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I.

King Kamehameha I meets Kaumuali‘i, the ruler of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, in Honolulu. Kaumuali‘i realizes that Kamehameha will inevitably conquer his island, so he signs a treaty ceding Kaua‘i to Kamehameha.

Kaumuali‘i acknowledges the sovereignty of King Kamehameha I and agrees to place Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau under Kamehameha’s control, pledging allegiance to Kamehameha.

Kaumuali‘i is allowed to remain as Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler until he dies (see 1824), and Kamehameha declares the Hawaiian Islands to be one nation. With this act, all the Hawaiian Islands are finally united under King Kamehameha, fulfilling the prophecy of the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone). (See 1775.)

Limua ka moku.

The land is moss-covered.

There is peace in the land, and no wars to disturb it.

(Pukui: 2010-217)

1810—Isaac Davis (also known as ‘Aikake) (1758-1810) dies after apparently being poisoned for warning Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler Kaumuali‘i of a plot against his life when Kaumuali‘i goes to O‘ahu to cede Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I (see above).

Davis’ daughter, Betty, was married to Kaumuali‘i’s son, George Prince Kaumuali‘i (Humehume). After Davis (‘Aikake) dies, the three children from his second marriage are adopted by John Young (I) [‘Olohana]. (See 1790 for more information on Isaac Davis [‘Aikake].)

1810—King Kamehameha’s carpenters from the royal navy yard erect the first prefabricated wood-frame dwelling in the Hawaiian Islands. The structure was brought to the Islands on the Russian frigate Neva from Sitka, Alaska in 1809.

1810-1820—This decade is the height of the sandalwood trade with China. Thousands of Hawaiians are sent into the mountains to harvest sandalwood trees (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘Iliahi), and bring them to waiting ships. Traditional Hawaiian fishing and farming is neglected in favor of sandalwood gathering.

Sandalwood traders continue to supply the Kauaians with liquor, clothes, furniture and other goods. With the growing market in China, Hawaiian sandalwood forests are logged at a rapid pace, eventually exhausting the supply of sandalwood. (See 1791; 1806; and ‘Iliahi in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

1811, February 13—The Tonquin, under the command of Jonathan Thorn, arrives on its way to the settlement of John Jacob Astor at the mouth of the Columbia River.

The Tonquin is the first of three supply ships sent to the settlement by Astor. Twelve Hawaiians leave on the Tonquin to work in the Oregon Territory.

1811—Juan Elliot d’Castro, the first trained foreign doctor in the Hawaiian Islands, becomes the physician and secretary of King Kamehameha I. Juan Elliot d’Castro was previously a surgeon on merchant and naval vessels at a hospital in Rio de Janeiro.

1812—King Kamehameha I returns to Hawai‘i Island to live in Kailua-Kona.

1812—The stone wall of the fishpond at Kīholo Bay in Kona is repaired by King Kamehameha I and thousands of helpers. Note: The fishpond was buried by a lava flow in 1859.

1812—Jonathan Winship, Nathan Winship, and William Heath Davis sign a contract with King Kamehameha I, giving them exclusive rights to export and sell sandalwood from all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i. (See 1806, Spring.)

1812—King Kamehameha I returns to Hawai‘i Island to live in Kailua-Kona.

1813—Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín (1774-1837) plants the first pineapples in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1819; 1827, Nov. 30.)

1814, March 17—Birth of Kauikeaouli (the future King Kamehameha III) to King Kamehameha I and Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Kauikeaouli

King Kamehameha III

Born: March 17, 1814.

Died: Dec. 15, 1854.

Reign: June 6, 1825—Dec. 15, 1854.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Great grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu]).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

Brother: Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II).

Sister: Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

Guardian: Kaikio‘ewa.

Wife: Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama.

Summary of Life of Kauikeaouli [King Kamehameha III]:

· Kauikeaouli means “Place in the blue firmament.”[xxxviii] Another name of Kauikeaouli was Kalei-o-Papa, which means “The beloved child of Papa [the wife of Wākea].”[xxxix]

· On June 6, 1825, Kauikeaouli succeeded his brother Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II) on the throne to become King Kamehameha III, and reigned for the next 30 years.

· In 1832, Kīna‘u became Kuhina Nui (Premier, sharing power with King Kamehameha III) succeeding Ka‘ahumanu. Kīna‘u continued Ka‘ahumanu’s policy of supporting missionary teachings and associated laws. This was not supported by King Kamehameha III, who was prevented from recovering certain properties due to the laws. King Kamehameha III reconciled with Kīna‘u in 1835 and proclaimed a code of laws in line with Kīna‘u’s beliefs.

· On Dec. 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion. On June 17, 1839, he revoked his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism in the Hawaiian Islands by issuing a statement of toleration regarding religious differences.

· King Kamehameha III married Kalama, the adopted daughter of Charles Kana‘ina, on February 14, 1837. Missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869) performed the service; a statement attributed to King Kamehameha III is “No‘u o luna, no‘u o lalo, no‘u o uka, no‘u o kai, no‘u na wahi a pau.” (“Above, below, the upland, the lowland are mine; everywhere is mine,”) which was said “...to encourage his lover Kalama to come to him. She need not fear the wrath of Ka‘ahumanu for he, Kamehameha, was the master everywhere.”

· Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Islands on the French Navy frigate Artemise on July 9, 1839, and threatened war unless King Kamehameha III agreed to a treaty with five demands relating to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands.

Laplace also insisted on $20,000 in reparations, which was raised from local merchants and paid. Laplace made additional demands that alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, eventually leading to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States.

· In 1840, King Kamehameha III formed a constitutional government based on the political structures used by the Americans and the British.

The new constitution (Hawai‘i’s first, drafted in the Hawaiian language in 1839 and signed by the king in 1840), provided for: a Supreme Court; an Executive; a Legislative body of 15 hereditary nobles and seven representatives; and the election of representatives (including the King and a Supreme Court) by the people.

The new constitution, a departure from the traditional monarchial form of government, also guaranteed freedom of religious worship.

· On February 10, 1843, Lord George Paulet of Britain arrived in the Islands on the frigate Carysfort and used the threat of military might to demand a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain. King Kamehameha III acquiesced and the British flag was raised in Honolulu. (See 1843, Feb. 10.)

Appeals to London and Washington resulted in the arrival of Admiral Richard Thomas on July 26, 1843 on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin. Thomas rescinded the provisional cession and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). On July 31, the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was raised. (See 1843, July 31.)

Later that day, King Kamehameha III gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono” (“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”). The date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day.

· In 1845, Hale Ali‘i was constructed for King Kamehameha III in midtown Honolulu, and later became the site of ‘Iolani Palace.

· King Kamehameha III instituted a new system of private property ownership, ending the king’s total control over the land. This change was known as the Great Māhele (mahele means “division”), and took place from January 27, 1848 to March 7, 1848.

The new law divided most of the land in the Hawaiian Islands between King Kamehameha III and his chiefs (ali‘i), with smaller plots offered to commoners (maka‘āinana), who received only an estimated 30,000 acres (12,140 ha) out of a total of about 4.5 million acres (1.82 million ha).

Two years later, in 1850, foreigners were allowed to purchase land, and soon held virtually all privately owned land. (See 1848, Jan. 27.)

· In 1852, King Kamehameha III adopted a new constitution, which was designed by and favored American interests. The constitution provided for a Legislature of two houses, nobles appointed by the King, and representatives appointed by the people.

· Lived in a house known as Kahaleuluhe (“The fern house”), which was located on the current site of St. Andrew’s Cathedral and Priory, and named Pā-o-Pelekane (“Enclosure of Britain”) when the land was given to the Church of England.[xl]

· After reigning for 30 years, King Kamehameha III died on December 15, 1854, childless, at the age of 41.

(For more information about King Kamehameha III, see 1765; 1778; 1795; 1800; 1814, March 17; 1815; 1817; 1823, Sept. 16; 1824; 1825, June 6; 1837, Dec. 18; 1837, Feb. 14; 1839, June 17; 1839, July 9; 1840; 1843, Feb. 10; 1843, July 31; 1845; 1848, Jan. 27; 1851; 1852; 1854, Dec. 15; 1877; 1879, Dec. 31.)

1814, May 23—The Sir Andrew Hammond, a British privateer flying the American flag, arrives in Honolulu Harbor, becoming the first ship flying the American flag to enter Honolulu Harbor.

The ship had been captured at sea by the United States during the war against Great Britain. After leaving the Hawaiian Islands, the ship is recaptured by the British ship Cherub, and sails back to Honolulu.

1814—A Russian trading ship arrives in Honolulu.

1815—Birth of Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau (1815-1876) in Mokulē‘ia, O‘ahu.

Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau was a student at Lahainaluna School (see 1831, Sept.) from 1833 to 1840, and collected a great deal of information about the Hawaiian Islands. Kamakau was later a teacher, a Maui judge, and a legislator for the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Kamakau wrote historical articles for Hawaiian language newspapers Ke Au ‘Oko‘a and Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a, producing more than 200 articles between 1866 and 1871. Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau was also a founding member of the Royal Hawaiian Historical Society in 1841, and served in the Legislature from 1851 until his death in 1876.

Kamakau’s Ruling Chiefs of Hawai‘i (Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 1961) was translated by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i (1895-1986) and published by Kamehameha Schools Press in 1961.

A second volume of Kamakau’s writings, entitled Ka Po‘e Kahiko: The People of Old (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1964) was translated by Pūku‘i and published by Bishop Museum Press in 1964, 88 years after Kamakau passed away.

1815, January—Peter Corney arrives in the Hawaiian Islands aboard the training schooner Columbia (Corney was chief officer), which is then sold for twice its bulk in sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi).

Corney later becomes involved in an 1818 encounter with some South American pirates, and is given command of the Santa Rosa. (See 1818.)

1815—Birth of Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] to King Kamehameha I and Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena

Harriet Keōpūolani

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

[Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua;

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] 

Born: 1815.

Died: 1836.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Brothers: Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II); and Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Great grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II)

Summary of Life of Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena:

· Princess as daughter of King Kamehameha I and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

· Educated as a child by American missionaries.

· Wavered between the Protestant faith and traditional Hawaiian beliefs.

· Excommunicated by Protestants in May of 1835.

· Married in 1835 to the high chief Leleiōhoku; their son died at birth.

· Nāahi‘ena‘ena means “The burning fires.”[xli]

· Died at the age of 21.

(For more information about Nāhi‘ena‘ena, see 1778; 1795.

1815—John Palmer Parker arrives in Waimea on Hawai‘i Island to kill wild cattle for King Kamehameha I. The animals had proliferated in Waimea due to a kapu (prohibition) placed upon them with the intention of letting the animals multiply after they were brought to the island by George Vancouver. (See 1792, March 5.)

Parker first saw the Hawaiian Islands aboard a fur trading ship, and was later a supervisor of loko i‘a (fishponds) for King Kamehameha I. Parker was contracted to shoot the Hawai‘i Island cattle for their meat, which was salted and sold to visiting ships. The hides were also exported.

This was the beginning of the now famous Parker Ranch. (Note: John Palmer Parker later claimed to have shot well more than 1,000 cattle.)

Parker later marries a Hawaiian princess, the cousin of Kānekapōlei (the wife of Kalani‘ōpu‘u), starts a cattle ranch, and begins building up a herd (now the second largest private ranch in the United States).

Parker also builds a sawmill, and acquires thousands of acres of grazing land. John Palmer Parker’s son, John Palmer Parker II, continues to increase the size of the ranch. (See Parker Ranch, Chapter 12.)

1815—Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) Schäffer (1779-1836) arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

Schäffer was formerly a surgeon in the Russian army. In 1812, he built hot air balloons in Moscow to observe the movements of Napoleon’s armies. Schäffer arrives in the Hawaiian Islands at the end of 1815, cures King Kamehameha I of a feverish cold, and is given land on O‘ahu.

Schäffer begins building a blockhouse on the Honolulu waterfront (the location of the site is near what is now the intersection of Fort Street and Queen Street). John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (see 1790) persuades King Kamehameha to halt the work on the fort.

After Schäffer is forced to leave the island (he goes to Kaua‘i) (see 1816, May 21), the Hawaiian monarchy rebuilds the fort using the original coral and adobe, and it is known as Fort Kekuanohu.

Barracks and quarters are located inside the 340-foot (104-m) by 300-foot (91-m) structure with 12-foot (3.7-m) high walls and about 50 guns acquired from various visiting ships mounted on the parapets.

In 1849, the French ransack Fort Kekuanohu over a dispute about duties on imports and freedom of worship. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

The fort is later used as a police headquarters and prison before being demolished in 1857. Rubble from the demolished fort is used to build a waterfront retaining wall to extend the harbor.

1816, May 21— Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) Schäffer, having been forced to leave O‘ahu (see 1815), travels with three Russian ships and their crews to Kaua‘i where he befriends Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler Kaumuali‘i and entices him to sign a document putting Kaua‘i under the protection of the Russian Czar Alexander Pavlovich.

Schäffer also promises Kaumuali‘i military assistance in obtaining independence from King Kamehameha I.

Schäffer proceeds to build a fort at Waimea, Kaua‘i and names it Fort Elizabeth in honor of the consort of the Russian Emperor. The fort overlooks Waimea Bay and has guns positioned to protect the anchorage’s trading vessels.

Schäffer seeks a trade monopoly for Russia, and in return promises Kaumuali‘i independence from King Kamehameha I. Since Kaumuali‘i had already promised King Kamehameha control of Kaua‘i after Kaumuali‘i’s death, this agreement with Schäffer is considered treasonous.

Nevertheless the Czar’s flag flies over Kaua‘i. In addition to the fort at Waimea, Schäffer also builds two forts in Kaua‘i’s Hanalei Valley.

When Otto von Kotzebue on the Russian Navy brig Rurik visits the Hawaiian Islands in 1816, he repudiates Schäffer’s acts. (See 1816.) In May of 1817, Kaumuali‘i renounces the deal with Schäffer.

On July 7, 1817, Schäffer leaves on an American vessel headed for Macao. In 1821, Schäffer goes to Brazil and is made a nobleman by Emperor Dom Pedro I (under the title of Count von Frankenthal). Thieves later kill Choris while he is traveling to Mexico City from Vera Cruz on a round-the-world journey. (See The Exploits of Georg Anton Schäffer, Chapter 12.)

1816—Captain Otto von Kotzebue (see 1816; 1824, Dec. 13) sails the Russian exploring ship Rurick to Kailua-Kona and befriends King Kamehameha I.

The Rurick’s official artist, Louis (Ludwig) Choris, produces several watercolors and sketches of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as portraits of King Kamehameha I, who insists on dressing for the portrait in traditional Western sailor’s clothes (blue pants, white shirt, red waistcoat, and a yellow silk necktie).

Thieves later kill Choris (1795-1828) while he is traveling to Mexico City from Vera Cruz on a round-the-world journey.

[Photograph: Painting of King Kamehameha I described above.]

1817—Birth of Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama (1817—1870), who later becomes queen as wife of King Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III) when they marry on February 14, 1837 at the home of Kana‘ina. Queen Kalama is the daughter of Nāhekukui.

1817—Hawai‘i’s flag, though not yet official, is first flown on a ship (the Kaahumanu) sailing to a foreign port (China).

Alexander Adams (1780-1870) arrives in the Hawaiian Islands aboard the Albatross in 1810 and takes up residence in the Hawaiian Islands. With the support of John Young (I) [‘Olohana], Alexander is placed in charge of a several ships owned by King Kamehameha I. In 1816, Adams sails the Kaahumanu to Kaua‘i with King Kamehameha I to expel Georg Anton Schäffer. (See 1816, May 21.)

In 1817, as commander of King Kamehameha I’s sandalwood trading fleet, Adams sails the Forester (renamed Kaahumanu) to China with a load of sandalwood but is refused entry into the harbor at Macao because the flag flown by the ship is not recognized.

Adams is believed to be the person who first placed the Union Jack at the upper left corner of the Hawaiian flag, inspiring today’s Hawaiian flag. (See Hawaiian Flag, Chapter 3, and Chapter 12.)

Adams later becomes the pilot of the port of Honolulu and remains in that position for almost 30 years. He lives out his days in Kalihi, O‘ahu on more than 2,000 acres (809 ha) of land given to him by King Kamehameha I.

1817—Under the command of Andrew Blanchard, the Bordeaux Packet arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. On board is Massachusetts native James Hunnewell (1794—1869), who then leaves the Hawaiian Islands on the Osprey.

Hunnewell returns to the Hawaiian Islands in 1820 on the Thaddeus with the First Company of American missionaries. Hunnewell arranges a deal in which the Hawaiian government trades a cargo of sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi) for a brig and a schooner. Hunnewell is also in command of the Missionary Packet, a ship he had sailed around Cape Horn from Boston.

Hunnewell continues to trade between China and the West Coast for several years, and also sets up a mercantile business in Honolulu. He leaves the Hawaiian Islands in 1830, and in 1836 Captain Charles Brewer becomes a partner in the firm.

Under the control of Charles Brewer, the company is renamed C. Brewer & Co. and specializes in providing supplies for whaling ships. C. Brewer & Co. is later involved in sugar and molasses, and becomes one of the “Big Five” enterprises in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1858.)

In 1850, Hunnewell, Brewer, and Henry Augustus Peirce form a partnership in a freighting business between Boston and prominent Pacific ports, with C. Brewer & Co. as the agent in Honolulu. C. Brewer & Co. becomes the agent for three Maui plantations in 1863.

1818—Captain Vasily Golovnin (1776-1831) arrives on O‘ahu on the Russian ship Kamchatka during an expedition surveying Russian enterprises in the North Pacific. Golovnin had been sent on a round-the-world journey by Russia after the fall of Napoleon I.

In October of 1818 the Russian captain anchors the Kamchatka at Kailua-Kona on Hawai‘i Island and meets King Kamehameha I. Golovnin later comments on King Kamehameha’s “honesty and love of justice,” and writes about King Kamehameha in the final year of the king’s life.

Golovnin wrote, Around the World on the Sloop “Kamchatka” (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1979), which was translated by Ella Lury Wiswell.

1818, February 17—Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia, a native Hawaiian, dies in Cornwall, Connecticut at the age of 26. ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s death inspires the first American Christian mission to the Hawaiian Islands.

(See 1792 for a Biographical Sketch of ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia.)

1818, September—The Argentina, a 44-gun frigate of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata River (later the Argentine Republic), arrives under the command of Hippolyte de Bouchard (1785—1843), a French revolutionary from Buenos Aires.

Bouchard’s goal is to subdue the South American pirates who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the pirate ship corvette Santa Rosa in May of 1818 and were taking refuge in the Hawaiian Islands.

Bouchard recaptures the Santa Rosa and puts it under the command of Peter Corney, and the two ships sail for California. Bouchard was considered by some to be a pirate himself, and both Bouchard and Corney later participated in a political raid on Monterey, the capital of Spanish California.

1819, May 8—Death of King Kamehameha I (c.1753-1819).

King Kamehameha’s final reigning years are spent on the island of Hawai‘i, where he rules from the South Kona coast. When King Kamehameha becomes very sick, he refuses a kahuna’s (priest’s) advice to offer one of his men as a human sacrifice to the gods, instead proclaiming “the men are kapu for the king.”

When Kamehameha is dying, he states, “E na‘i wale no ‘oukou i ko‘u pono, ‘a‘ole e pau.” (“You can seek out all the benefits I have produced and find them without number.”[xlii]

King Kamehameha I dies on May 8, 1819, at his Kailua-Kona home called Kamakahonu (“Eye of the turtle”).

King Kamehameha had previously given instructions to his trusted aid Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] that his bones should be hidden in a secret place so they would never be found (Hoapili means “Close personal friend”). This was a customary tradition with the bones of chiefs, which are believed to contain mana (divine power) that must be kept away from enemies.

With the help of another man (Ho‘olulu), Hoapili carries out King Kamehameha’s wish. Note: To this day the location of King Kamehameha’s bones remains unknown.

Before dying, King Kamehameha I establishes the office of Kuhina Nui (Premier, or Regent), allowing his favorite wife, Ka‘ahumanu, to wield the most power after his death. This severely diminishes the powers of King Kamehameha II.

After Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] died, Hoapili married Kalākua (the daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]), and had a child, Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea], who later gave birth, with Charles Kana‘ina, to the future King Lunalilo.

Hoapili also married King Kamehameha’s sacred wife, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], becoming her sole husband when she abandoned polygamy due to her Christian beliefs. From 1836 to 1840, Hoapili was governor of Lāna‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i.

A Hawaiian saying stated: “Ulumaheihei wale no, iāia o loko, iāia o waho.” (“Ulumaheihei knows everything inside and out.”), which is explained to mean, One who knows everything. Ulumaheihei was a very close friend of Kamehameha, who renamed him Hoapili. He was the king’s most trusted friend and knew every affair of the kingdom. It was to him that Kamehameha entrusted his bones after death.”[xliii]

1819, May 20—King Kamehameha’s 24-year-old son, Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho, takes the throne as King Kamehameha II.

Within months of assuming the throne, and with the urging and support of his mother, Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], and Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) eats in public with the dowager queens, breaking the kapu (prohibition) against men and women eating together.

When the defiant act brings no retribution from the gods, eating together is no longer kapu, and this begins a process that erodes away at traditional Hawaiian religious beliefs and eventually leads to the complete overturning of the traditional kapu system. (See The Breaking of the Kapu, Chapter 12.)

1819—Kekuaokalani, the son of King Kamehameha I’s younger brother and the keeper of King Kamehameha I’s renowned war god Kūkā‘ilimoku, rebels against the abolishment of the eating kapu by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

Kekuaokalani’s warriors fight the forces of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], who were supported by canoe-mounted American swivel guns, at the Battle of Kuamo‘o on Hawai‘i Island.

Both sides are armed with Western weapons, and Kekuaokalani and his wife are killed. The last battle takes place at Waimea, and the revolt is defeated. Soon after, another rebellion is defeated in Hāmākua.

According to accounts, Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] stated, “Wehe ka piko la, e ka hoahānau.” (“Undone is the navel string, O kinsman,” signifying that, “...a family relation is severed. Said by Keopuolani to Kekuaokalani when she attempted to quell a rebellion, meaning that the tie of kinship between the two cousins, Liholiho and Kekuaokalani, was being severed by the latter’s refusal to be reconciled.”[xliv]

1819, August 8—Under the command of French Navy captain Louis Claude Desaulces De Freycinet (1779—1842), the French corvette L’Uranie arrives in the Hawaiian Islands, becoming one of the first French vessels to reach the Hawaiian Islands.

Jacques Arago (1790—1855), the draftsman on board the L’Uranie, writes an account of the visit and includes numerous illustrations depicting Hawaiian life at the time. Various Hawaiian fish are collected by two of the ship’s officers, Quoy and Gaimard. (See Saddle Wrasse in Hawaiian Reef Fish section, Chapter 6.)

(Note: The Clermontia plant genus is named after M. le Marquis de Clermont-Tonnerre, the Minister of the French Navy during the Freycinet Expedition—see Hāhā‘aiakamanu in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

1819, August 23—Under the command of Andrew Blanchard, the brig Thaddeus sails from Boston for the Hawaiian Islands (The Sandwich Islands) carrying the First Company of American missionaries. (See 1820, March 31.)

1819, September 29—Two New England ships become the first whaling ships to come to the Hawaiian Islands. Out of Newburyport, Massachusetts and under the command of Elisha Folger is the Equator. Out of New Bedford, Massachusetts and under the command of Edmund Gardner is the Balena.

In the fall of 1819, while anchored in Kealakekua Bay, the Balena harpoons a large sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus; Hawaiian name: palaoa) that yields more than 100 barrels of oil.

By this date, commercial whaling has already begun to diminish whale populations worldwide, and the whales of the Atlantic are already documented as being overhunted. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1819—Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín manufactures sugar. (See 1813; 1827, Nov.30.)

1820—Under the command of Joseph Allen, the Nantucket whaling ship Maro becomes the first whaling ship to enter Honolulu Harbor. Allen later discovers rich whaling waters off Japan.

1820, March 31—The First Company of American missionaries arrives in the Hawaiian Islands from Boston on the Thaddeus, docking at Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawai‘i where they begin congregational mission work. (See 1819, August 23.)

1820, March 31—The First Company of American missionaries arrives from Boston on the brig Thaddeus.

Eleven more Companies of American missionaries eventually come to the Hawaiian Islands, culminating with the Twelfth Company arriving in 1848. (See The Twelve Companies of American Missionaries, Chapter 12.)

1820, May 3—American missionaries, including Samuel Ruggles (1795-1871) and Samuel Whitney (1793-1845), arrive on Kaua‘i aboard the Thaddeus. On board the ship is George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, the son of Kaumuali‘i, the ruler of Kaua‘i. As a young child, George P. Kaumuali‘i (also known as Humehume) was sent to the United States, reportedly to protect him from the queen. (See 1798.)

The missionaries (Ruggles and Whitney) are welcomed by Kaumuali‘i, ruler of the island, and are given land and a residence. At Waimea, Kaua‘i, Ruggles and Whitney establish a mission station, and they preach throughout the island.

When George P. Kaumuali‘i returns to Kaua‘i, his father places him second in command, and rewards the ship captain by giving him a valuable cargo of sandalwood.

1820, July 16—Missionaries Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) and Maria Loomis have a son, Levi Sartwell Loomis, who becomes the first Caucasian child born in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1822, Jan.7.)

1820—Bountiful sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) grounds are discovered near Japan, and hundreds of whaling ships head for the area to exploit the resource.

The Hawaiian Islands, being centrally located between the American west coast and Japan, quickly develops into a major staging area for ships going to and from the newly discovered whaling grounds.

The main Hawaiian ports for the whaling ships are in Honolulu and Lahaina. Many native Hawaiians are recruited to work on the ships.

1820s-1860s—A steady stream of missionaries arrive on the Hawaiian Islands, first converting chiefs (ali‘i) and then commoners (maka‘āinana) to their religion.

The whaling and sandalwood industries also draw an increasing number of ships to the Hawaiian Islands, mainly to the ports of Honolulu, Hilo and Lahaina. Numerous diseases brought by foreigners decimate the Hawaiian native population, which has little immunity to the foreign ailments.

1821, July 21—King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) sails to Waimea, Kaua‘i on the royal yacht Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i) to meet with Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler Kaumuali‘i.

At Waimea, Kaua‘i on July 22, 1821, Kaumuali‘i pledges his allegiance to Liholiho, and accepts Liholiho’s sovereignty. Then Liholiho completes a 42-day tour of Kaua‘i before anchoring in Waimea Bay on September 16 and inviting Kaumuali‘i to come aboard the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i. Liholiho then takes Kaumuali‘i prisoner and sails for O‘ahu.

The powerful Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, the former queen as the wife of King Kamehameha I, later marries Kaumuali‘i to ensure the monarchy’s control over Kaua‘i.

Ka‘ahumanu furthers her efforts to eliminate potential threats to her power by also marrying Keali‘iahonui, the son of Kaumuali‘i by another wife. Kaumuali‘i passes away on O‘ahu in 1824.

1821, September 15—In Honolulu, a Hale Pule (Christian Meeting House) is dedicated. Located at the site today is Kawaiaha‘o Church, a congregational church made out of coral block. Also built in 1821 is the Hale Lā‘au, or Frame House, a two-story prefabricated structure that the missionaries brought with them around Cape Horn.

The Frame House serves as a residence for various missionaries, including Hiram Bingham (1789—1869), Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873), and Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) (the printer). (See 1837; 1843, July 31; 1872, June 11; Mission Houses Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

1822, January 7—Elisha Loomis (1799—1836), using a second hand iron and mahogany Ramage press brought to the Hawaiian Islands on the Thaddeus (see 1819, Aug. 23), completes the first printing in the Hawaiian Islands and the North Pacific region.

Elisha Loomis came to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries in 1819, after attending the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall Connecticut.

The first printing is done in a grass-roofed hut in Honolulu at the site that is now Kawaiaha‘o Church. The lever to begin the printing process is pulled by Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox], who is the son of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (high chief of Kona and a supporter of King Kamehameha I in the battles uniting the Hawaiian Islands).

This first printing was the beginning of the Mission Press, which eventually printed millions of pages, many in the Hawaiian language. In 1823, the Hale Pa‘i, or Printing Office, is constructed of coral blocks. (See Mission Houses Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

1822, January 25—Charles Reed Bishop is born in Glen Falls, New York. At age 24, he sails around Cape Horn for Oregon, but ends up staying in the Hawaiian Islands. He later becomes a prominent banker and financier in the Hawaiian Islands, founding, in 1858, the Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd., which is later renamed First Hawaiian Bank.

Charles Reed Bishop also marries Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884), the great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I. In 1889, Charles Reed Bishop founds the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in honor of his wife. (See Bishop Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2 for a Biographical Sketch of Charles Reed Bishop.)

1822—About 60 whaling ships patrol Hawaiian waters, and the number continues to grow into a shore-based fishery in the Hawaiian Islands that develops specifically to hunt whales.

Many whaling ships stop in the Hawaiian Islands to stock up on fresh water and food before heading for waters offshore of Japan, where sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus; Hawaiian name: palaoa) are hunted.

1822, March 29—The colonial cutter Mermaid, a British sloop, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands along with the Prince Regent, a 70-ton (64-mton) schooner built in New South Wales for King Kamehameha I based on an earlier agreement with George Vancouver.

The two ships carry a delegation of the London Missionary Society, including William Ellis (1794-1872) who had been living in Tahiti. Being knowledgeable in the Tahitian language (having spent years as a missionary in the South Pacific), Ellis is able to learn Hawaiian quickly. He spends four months on O‘ahu and he is able to communicate well with native Hawaiians in their own language.

Ellis takes many notes, providing one of the most complete records of early Hawaiian life. (See 1823.) He also becomes the first person in the Hawaiian Islands to preach a sermon in the Hawaiian language.

Ellis is also instrumental in assisting Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) with his printing press. (See 1822, Jan. 7.) In June of 1823, Ellis becomes one of the first foreigners to visit the summit of Kīlauea Volcano.

Ellis visits the volcano along with Reverend Artemas Bishop (1795-1872), who came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1822 with the Second Company of American missionaries, and Reverend Asa Thurston (17871868), one of the leaders of the First Company of American missionaries.

The men visit Kīlauea Volcano as they tour the island of Hawai‘i in search of a suitable site to set up a mission station.

1822, August 11—Missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869) performs the first Christian marriage in the Islands, wedding the missionary youth Thomas Hopu to his bride Delia. (See Hiram Bingham, Chapter 12.)

1822, April—The brig Hermes, a whaling ship on the way to Japan, runs aground in the leeward Hawaiian Islands on what is now called Pearl and Hermes Reef. On board is James Robinson, a carpenter who builds a schooner from the wreckage of the Hermes. The survivors of the wreck sail back to Honolulu, where they remain.

James Robinson becomes a pioneer shipbuilder, and in 1823 forms James Robinson & Co., which is a prominent waterfront shipyard until 1868, when Robinson’s partner in the venture, Robert Lawrence, passes away.

Robinson also marries Rebecca Prever and has eight children, including Victoria, who marries Southerner Curtis Perry Ward, who came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1860s. Their estate is known as Old Plantation, and includes the current site of the Neil F. Blaisdell Center.

Another of Robinson’s children is Mary E. (Robinson) Foster (1844-1930), wife of Thomas R. Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company. (See 1851; 1890; 1891; 1930.)

1823, April 27—Under the command of Reuben Clasby, the Thames arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Second Company of American missionaries. (See The Twelve Companies of American Missionaries, Chapter 12.)

1823—A Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) is constructed in Honolulu near the Hale Pule (Mission House) and becomes the home of the Mission Press, which eventually prints millions of pages in the Hawaiian language.

The first book is published in 1823, entitled Na Himeni Hawaii (Hymns of Hawai‘i). (See The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

1823, May 1—The Globe, a Nantucket whaling ship under the command of Thomas Worth, arrives in Honolulu. Less than one year later, on January 25-26, 1824, near Fanning Island, the Globe is involved in the worst mutiny in whaling history. The mutiny is led by Samuel Comstock.

1823, September 16—Death of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (1778-1823).

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], the sacred wife of King Kamehameha I and the mother of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) and King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), becomes the first native Hawaiian to receive the Protestant rite of baptism when ordained American missionary William Ellis (17941872) administers the sacrament to the queen mother just an hour before her death.

(See 1778 for Biographical Sketch of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].)

1823, November 27—King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) leaves for England on the whale ship L’aigle. Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu is left in charge of the Hawaiian government.

1823, December 10— Moku‘aikaua Church, built in Kailua-Kona under the direction of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams], the brother of Queen Ka‘ahumanu), is dedicated in Kailua-Kona. Formerly on the site was a thatched church built in 1820, making that structure the first Christian church constructed in the Hawaiian Islands.

Four thousand people assist in the construction of the lava rock Moku‘aikaua Church, the walls being held together by sand and coral lime mortar. Attending the dedication is Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, the former queen as the wife of King Kamehameha I.

In 1835 a fire destroys Moku‘aikaua Church, which is then rebuilt in 1836 and finished in January of 1837 using coral mortar and stones from an abandoned heiau. The church’s steeple rises to 112 feet (34 m) and the interior is constructed of native koa (Acacia koa). (See Moku‘aikaua in Hawai‘i Island section in Chapter 2.)

1823—British missionary William Ellis (17941872) returns to the Islands (see 1822, March 29) and tours Hawai‘i Island with three American missionaries searching for mission sites.

Ellis publishes Hawaiian Tour in 1826 and Polynesian Researches, during a Residence of Nearly Six Years in the South Sea Islands in 1830, containing extensive descriptions of Hawaiian history and culture. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1824—Death of Kaumuali‘i, paramount ruler of Kaua‘i.

As previously agreed upon between Kaumuali‘i and King Kamehameha I (see 1810), the island of Kaua‘i comes under the rule of King Kamehameha II, thus finally (officially) uniting the Hawaiian Islands under a single ruler.

1824—George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, also known as Humehume, the son of Kaumuali‘i (the former paramount ruler of Kaua‘i), leads a revolt seeking Kaua‘i’s independence from King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) with a surprise attack on the fort at Waimea.

With the assistance of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], the Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu’s forces defeat the rebellion in a brutal confrontation known as known as ‘Aipua‘a (“Pig eater”[xlv]) that results in virtually all of Kaua‘i’s chiefs being replaced with O‘ahu and Maui chiefs loyal to King Kamehameha II. Also replaced is Governor Paul Kanoa (1802—1885).

Humehume is taken prisoner, along with his wife, Betty, who is the daughter of Isaac Davis [‘Aikake]. (See 1790; 1819.) Humehume remains imprisoned on O‘ahu until his death of influenza on May 3, 1826. (See Humehume and Kaua‘i’s Last Rebellion, Chapter 12.)

1824—Death of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) (1796-1824) and Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802-1824).

Kauikeaouli ascends to the throne as King Kamehameha III.

In London, England, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) dies of measles on July 14, 1824, just after Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] dies on July 8, 1824. Kauikeaouli becomes King Kamehameha III on June 6, 1825. (See 1825, June 6).

1824—Chiefess Kapi‘olani (1781-1841), a Protestant convert, leads a march from Kona to Kīlauea Volcano where she defies the volcano goddess Pele by proclaiming the power of Jehovah.

When Kapi‘olani is not engulfed by lava, at least 90 Hawaiians, including the high priest of the volcano, join the Hilo mission and convert to the Protestant religion.

The English poet laureate Lord Alfred Tennyson later writes a poem entitled “Kapiolani” in memory of the event. (See 1781 for Biographical Sketch of Kapi‘olani; and Kapiolani, by Lord Alfred Tennyson, Chapter 12.)

1824, December 13—Under the command of Otto von Kotzebue (see 1815; 1816), the Russian Imperial Navy frigate Predpiyatie arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. The ship returns again on September 12, 1825.

1824—Birth of Isaac Young Davis, who later becomes the second husband of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani.

1824—Pierre Francois Perón (1769c.1830) publishes Memoires du Capitaine Peron sur ses Voyages, including descriptions of King Kamehameha I and the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s. (See Scholars of Hawaiian HistoryChapter 12.)

1825, May 3—The bodies of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) and Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] arrive from London aboard the Navy frigate Blonde under the command of Lord George Anson Byron, who later writes Voyage of H.M.S. “Blondeto the Sandwich Islands, 1824-25. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1825, June 6—Kauikeaouli, the brother of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho, succeeds him on the throne as King Kamehameha III, and reigns for the next 30 years.

A statement attributed to King Kamehameha III is “He aupuni palapala ko‘u; o ke kanaka pono ‘oia ko‘u kanaka.” (“Mine is the kingdom of education; the righteous man is my man.”)[xlvi]

1825—About 6,000 Hawaiians live in the village of Honolulu along with 300 foreigners. More than 150 trading and whaling ships arrive annually along with thousands of visiting sailors.

1825, October—Whalers from the British whaling ship Daniel who are angry at missionary-influenced restrictions attack the Lahaina, Maui home of Reverend William Richards. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1826—The ship Wellington docks at Lahaina, Maui, and introduces mosquitoes to the Hawaiian Islands.

1826, January 16—The armed schooner Dolphin, under the command of John Percival (17791862), arrives in Honolulu to become the first American warship to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands.

On February 26, 1826 the Dolphin crew along with other sailors who are angry about a missionary-inspired ban on women visiting ships, break into the home of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], the kālaimoku (counselor) of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu. Kalanimoku was also the former kālaimoku (counselor) to King Kamehameha I.

The angry sailors then break into the home of Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869), who is known for his strict upholding of religious doctrine. Hawaiians protect Bingham from the assaults of the unruly mob.

1826—Birth of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826—1883) to Mataio Kekūanaō‘a (father) and Kalani Pauahi (mother).

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani

Biographical Sketch: Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani

Born: 1826.

Died: 1883.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kalani Pauahi.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuwahine and Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū.

Great grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū).

Husband: William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I).

Children: William Pitt Kīna‘u.

Second Husband: Isaac Young Davis.

Summary of Life of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani:

· Princess as daughter of King Kamehameha I and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

· Mother of Kaeolaokalani, who died at six months old.

· During the 1880 eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano threatening Hilo, Princess Ruth supplicated the volcano goddess Pele with chants and gifts, and the lava flow stopped at edge of town.

(For more information about Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, see 1826; 1831; 1838; 1880.)

1827, July 7—Under Captain Plassard, The Comète arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying three Roman Catholic missionaries: Alexis Bachelot, Patrick Short, and Abraham Armand.

Reverend Alexis Bachelot, an apostolic prefect and leader, is expelled from the Hawaiian Islands in 1831, but he returns in 1837. That same year he passes away. Bachelot Street in Honolulu’s St. Louis Heights is named after the priest.

1827, July 14 (Bastille Day)—Reverend Alexis Bachelot leads Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass. On November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín becomes the first foreign baby to be baptized.

(See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1827, October—Under the command of captain Elisha Clarke, the sailors of the British whale ship John Palmer fire a cannon at a missionary house in Lahaina, Maui due to a conflict between the sailors and the missionaries.

1827, November 30—The first baptism of the child of a foreigner in the Hawaiian Islands takes place. It is performed on a child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín (1774-1837), who served King Kamehameha I in various capacities, including as a physician, adviser, accountant and supplier of rum. (See 1813; 1819.)

1827—Pākākā Wharf is built in Honolulu Harbor.

1828—Hawai‘i’s first stone church, named Waine‘e (“Moving water”), is constructed in Lahaina, Maui.

1828, March 30—Under the command of Richard D. Blinn, the Parthian arrives in the Hawaiian Islands with the Third Company of American missionaries. Nine more Companies of American missionaries eventually come to the Islands, culminating with the Twelfth Company arriving in 1848. (See The Twelve Companies of American Missionaries.)

Arriving with the Third Company of American missionaries is Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873), a medical doctor who spends a lifetime of service in the Hawaiian Islands, including serving as a counselor for King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

In 1845, Judd becomes Hawai‘i’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. (See 1843, Feb.10.)

1828, October 2—Under the command of William Finch, the United States Navy corvette Vincennes arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. The Vincennes is the first United States naval vessel to tour the globe.

1828—The first Catholic chapel in the Hawaiian Islands opens in Honolulu.

1829—Birth of Moses Kekūāiwa (1829-1848) to Kekūanaō‘a and Kīna‘u (daughter of King Kamehameha I), Moses Kekūāiwa is also the brother of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha). (See the Glossary for an expanded genealogy of Moses Kekūāiwa.)

1829, December 2—The Kamehameha and the Becket leave Hawai‘i for the South Pacific carrying Boki, the governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II, and about 500 of his followers looking for sandalwood in the South Pacific (New Hebrides).

The ships are outfitted by Boki, who was nicknamed after King Kamehameha I’s favorite dog, Poki (“Boss”), a fairly common name at that time for dogs.

Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho). Boki also traveled to Great Britain with King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano], who both died in London of measles. (See 1824.)

Back in the Hawaiian Islands, Boki engaged in various enterprises, including raising sugarcane and coffee trees in Mānoa Valley with John Wilkinson, an English gardener and pioneer sugar planter that Boki brought back from England on the Blonde.

Boki also ran a shipping and mercantile business, and a liquor store called the Blonde Hotel. (Note: Wilkinson’s cultivation of sugarcane took place at least a decade before the cultivation of sugar in Kōloa, Kaua‘i, widely considered to be the first commercial sugar operation in the Hawaiian Islands.)

Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha. Boki resisted the new laws that were passed, and he does not enforce them.

Heavily in debt, Boki’s venture to the South Pacific stems from information provided by a visiting Australian ship about a plenteous source of sandalwood.

Disaster ensues after the ships become separated somewhere near the Fiji group, and the Kamehameha apparently perishes in a fire, said to be started by someone who was smoking who accidentally ignited gunpowder in the hold.

The crew of 250 dies, along with Boki. The crew of the Becket is decimated by disease and other mishaps, and finally returns to Honolulu on August 3, 1830 with just 20 survivors. (See The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12.)

1829—Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu orders that practicing Catholics be punished and sent to Kaho‘olawe, which becomes a penal colony. In 1831, Ka‘ahumanu expels Catholic priests from the Hawaiian Islands. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1829—Missionaries select a 12-letter alphabet and outline a structure for the written Hawaiian language, adopting five vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) and seven consonants (h, k, l, m, n, p, and w) to capture the sounds of the oral Hawaiian language with English letters. (See The Hawaiian Language, Chapter 12.)

1830—Steam locomotives come into use in the United States.

1830—Commercial stock raising begins on Hawai‘i Island when cowboys from Mexican California arrive to instruct Hawaiians in techniques of managing cattle.

This is the beginning of the Hawaiian cowboy, also known as paniolo, a word derived from the Spanish “Españoles.” Between 1835 and 1840, about 5,000 beef hides are exported each year.

1830, Dec. 11—Birth of Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha V) to Kīna‘u and Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha

King Kamehameha V

Born: Dec. 11, 1830.

Died: Dec. 11, 1872.

Reign: Nov. 30, 1863—Dec. 11, 1872.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kīna‘u.

Brothers: David Kamehameha (died young); King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); Moses Kekūāiwa (Governor of O‘ahu).

Sister: Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Great grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (parents of Kalākua).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

Summary of Life of

Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha [King Kamehameha V]:

· As a child, Prince Lot attended Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846) and traveled to Europe and the United States with a delegation whose aim was to improve foreign relations.

· During the reign of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) was Hawai‘i’s Minister of the Interior (six years) and Minister of Finance (one year).

· Succeeded his brother, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) when he died on November 30, 1863 without appointing a successor. This was approved by the Kuhina Nui (Premier), Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu, and the Privy Council.

Prince Lot proclaimed himself king without opposition, angering American interests and businessmen when he refused to take an oath to uphold the Constitution of 1852 (which was designed by and favored American interests).

· Preferring a strong monarchy, King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) proclaimed a new constitution on August 20, 1864, modifying the existing constitution to give greater power to the king but less control to the Privy Council and Legislative assembly, limiting their powers of voting. King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) also ended the influence of the Kuhina Nui (Premier).

· Visited British Columbia and California.

· Most native Hawaiians supported King Kamehameha V’s return to monarchical leadership, and the Hawaiian Islands lived under this constitution for 23 years (until King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] signed the “Bayonet Constitution” in 1887).

· King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) died on December 11, 1872, childless, at the age of 43, without appointing a successor to the throne (his sister Princess Victoria Kamāmalu had been named the successor, but she passed away in 1866).

This ended the rule of the Kamehameha line because King Kamehameha V’s cousin, Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884) (the great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I) refused to take the throne. William Charles Lunalilo succeeded King Kamehameha V on the throne.

· King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) did not leave a will, thus the crown lands did not pass to the next monarch. This eventually caused financial difficulties for the royal treasury.

(For more information about King Kamehameha V, see 1843, Feb. 10; 1863, Nov. 30; 1864, Aug. 20; 1872, Dec. 11.)

1831—The first archipelago census gives a population of 130,313.

1831, June 7—Under the command of Avery F. Parker, the New England arrives in the Hawaiian Islands, carrying the Fourth Company of American missionaries.

1831—The O‘ahu Charity School is established to provide education to children born to Hawaiian mothers and foreign fathers. Classes are taught in English by teachers from the United States.

The school was removed in 1872 to make room for the judiciary building, Ali‘iōlani Hale (see 1872, Feb.19).

1831—Liliha, the former wife of Boki (Kamā‘ule‘ule, the former Governor of O‘ahu), tries to instigate a revolt against Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). Liliha had become governess of O‘ahu after Boki disappeared at sea (see 1829, Dec. 2).

1831, September—American Protestant missionaries found Lahainaluna Seminary on Maui to provide advanced education for young Hawaiian men as they train to become preachers with the goal of advancing Christianity.

At this time more than 1,100 missionary schools are operating throughout the Islands, with a total enrollment of more than 50,000 students, mostly adults. (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

A saying was: “Ulu kukui o kaukaweli.” (Kukui grove of terror.”), which was “sometimes mentioned in connection with Lahainaluna School, where this grove was found. It was so called because of the short temper of the Reverend John Pogue, an instructor, and because of the skeletons stored in a nearby building for the study of anatomy. It was in this grove that hō‘ike, exhibitions of what students had learned, were held.”[xlvii]

1831, Dec. 19—Birth of Bernice Pauahi Pākī, the future Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop], to Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia].

Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop 

Born: 1831.

Died: 1884.

Father: Abner Pākī.

Mother: Konia [Laura Konia].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū and Luahine (parents of Konia [Laura Konia]).

Great grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Summary of Life of Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop:

· Granddaughter and last direct descendant of King Kamehameha I.

· Beginning at the age of eight, Princess Pauahi attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846).

· Married Charles Reed Bishop at the Royal School on June 4, 1850.

· On December 11, 1872, Princess Pauahi declined the deathbed offer of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) to name her as his successor.

· King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] gave Princess Pauahi the Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha in 1875.

· When Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani died in 1883, her will bequeathed to Princess Pauahi her elaborate mansion, Keōua Hale on Emma Street in Honolulu, as well as approximately 353,000 acres of Kamehameha lands, totaling nearly nine percent of the land in the Hawaiian Islands.

· Princess Pauahi inherited Haleakalā (near King and Bishop Streets in Honolulu), the former home of her parents, Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]. Charles Reed Bishop and Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop lived at Haleakalā, which was built in 1847 by Abner Pākī.

· Princess Pauahi inherited approximately 25,000 acres of land from Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia], and from Pauahi’s aunt, ‘Akāhi.

· When Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop died in 1884, her will left 434,000 acres (175,634 ha) of land in perpetual trust to assist in the establishment of two schools in the Kamehameha name, and thus the Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate was founded.

· The Kamehameha School for Boys opened in Honolulu on October 4, 1887, and then Kamehameha School for Girls opened on December 19, 1894.

· Today Kamehameha Schools include the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006.

In that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands.

The trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

(For more information about Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop, see Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, and Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; also see Timeline: 1808, July 13; 1808; 1822, Jan. 25; 1830, Dec. 11; 1874, Dec.9; 1884; 1887; 1889; 1894; 1902.)

1831—Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu expels Catholic priests from the Hawaiian Islands and strongly discourages believers in the Catholic religion.

1832—On May 17, under the command of Captain Swain, the whale ship Averick arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Fifth Company of American missionaries. The population of the Hawaiian Islands is estimated to be about 130,000 people.

1832—Honolulu merchant Henry A. Peirce (1808-1885) outfits the Denmark Hill, the first whaling ship to sail under the Hawaiian flag. The ship is captained by G.W. Cole.

In 1832, a total of 198 whaling ships stop in Hawaiian ports, including 118 in Honolulu and 80 in Lahaina. The whaling industry continues to grow.

(See 1840s; 1851; and The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1832, June 5—Death of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, former queen as wife of King Kamehameha I, at her at her upper Mānoa Valley home called Puka‘ōma‘o, which means “Green apertures” (the home had green shutters) at Pu‘uluahine (the name of a hill at the top of Mānoa Valley). [xlviii]

Ka‘ahumanu served as Kuhina Nui (Premier, or Regent) after the death of King Kamehameha I, co-ruling with King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) and King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) during their reigns from 1819 to 1832.

1832, July 23—Under the command of Commodore John Downes, the United States Navy frigate Potomac arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

1832—Reverend H. R. Hitchcock builds a Christian mission at Kalua‘aha, Moloka‘i. It is the first Christian mission established on Moloka‘i. In 1874, Father Damien builds Our Lady of Sorrows Catholic Church on the site. (See 1874.)

1832—An epidemic of whooping cough in the Hawaiian Islands kills thousands of residents.

1832—The first complete translation of the New Testament into the Hawaiian language is published, and missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869) presents a copy to Kuhina Nui (Premier) and former queen, Ka‘ahumanu shortly before her death. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1833—Under the command of Captain Rice, the Mentor arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Sixth Company of American missionaries.

On board the Mentor is Reverend John Diell (1808-1841), who later opens the Seamen’s Bethel in Honolulu, and is first chaplain of the American Seamen’s Friend Society. Diell later organizes the O‘ahu Bethel Church (see 1837).

1834—Birth of Kapi‘olani (II), the future Queen Kapi‘olani, to Kūhiō and Kinoiki.

Queen Kapi‘olani 

Biographical Sketch: Kapi‘olani (II) (1834—1899)

Born: 1834.

Died: 1899.

Father: Kūhiō.

Mother: Kinoiki.

Sisters: Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani; Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kaumuali‘i (ruler of Kaua‘i) and Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] (parents of Kinoiki).

Great grandparents: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei (parents of Kaumuali‘i).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Summary of Life of Queen Kapi‘olani:

· Queen as wife of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], who she married in 1863.

· She was first married to Nāmākēhā, during which time she was the governess of Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), the child of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

· Attended the jubilee of Great Britain’s Queen Victoria, and then visited United States President Grover Cleveland.

· Supported charitable causes dedicated to helping Hawaiian girls and women.

· Kapi‘olani means “The arch [of] heaven,” referring to rainbows, which signified the presence of royalty.[xlix]

(For more information about Kapi‘olani (II), see O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; ‘Iolani Palace; Hawai‘i State Library; Historic Waikīkī; Statue of Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole; Kapi‘olani Park sections, Chapter 2; and Ni‘ihau Shell Lei sections, Chapter 3; also see Timeline: 1781; 1836, Nov.16; 1871, Mar.26; 1877; 1879, Dec.31; 1887.)

1834, Feb. 9—Birth of Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani (the future King Kamehameha IV) to Kīna‘u and Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

 

Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani

King Kamehameha IV

Born: Feb. 9, 1834.

Died: Nov. 30, 1863.

Reign: Dec. 15, 1854—Nov. 30, 1863.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kīna‘u.

Brothers: David Kamehameha (died young); King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); and Moses Kekūāiwa (Governor of O‘ahu).

Sister: Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu.

On his mother’s side:

Grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Great grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (parents of Kalākua).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana])

Summary of Life of:

Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani [King Kamehameha IV]:

· As a child, Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846) and traveled to Europe and the United States with a delegation whose aim was to improve foreign relations.

· When King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) died on Dec. 15, 1854, Prince Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani, the 21-year-old grandson of King Kamehameha I and hānai son of King Kamehameha III, came to the throne as King Kamehameha IV.

· With the help of American businessmen living in the Islands, King Kamehameha IV began setting up plantation agriculture as the main force of the economy of the Hawaiian Islands. The sugar industry began importing many contract laborers from Japan, China, and the Portuguese Azores.

· King Kamehameha IV married Emma Na‘ea Rooke (the great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I) on June 19, 1856 at Kawaiaha‘o Church. They give birth to Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] on May 20, 1858. The young prince, a godchild of England’s Queen Victoria, died in 1862 at the age of four.

· Concerned about the devastating effects of foreign diseases on Hawaiians, King Kamehameha IV signed a law, on April 25, 1859, establishing a hospital in Honolulu, and with Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] raised funds for Queen’s Hospital (later built on the site). King Kamehameha IV also established the Anglican Church in the Hawaiian Islands.

· Died on Nov. 30, 1863 at the age of 29, without appointing a successor. He was succeeded by his brother, Prince Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha, who became King Kamehameha V.

· With Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] raised the initial $30,000 to begin construction of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, which opened in Honolulu in 1867 at Beretania and Queen Emma Streets (Queen Emma Square). The building’s style is Gothic. Prefabricated sandstone blocks were imported to build the Honolulu cathedral.

The king and queen took interest in building an Anglican church in Honolulu after they visited England’s Queen Victoria in 1861 and were impressed by the Church of England. St. Andrew’s Cathedral was named after the day called St. Andrew’s Feast, which falls on the same day of the year that King Kamehameha IV died in 1863.

In 1867 the French Gothic nave was completed, using stone from England. During this time, Episcopalians in the Hawaiian Islands went by the title Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church. (See Chapter 11, Part 3: Timeline of Honolulu’s Historic Buildings: 1867.)

· King Kamehameha V named ‘Iolani Palace in midtown Honolulu, after his brother, Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani (King Kamehameha IV). ‘Iolani was one of King Kamehameha IV’s Hawaiian names, and means “Hawk of heaven,” or “Royal hawk.”

(For more information about King Kamehameha IV, see 1843, Feb. 10; 1854, Dec. 15; 1856, June 19; 1858, May 20; 1862; 1863, Nov. 30; 1879, Dec. 31.)

1834, February 14—Lahainaluna Seminary begins publication of a four-page Hawaiian language weekly, Ka Lama Hawaii (The Hawaiian Luminary), the first periodical printed in the North Pacific region. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1834, March 5—At ‘Iolani Palace, the Oahu [O‘ahu] Amateur Theater gives its first production. This was likely the first community theater in the Hawaiian Islands.

1834, December 5—Under the command of Captain Henry, the Hellespont arrives in the Hawaiian Islands, carrying the Seventh Company of American missionaries.

1834—Death of Chiefess Ka‘ua‘umokuokamānele [Kamānele] daughter of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams], Governor of Hawai‘i Island. She was about 20 years of age at the time of her death.

Kamānele Park on University Avenue above the University of Hawai‘i Mānoa campus is named in her honor.

1834—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) establishes the first police force, the predecessor of the Honolulu Police Department.

1835—Birth of William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] (1835-1877) to Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole. The brother of Miriam Likelike, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], William Pitt Leleiōhoku (II) was adopted by Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani at birth, and named after her first husband.

William Pitt Leleiōhoku (II) became heir to estate of Princess Ruth, and was also a musician and poet who founded a choral society in 1876. He was named by King Kalākaua as successor to the throne, but when he died of pneumonia on April 9, 1877, Lili‘uokalani became the new heir apparent.

(See Leleiōhoku (II) in Glossary for an expanded genealogy of William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)].

1835, January 31—Birth of William Charles Lunalilo (the future king succeeding King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha)) to Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Charles Kana‘ina.

William Charles Lunalilo

King Lunalilo

Born: January 31, 1835.

Died: February 3, 1874.

Reign: January 8, 1873—February 3, 1874.

Father: Charles Kana‘ina.

Mother: Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea].

Grandparents: Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū] and Kalākua (parents of Kekāuluohi (Miriam ‘Auhea)).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kamakaeheikuli (parents of Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū])

Summary of Life of William Charles Lunalilo [King Lunalilo]:

· Prince Lunalilo was educated at the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846).

· He was engaged to Princess Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu, though apparently King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) opposed the union.

· King Lunalilo was elected by a vote of the Legislature after King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) died without naming a successor. King Lunalilo immediately began to amend the Constitution of 1864, including ending the property qualification for voting.

· On September 7, 1873, the Household Troops rebelled until they were convinced to lay down their arms by a letter from King Lunalilo. The army was then disbanded.

· Known as the Citizen King, the People’s King, and Ke Ali‘i Lokomaika‘i (“The Kind-Hearted Chief”).

· King Lunalilo suffered from tuberculosis, and was given to heavy drinking, resulting in poor health.

· Chose not to be buried in the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[l]) with other royalty. King Lunalilo was instead buried just inside the main entrance to Kawaiaha‘o Church, where his grave still remains.

· King Lunalilo died just over one year after being elected, and thus had the shortest reign of any of the Hawaiian monarchs.

· The terms of King Lunalilo’s will created the Lunalilo Home for sick and poor Hawaiians (particularly older Hawaiians).

(For more information about King Lunalilo, see 1776; 1802; 1830, Dec. 11; 1833; 1838; 1874, Feb. 3.)

1835—Koloa [Kōloa] Sugar Plantation is established in Kōloa, Kaua‘i, leading to the first successful, commercial sugar plantation in the Hawaiian Islands, and the first to export the product.

The American firm, Ladd & Co. arranges a 50-year lease of land at Kōloa for commercial sugar production. Also established at Kōloa is a missionary boarding school. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1836, July 30—The four-page weekly Sandwich Island Gazette and Journal of Commerce is published in Honolulu by Nelson Hall and S. D. MacIntosh. This is the first English-language newspaper in the Hawaiian Islands, and it continues publication until July of 1839. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1836, November 16—Birth of David La‘amea Kalākaua (the future king succeeding King Lunalilo) to Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole.

King Kalākaua’s (and Queen Lili‘uokalani’s) father was the grandson of Kepo‘okalani (with Alapa‘iwahine), and his mother was the granddaughter of Kepo‘okalani (with Keohohiwa).

King Kalākaua

David La‘amea Kalākaua

Kaheiheimālie

Born: November 16, 1836.

Died: January 20, 1891.

Reigned: Feb. 13, 1874—Jan. 20, 1891.

Father: Caesar Kapa‘akea.

Mother: Keohokālole.

Sisters: Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; Miriam Kapili Likelike.

Brother: William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)].

Wife: Kapi‘olani (married in 1863).

On father’s side: (note the intermarriage relations-highlighted in bold)

Grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki.

Great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)).

Great great grandparents: Kame‘eiamoku and Kamakaeheikuli (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e.

Great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka).

Great great grandparents: Kame‘eiamoku and Kamekaeheikuli (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

King Kalākaua’s (and Queen Lili‘uokalani’s) father was the grandson of Kepo‘okalani (with Alapa‘iwahine), and his mother was the granddaughter of Kepo‘okalani (with Keohohiwa).

“Nona ka ‘ūmi‘i lauwili i ka pāka‘awili.”

“His is the tie that is twisted and entangled into

one that holds fast.”

“His ancestors have intermarried and re-intermarried to preserve the bloodline of his family. He is therefore of a very

high and kapu rank.”

(Pukui: 2342-254)[li]

Summary of Life of King Kalākaua:

· David La‘amea Kalākaua was educated at Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846).

· King Kalākaua was elected on February 12, 1874 by a Legislative vote of 39 to 6. After the results were announced, the courthouse was attacked and ransacked, and legislators were beaten by supporters of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

The violence left many injured and one dead. American and British warships provided armed marines to restore order. King Kalākaua took an oath of allegiance to the 1864 Constitution of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

· On November 17, 1874, King Kalākaua and a royal party left for San Francisco on the steamer Benicia. Their mission was a goodwill tour of the United States. The royal party returned on February 15, 1875 on the U.S.S. Pensacola.

Around this time King Kalākaua fought constitutional battles with the kingdom’s governmental Legislature, which had resident American businessmen as members. Eventually King Kalākaua lost some authority.

· In 1875, King Kalākaua negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty, allowing Hawaiian products to be sold in the United States without customs or duties. The treaty was signed in Washington D.C. on January 30, 1875, and ratified by the United States Senate on August 15, 1876.

On September 17, 1876, the United States Congress passed a motion to give effect to the treaty, thus allowing Hawaiian sugar into the United States duty free. The subsequent rapid expansion of the sugar industry provided an economic boost for the Hawaiian Islands, and opened the door to annexation. In 1887, King Kalākaua signed a lease of Pearl Harbor to the United States for eight years.

· On December 31, 1879, King Kalākaua laid the cornerstone for ‘Iolani Palace in midtown Honolulu. On February 12, 1883, he held an official coronation on the grounds of the newly completed ‘Iolani Palace, which served as his home with Queen Kapi‘olani, and later was the home of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].

The coronation marked the beginning of King Kalākaua’s support of traditional Hawaiian practices, including the revival of hula, which was again performed publicly (it had been banned by the missionaries).(See Hula and Mele, Chapter 3).

· King Kalākaua later came to be known as the “Merrie Monarch” for his reintroduction of hula and other ancient customs. King Kalākaua also wrote the words to Hawai‘i’s state song, Hawai‘i Pono‘ī.

· In 1881, King Kalākaua left on a journey around the world. During the trip he called on 11 heads of state, including the leaders of the United States, Japan and Great Britain. King Kalākaua became the first ruler of any country to sail around the world.

· In 1885, King Kalākaua signed a treaty with Japan permitting the large-scale immigration of laborers, resulting in approximately 70,000 Japanese coming to the Islands. Between 1878 and 1887, many Portuguese workers also came to the Hawaiian Islands from the islands of Madeira and the Azores.

· In 1887, the Bayonet Constitution was instigated by the Hawaiian League, a political organization of American merchants whose membership included Sanford Ballard Dole. When King Kalākaua’s government sold its opium monopoly to a Chinese interest, the American’s tried to restrict King Kalākaua’s power. Holding a mass meeting, the League demanded that King Kalākaua dismiss his Cabinet and sign a new constitution.

· Ultimately, King Kalākaua signed a new constitution, which was later given the nickname “The Bayonet Constitution,” implying the document was signed at gunpoint. [Note: Accounts vary on the actual threats that were wielded against King Kalākaua to force him to attach his signature to the new constitution. (See 1871.)

· The effects of the new “Bayonet Constitution” included drastic changes that curtailed the king’s power, ending 23 years of rule under the previous constitution of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

One result of the new constitution was that a vote of the Legislature became necessary to replace Cabinet members. The document allowed nobles to be elected by those who owned large amounts of land, and this significantly reduced the power of Asians and native Hawaiians.

· The “Bayonet Constitution” also allowed the Legislature to override the king’s veto, and extended voting rights to all Europeans and Americans who would take an oath to support the new constitution.

· In 1890, King Kalākaua left on a trip to the United States, appointing his sister, Princess Lili‘uokalani, as sole Regent in his absence. King Kalākaua died in San Francisco on January 20, 1891, and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] succeeded him on the throne on January 29, 1891.

(For more information about King Kalākaua, see 1831; 1834; 1864, Aug. 20; 1872, June 11; 1874, Feb. 12; 1874, Feb. 14; 1874, Nov. 17; 1875, Feb. 15; 1875, Oct. 16; 1875; 1877, April 11; 1879, Dec. 31; 1881; 1883, Feb. 12; 1885; 1887; 1888, Jan. 14; 1890; 1891.)

1836—Reverend Lorrin Andrews (1795-1868), head of the Lahainaluna Seminary, publishes the first significant Hawaiian-English vocabulary book (dictionary), Vocabulary of Words in the Hawaiian Language, including about 5,700 words.

(Note: Earlier lists had been published—see Hawaiian Language section, Chapter 3.) Andrews also publishes a grammar book of the Hawaiian language in 1854, and then a dictionary in 1865.

Andrews was head of Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with the overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity. (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

1836 to 1840— Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] is Governor of Lāna‘i, Maui and Moloka‘i. (See 1776 for Biographical Sketch of Ulumāheihei.)

1836—Birth of Emma Na‘ea Rooke [Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] to Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young and George Na‘ea.

Queen Emma

Emma Na‘ea Rooke

Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani

Biographical Sketch:

Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani

Born: 1836.

Died: April 25, 1885.

Father: George Na‘ea.

Mother: Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young.

Husband: Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani (King Kamehameha IV).

Grandparents: John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o] (parents of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young).

Great grandparents: Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]).

Great great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani])

Great grandparent: Kaleipaihala (son of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalaniwahineuli).

Summary of Life of Queen Emma:

· Great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I.

· Adopted by her maternal aunt, Grace Kamaikui Young Rooke and her husband Dr. Thomas Charles Byde Rooke, who belonged to the Church of England.

· Emma became queen as wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), who she married in 1856 at Kawaiaha‘o Church.

· Queen Emma was the mother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), born on May 20, 1858. The young prince, a godchild of England’s Queen Victoria, died in 1862 at the age of four.

· Kalanikaumakeamano was Queen Emma’s name given at birth; Kaleleonālani was the name she took after her husband and son died. Kaleleonālani means “Flight of the chiefs.”

· Queen Emma’s grandfather, John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835), was the boatswain left onshore when Simon Metcalfe fled after being attacked by Kame‘eiamoku in revenge for the Olowalu massacre. (See 1790.)

· Queen’s Hospital, named after Queen Emma, was constructed in 1860 at the corner of Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu. Queen Emma and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) originally established the Queen’s Hospital in the late 1850s to help the Hawaiian people, who were being devastated by foreign diseases.

· With King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), raised the initial $30,000 to begin construction of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, which opened in 1867 in Honolulu at Beretania and Queen Emma Streets (Queen Emma Square). The building’s style is Gothic.

Prefabricated sandstone blocks were imported to build the Honolulu cathedral. The king and queen took interest in building an Anglican church in Honolulu after they visited England’s Queen Victoria in 1861 and were impressed by the Church of England.

St. Andrew’s Cathedral was named after the day called St. Andrew’s Feast, which falls on the same day of the year that King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) died in 1863. In 1867 the French Gothic nave was completed, using stone from England. During this time, Episcopalians in the Hawaiian Islands went by the title Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church. (See Chapter 11, Part 3: Timeline of Honolulu’s Historic Buildings: 1867.)

· Queen Emma put forth her claim to the throne in 1874. After David La‘amea Kalākaua was elected king and the results were announced, the courthouse was attacked and ransacked, legislators were beaten, and one delegate was thrown out of a window. The violence left many injured and one dead. American and British warships provide armed marines to restore order.

(For more information about Queen Emma, see Chapter 11: Timeline: 1790; 1834, Feb. 9; 1836, Nov. 16; 1858, May 20; 1860, July 17; 1860; 1862; 1870-1871; 1874, Feb. 12; 1885, April 25; 1889.)

1836—British Roman Catholic priest Reverend Arsenius Robert Walsh arrives in the Hawaiian Islands to establish the Catholic Mission.

1836, October 23—Under the command of Lord Russell, the Acteon, a British sloop of war, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. On November 16, Russell negotiates a treaty between Britain and the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

1837, February 14—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) marries Kalama, the adopted daughter of Charles Kana‘ina. Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869) performs the service.

A statement attributed to King Kamehameha III is “No‘u o luna, no‘u o lalo, no‘u o uka, no‘u o kai, no‘u na wahi a pau.” (“Above, below, the upland, the lowland are mine; everywhere is mine,”) which was said “...to encourage his lover Kalama to come to him. She need not fear the wrath of Ka‘ahumanu for he, Kamehameha, was the master everywhere.”[lii] (See Hiram Bingham, Chapter 12.)

1837, April 9—Under the command of Charles Sumner, the barque Mary Frazier arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Eighth Company of American missionaries.

The ship arrives from Boston in a record 116 days. The group includes missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox, who first served on the islands of Hawaii and O‘ahu, then spent 20 years (1846—1869) at the Wai‘oli mission on Kaua‘i.

1837—The Wailuku Female Seminary is built in Wailuku, Maui. It later becomes the home of missionaries Reverend Edward Bailey and his wife Caroline, who came to the Hawaiian Islands with the Eighth Company of American missionaries.

From 1841 to 1849, Edward Bailey was head of the Wailuku Female Seminary. He was also an artist, and some of his oil paintings may now be seen at the site, now known as the Bailey House Museum (Hale-Hō‘ike‘ike).

(See Bailey House Museum in Maui section, Chapter 2.)

1837, July 8—The Sulphur, a British Royal Navy ship, arrives in Honolulu. The French naval vessel Venus also arrives. There is controversy regarding Catholic priests in the Hawaiian Islands, and soon a treaty is signed assuring equal treatment for French residents.

1837—William Joseph Rawlins of England begins a soap factory in Pālama, Honolulu.

1837, Nov. 7—At Kahului, Maui, the beach drains out and people rush out to pick up stranded fish. Minutes later a tsunami arrives, having traveled all the way from Chile after being generated by an earthquake there.

People, livestock, canoes, and the village’s 26 grass houses are all swept inland and deposited in a small lake. In Hilo on the island of Hawai‘i, 100 houses are destroyed. In all, at least 15 people in the Hawaiian Islands are killed. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4, and Chapter 12.)

1837, Dec. 18—Catholic influence is growing rapidly in Honolulu. With the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issues an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion. This eventually leads to controversy with France.

(See 1839, June 7; 1839, June 17; 1839, July 9; and French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1837—Reverend John Diell (see 1833) organizes the O‘ahu Bethel Church (see 1832), which holds 500 people and is the first church in the Hawaiian Islands for foreigners.

Diell and his wife Caroline distribute Bibles and religious tracts as well as spelling books intended to help sailors to read.

1837—The O‘ahu ‘ō‘ō (Moho apicalis), a native Hawaiian bird of the honeyeater family, becomes extinct on O‘ahu.

Known as the “prince of Hawaiian plumage birds” due to its bright yellow feathers and glossy black wings, the ‘ō‘ō’s feathers are among the most highly valued by Hawaiians for use in their elaborate featherwork, including ‘ahu ‘ula (royal capes and cloaks), mahiole (feather-crested helmets), and other items.

The ‘ō‘ō eventually becomes extinct on the other Hawaiian Islands. (See Traditional Uses of Native Hawaiian Species, Chapter 12.)

1837—Construction begins on Kawaiaha‘o Church (originally known as Stone Church) in Honolulu. (See 1842, July 21.)

1838, January—Missionaries print the Hawaiian Spectator, the North Pacific region’s first literary journal, a quarterly review. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1838, September 2—Birth of Lydia Kamaka‘eha (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani) to Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole.

Queen Lili‘uokalani

Lydia Kamaka‘eha

Biographical Sketch: Queen Lili‘uokalani

Full Name: Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani.

Born: September 2, 1838.

Died: Nov. 11, 1917.

Reigned: January 29, 1891—January 17, 1893.

Father: Caesar Kapa‘akea.

Mother: Keohokālole.

Sister: Miriam Kapili Likelike.

Brothers: King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; William Pitt Leleiōhoku (II).

Husband: John Owen Dominis.

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki (parents of Caesar Kapa‘akea).

Great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)).

Great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e (parents of Keohokālole).

Great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka).

Great great grandparents: Kame‘eiamoku and Kamekaeheikuli (parents of Kepo‘okalani)

Summary of Life of Queen Lili‘uokalani:

· Attended Chiefs’ Childrens’ School beginning at age four. The Chiefs’ Children’s School was renamed Royal School in 1846. All five future rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom attended the school, from King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) to Queen Lili‘uokalani, and also educated at Royal School were Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] and the future Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

From age ten she was taught by various private tutors, and became accomplished pianist and also played ‘ukulele, organ, zither, and guitar. She could sight read music at early age, and was said to have perfect pitch. A singer, musician, and songwriter, she utilized a blend of Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian themes and techniques.

· Married John Owen Dominis (1832—1891) in 1862.

· On February 14, 1874, King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] declared that, when he was no longer king, his successor would be his younger brother William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)]. Two new princesses were also designated—Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani) and Princess Likelike.

· After William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] died of pneumonia on April 9, 1877, King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] declared Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis heir apparent to the throne as Princess Lili‘uokalani on April 11, 1877.

· Wrote Aloha ‘Oe in 1878:

Aloha ‘Oe

Proudly sweeps the rain clouded by the cliffs

As onward it glides through the trees

It seems to be following the liko

The ‘āhihi lehua of the vale

(Chorus)

Farewell to thee, farewell to thee

Thou charming one who dwells among the bowers

One fond embrace before I now depart

Until we meet again.

· On January 14, 1888, the Hawaiian League attempted to get Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis, to take the throne from King Kalākaua. She refused out of loyalty to King Kalākaua.

· In 1890, King Kalākaua took a trip to the United States, appointing Princess Lili‘uokalani as sole Regent in his absence.

· On January 20, 1891, King Kalākaua (1836—1891) died in San Francisco, California. His sister came to the throne as Queen Lili‘uokalani on January 29, 1891. The Cabinet Ministers waited for Queen Lili‘uokalani at ‘Iolani Palace to have her swear allegiance to the Bayonet Constitution (see 1887), which had taken away much of King Kalākaua’s power.

From 1891 to 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani attempted to reassert royal power. She was opposed by resident pro-business, pro-annexation Americans, and this conflict led to a series of events in the middle of January 1893, during which time the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown.

In January of 1893, an insurrection against Queen Lili‘uokalani was led by a small group of United States sugar planters and businessmen backed by 162 U.S. marines from the U.S.S. Boston. They deposed the queen, abrogated the monarchy, and declared a Provisional Government (with the goal of annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States). Hawai‘i’s previous 98 years of rule, under eight different monarchs, was effectively ended.

Below are more specific details about the events involving Queen Lili‘uokalani leading up to and during the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.

Queen Lili‘uokalani and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy:

· On January 14, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani informed her Cabinet members that she planned to proclaim a new constitution at the request of a majority of the Hawaiian people. She instructed her Cabinet Ministers to go to ‘Iolani Palace to sign the new constitution (which they had helped prepare), after the prorogation (closing) of the Legislature at Ali‘iōlani Hale.

· When the Cabinet Ministers refused to sign the new constitution, Queen Lili‘uokalani decided to defer any action, and gave a speech from the lānai of ‘Iolani Palace, telling the many people outside (who were gathered there in anticipation of a new constitution being announced) to go home peacefully because she would not be able to declare a new constitution. A group of annexation supporters then held a meeting and formed the Committee of Public Safety.

· The Committee of Public Safety declared Queen Lili‘uokalani’s actions treasonous, and made plans for a Provisional Government with the goal of eventually annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States.

· On January 15, 1893, in consultation with United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens, the Committee of Public Safety was assured that Stevens would land troops from the U.S.S. Boston if any danger was posed to American lives or property. The Committee of Public Safety called a meeting for the following day for all supporters of annexation. Supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani also called for a meeting on the same day.

· On January 16, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani declared in an official proclamation that changes to the constitution would only be made with the consent of the Legislature. The two mass meetings were held, one by supporters of annexation and the other by supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani.

· U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John L. Stevens, ordered the troops from the U.S.S. Boston ashore in Honolulu, saying the action was necessary to protect American lives and property. Stevens claimed the Americans were in danger and had no protection.

· Troops from the U.S.S. Boston came ashore at 5 p.m. on January 16, 1893. Marching down King Street past Ali‘iōlani Hale and ‘Iolani Palace, the troops stationed themselves at Arion Hall, across from ‘Iolani Palace. Meanwhile, the Committee of Public Safety met to further their plans for a Provisional Government.

· On January 17, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani requested assistance from the U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, but Stevens refused. The Honolulu Rifles, an armed volunteer group, assembled in Ali‘iōlani Hale in opposition to the loyalist guard across the street at ‘Iolani Palace.

· At 2:30 p.m., January 17, on the rear veranda of Ali‘iōlani Hale, a Provisional Government was proclaimed, and was recognized by John L. Stevens as Hawai‘i’s lawful government.

At 6 p.m. that same day, Queen Lili‘uokalani yielded not to the Provisional Government but to the United States government, “...until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.”[liii]

· Queen Lili‘uokalani later stated that she resigned her throne to avoid bloodshed, fearing the bombing of ‘Iolani Palace and loss of lives. The Committee of Public Safety met at 8 p.m., January 17, to finalize the Provisional Government’s officers and Cabinet. Sanford Ballard Dole was asked to be President of the Provisional Government.

· That same evening (January 17, 1893), about 100 armed men gathered around Ali‘iōlani Hale in support of the annexationists. Guards were posted around Ali‘iōlani Hale, the new headquarters of the Provisional Government, and drills were held on King Street in front of ‘Iolani Palace.

Martial Law was declared, and troops from the U.S.S. Boston remained nearby. At this point the Hawaiian monarchy was essentially overthrown.

Queen Lili‘uokalani: After the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy:

· On October 18, 1893, the Blount Report (see 1893, Mar. 9) was given to President Cleveland, and blamed the overthrow of the monarchy on United States Minister to Hawai‘i, John L. Stevens. The report suggested restoring the Hawaiian government. Cleveland denounced the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts.”

By November 4, 1893, orders were given by President Cleveland to restore the power of Queen Lili‘uokalani. President Cleveland also sent word that he regretted the “unauthorized intervention” that had taken away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty.

The Provisional Government refused to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict would force them to give up power. Though President Cleveland did not support annexation, he was reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans and their (mostly American) supporters.

· On January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne. The uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement.

Hundreds of men were arrested, including Robert W. Wilcox, who was condemned to death. Wilcox’s sentence was lessened, and within a few months he was pardoned.

· On January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others. On January 16, Lili‘uokalani was imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace.

· On January 24, 1895, she signed a formal abdication, that called for the recognition of the Republic of Hawai‘i as the lawful government. Queen Lili‘uokalani later claimed that this abdication was invalid due to coercion, and had been agreed to only to spare the lives of her supporters.

· On February 1, 1893, the U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens recognized the new Provisional Government and raised the United States flag over the Hawaiian Islands. Troops from the U.S.S. Boston took over as official guards of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the headquarters of the Provisional Government.

· On February 5, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was arraigned before the military commission for treason, a charge that was later changed to misprision of treason, which involves knowing of treason (the attempted counter-revolution) but not disclosing it.

· On February 27, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was found guilty of misprision of treason and sentenced to a fine of $5,000 and imprisonment with hard labor for five years. Though Queen Lili‘uokalani was not forced to do hard labor, she was imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for seven months.

· Queen Lili‘uokalani was released from confinement on September 6, 1895, and then confined to Washington Place until February 6, 1896, and then island-restricted until October 6, 1896. Her freedom was restricted for 21 months in all, from Jan. 16, 1895 until October 6 1896.

· One of the things Queen Lili‘uokalani wrote while imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace was “The Queen’s Prayer”:

The Queen’s Prayer

‘O kou aloha nō

Aia I ka lani,

A ‘o kou oiā‘i‘o,

He hemolele ho‘i

Ko‘u noho mihi‘ana

A pa‘ahao ‘ia

O‘oe ku‘u lama,

Kou nani, ko‘u ko‘o.

Mai nānā ‘ino‘ino

Nā hewa o kānaka,

Akā, e huikala

A ma‘ema‘e nō.

No laila e ka Haku,

Ma lalo o kou ‘ēheu

Kō makou maluhia

A mau loa aku nō.

Translation:

Your loving mercy

Is as high as Heaven

And your truth

So perfect

I live in sorrow

Imprisoned

You are my light

Your glory, my support

Behold not with malevolence

The sins of man

But forgive

And cleanse

And so, o Lord

Protect us beneath your wings

And let peace be our portion

Now and forever more.[liv]

· In 1897, Queen Lili‘uokalani visited Washington D.C. and petitioned President McKinley to restore the rights of the Hawaiian people. At this time there were an estimated 9,500 voters of Hawaiian birth and nationality, with a total population in the Hawaiian Islands of more than 109,000 people. Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition was not acted upon.

The Provisional Government also sent a petition to Washington D.C., and that petition (unlike Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition) was acted upon. At this time, the revolutionists of the missionary party consisted of about 637 voters.

President McKinley sent the annexation treaty to the Senate on June 16, 1897. Queen Lili‘uokalani submitted a formal protest, but it was ineffective.

The United States Senate later claimed that President McKinley’s act of sending the bill to the United States Senate amounted to a recognition of Hawai‘i’s Provisional Government. While acknowledging that the native monarchy was overthrown, they claimed that McKinley’s recognition of the Provisional Government meant the facts would not be reviewed further by the United States.

· In November of 1899, the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani, Hawai‘i’s last monarch, left the Hawaiian Islands on a boat to San Francisco, and from there traveled to Washington D.C. Her goal was to appeal (again) for the rights of the Hawaiian people and for a settlement on crown lands.

· Between 1900 and 1909, the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani made five more trips to the United States to appeal for a settlement of the disputed crown lands and fair treatment for the Hawaiian people.

· Queen Lili‘uokalani established a Deed of Trust in 1909 directing that all of her assets be used “for the benefit of orphan and other destitute children in the Hawaiian Islands, the preference to be given to Hawaiian children of pure or part aboriginal blood.”

· On November 11, 1917, Queen Lili‘uokalani suffered a stroke in Honolulu and passed away at the age of 79.

· The Queen Lili‘uokalani Trust, through the Queen Lili‘uokalani Children’s Center, continues to provide social services to orphans and other needy children and their families in the State of Hawai‘i.

(For more information about Queen Lili‘uokalani, see ‘Iolani Palace; Washington Place; and Statue of Queen Lili‘uokalani sections in Chapter 2; also see Timeline: 1845; 1847; 1851; 1862; 1872, June 11; 1874, Feb. 14; 1877, Apr. 11; 1879, Dec. 31; 1884; 1888, Jan. 14; 1889, July 30; 1890; 1891; 1893, Jan.; 1893, Jan. 14; 1893, Jan. 15; 1893, Jan. 16; 1893, Jan. 17; 1893, Oct. 18; 1895, Jan. 6; 1897; 1898, Aug. 2; 1899, Nov.; 1900-1909; 1917, Nov. 11; 1921; 1950, Nov. 27-Dec. 9; 1993, Jan. 13-18.)

1838—Hulihe‘e Palace is built at Kailua-Kona on Hawai‘i Island by Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams], the brother of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu and the governor of Hawai‘i Island. Hulihe‘e Palace later serves as a home for Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, then King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

King Kalākaua renames the palace Hikulani Hale, which means “Seventh ruler house,” referring to himself, the seventh leader of the monarchy that began with King Kamehameha I.

In 1885, King Kalākaua has the palace plastered over to give the building a more refined appearance. Later Hulihe‘e Palace is owned by Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922).

In 1927 the Daughters of Hawai‘i, a group dedicated to preserving the cultural legacy of the Hawaiian Islands, restores Hulihe‘e Palace and turns it into a museum. Hulihe‘e means “Turn flee.”[lv]

(See Hulihe‘e Palace in Hawai‘i Island section, Chapter 2.)

1838—A mumps epidemic takes the lives of many native Hawaiians.

1838-1840—More than 20,000 Hawaiians are converted to Protestantism (and membership in the Congregational Church) during an evangelical crusade led by American Protestant missionary Titus Coan (1801—1882). This event later becomes known as the “The Great Revival.” (See The Twelve Companies of American Missionaries, Chapter 12.)

1838—Birth of Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu to Mataio Kekūanaō‘a and Kīna‘u.

Princess Kamāmalu

Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Kamāmalu [Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu](1838—1866)

Born: 1838.

Died: 1866.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kīna‘u.

Brothers: David Kamehameha (died young); King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); King Kamehameha V. (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); Moses Kekūāiwa (Governor of O‘ahu).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Great grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (parents of Kalākua).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

Summary of Life of:

Princess Kamāmalu [Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu]:

· Appointed Kuhina Nui (Premier) by King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), succeeding John Young (II) [Keoni Ana]. Princess Kamāmalu was Kuhina Nui from 1854 to 1864.

· Attended the school established by missionaries, called Chiefs’ Children’s School (renamed Royal School in 1846).

· Composed many native chants.

· Victoria Kamāmalu was engaged to Prince Lunalilo, though apparently King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) opposed the union. Kalākaua is also said to have proposed to her, but was declined. She never married.

· Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) wrote about Kamāmalu’s large state funeral. (See Mark Twain in the Sandwich Islands, Chapter 12.)

· Kamāmalu means “The protector.”[lvi]

1838—The Reverend Sheldon Dibble, a history teacher at Maui’s Lahainaluna Seminary (1809-1845), publishes Ka Moolele Hawaii (Lahainaluna: Mission Press).

Dibble has his students collect oral histories from native Hawaiians (their own elders, and others), resulting in the gathering of a great deal of information about the pre-contact history of the Hawaiian Islands. The information (for the first time) is extensively written using the newly constructed written Hawaiian language, which is modeled after the oral Hawaiian language. (See Hawaiian Language section, Chapter 3.)

Dibble’s historical reports are developed with the assistance of two particularly prolific students, David Malo (c.1793-1853) and Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau (1815-1876). Malo and Kamakau collect and document many legends, genealogies and chants as well as specific details of historical events of pre-contact times in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Writings of Ancient Hawaiian History section, Appendix 2.)

In 1839, Dibble publishes A History and General Views of the Sandwich Islands Mission (New York: Taylor & Dodd). Then in 1843 Dibble publishes the History of the Sandwich Islands (Lahaina, Maui: Press of the Mission Seminary). (See Writings of Ancient Hawaiian History section, Appendix 2.)

1839, May 10—The first complete translation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language is completed in three volumes entitled Ka Palapala Hemolele and totaling 2,331 pages. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1839, June 7—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issues a Declaration of Rights that comes to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta. The document is a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840 and serves as the constitution’s preamble. (See 1837, Dec. 18; 1839, June 17; 1839, July 9; and French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1839, June 17—The king issues an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1837, Dec. 18; 1839, June 7; 1839, July 9; and French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1839, July 9—Under the command of Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace, the French Navy frigate Artemise arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

Laplace was commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed.”

Despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatens war and makes a series of demands that include freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which is paid by local merchants).

Laplace’s threats of war force King Kamehameha III to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands. This is in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion. (See 1837, Dec. 18.) The demands are met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a.

On July 17, 1839, Laplace makes additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines. Also on July 17, King Kamehameha III and Laplace sign the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands.

Laplace’s activities alarm officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually lead to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States. (See 1837, Dec. 18; 1839, June 7; 1839, June 17; 1846, March 22; and French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1839—Missionaries Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871) and his wife Juliette Montague Cooke (a prominent music teacher) take charge of the Chiefs’ Children’s School (renamed Royal School in 1846).

All five future rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom attend the school, from King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) to Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]. Also educated at Royal School are Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] and the future Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

Amos Starr Cooke and Juliette Montague Cooke, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries, are pioneers of a new educational system in the Hawaiian Islands.

1839—Lahainaluna history teacher Reverend Sheldon Dibble publishes A History and General Views of the Sandwich Islands Mission (New York: Taylor & Dodd), at the Lahainaluna Seminary Press, and then in 1843 he publishes History of the Sandwich Islands (Lahaina, Maui: Press of the Mission Seminary), using information gathered by Lahainaluna students David Malo and Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau.

(See 1838; 1843; and Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

1840—By this date all of the large, marketable sandalwood trees in the Hawaiian Islands have been cut down, effectively ending the sandalwood trade with China. (See 1791; 1806; 1810-1820; also see ‘Iliahi in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8.)

Nui kalakalai, manumanu ka loa‘a

Too much whittling leaves only a little wood.

(Pukui: 2348-255)

1840, October 8—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] replace the monarchial form of government with Hawai‘i’s first constitution, drafted in the Hawaiian language in 1839 and proclaimed (enacted) in 1840.

The new government is based on American and British political structures and provides for a Supreme Court (including the king), an Executive, a Legislative body of 15 hereditary nobles, and seven representatives elected by the people.

Freedom of religious worship is guaranteed. The new constitution is a departure from the traditional monarchial form of government.

1840—Under the protection of the French, a permanent Catholic mission is established.

1840—A high chief contracts Hawai‘i’s first known case of Hansen’s disease (leprosy), which is diagnosed and treated in 1845 by Dr. Dwight Baldwin. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a slow-growing bacterium.

In the next three decades the disease kills an estimated 4,000 people in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1865.)

1840s—Several companies in the Hawaiian Islands attempt to hunt local whales, probably sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus; Hawaiian name: palaoa) rather than humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae; Hawaiian name: koholā), because humpbacks were not as commercially valuable.

At this time, oil from the sperm whale is selling for one dollar per gallon. Oil rendered from whale blubber, such as from the humpback whale, sells for 30 cents per gallon. (See Humpback Whales section, Chapter 6.)

1840s—At least 17 mission stations are found throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

1840, November 4—The first lighthouse in the Hawaiian Islands is built at Keawaiki in Lahaina, Maui.

1840—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) establishes a public school system.

1841—Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau establishes the Royal Hawaiian Historical Society.

1841—Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children is established by Hiram Bingham (17891869), who came to the Hawaiian Islands on the Thaddeus in 1820 with the First Company of American missionaries, and Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871), who came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries, and Reverend and Mrs. Daniel Dole.

In 1843, the school is designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College. (See 1839.) The school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend. Today it is said to be the “oldest high school west of the Rockies.”

1841, May 21—Under the command of Captain Easterbrook, the Gloucester arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Ninth Company of American missionaries. The difficult 188-day voyage through inclement weather included a stop in Brazil for repairs and another stop in Chile.

1841, November—The first Catholic printing press in the Islands is established. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1842—The United States recognizes the Kingdom of Hawai‘i as an independent government. In the summer of 1844, American recognition of the Hawaiian Islands is reaffirmed in Washington D.C. by United States Secretary of State James C. Calhoun.

1842, July 21—Kawaiaha‘o Church (originally known as Stone Church, and renamed Kawaiaha‘o Church in 1862) is dedicated in Honolulu at the corner of South King and Punchbowl Streets.

Construction on Kawaiaha‘o Church began in 1837 following plans drawn by missionary Reverend Hiram Bingham. The cornerstone the church was laid on June 8, 1839, and the church was built in the New England style with Gothic influences. Presiding over the dedication on July 21, 1842 is Reverend Richard Armstrong (Bingham had left due to poor health). The historic and still functioning Kawaiaha‘o Church is O‘ahu’s oldest church and largest church.

The original grass-thatched church on the site was built to hold 300 people and dedicated in 1821. (See Timeline: 1821, Sep. 15.) Known as the Christian Meeting House, or Hale Pule, (pule means “church”), the structure was framed and thatched by Hawaiians, and then the missionaries installed imported windows, doors, a pulpit, and a bell.

On January 7, 1822 the first printing in the North Pacific region was done in this 54-foot (16-m) by 22-foot (6.7-m) building. This was the beginning of the Mission Press, which eventually printed millions of pages, many in the Hawaiian language. (See Timeline: 1822, Jan. 7.)

More than 1,000 people worked on the construction of the large, new Kawaiaha‘o Church from 1837 to 1842, using blunt axes to cut coral reef from beneath 10 to 20 feet (3 to 6 m) of water.

Approximately 14,000 coral blocks were cut from the reef for the church. Many of the blocks weighed more than 1 ton (.8 mton). Logs for the church were brought from Ko‘olau Loa in northern O‘ahu to Kāne‘ohe Bay by canoe, and then hauled over the mountain.

The church’s clock tower was a gift of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). The clock was built in Boston and continues to keep accurate time.

Kawaiaha‘o Church became the site of many important historic events, including an 1843 service for the restoration of the monarchy. This took place after King Kamehameha III had been forced into a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain on February 10, 1843, by Lord George Paulet of Britain, who had arrived on the frigate Carysfort and demanded the cession under the threat of military force. King Kamehameha III acquiesced and the British flag was raised in Honolulu. (See Timeline: 1843, Feb. 10.)

On July 31, 1843, the provisional cession of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain was rescinded by Admiral Richard Thomas (1777-1851) of Britain, who had arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 26, 1843 on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin. The Islands were restored to Hawaiians and King Kamehameha III, and the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was raised.

Later that day, King Kamehameha III gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono” (“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”). The date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day.

Kawaiaha‘o Church was also the site of the 1854 coronation of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) as well as his wedding to Emma in 1856. (See Timeline: 1821, Sep.15; 1843, July 31; 1872, June 11.) In 1885 a bigger bell tower was installed at the church, and electricity was installed in 1895. A complete reconstruction of all but the coral took place in 1925 due to extreme termite damage.

Today Kawaiaha‘o Church still reserves pews for descendants of the Hawaiian royalty that once worshipped there. These velvet-lined pews at the rear of the church are marked with kāhili, the traditional feather standards that are symbols of Hawaiian royalty.

Portraits of Hawaiian royalty and important figures associated with the church line the walls along the upper balconies of the church. The rear upper balcony is dominated by the church’s spectacular pipe organ.

To the left of the front door of the church, near the original cornerstone, is a centennial memorial plaque honoring Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869), one of the founders and the architect of Kawaiaha‘o Church. Bingham preached his first sermon in the Hawaiian Islands on April 25, 1820. The cornerstone of the church was laid on June 8, 1839.

The 10:30 a.m. Sunday service at Kawaiaha‘o Church is said in Hawaiian as well as English, and for a small offering visitors are welcomed to a breakfast following the service. [Phone: 808-522-1333] Across the street from Kawaiaha‘o Church is the Mission Houses Museum (see above), home to the first missionaries to come to the Hawaiian Islands.

Located just inside the main entrance gate to Kawaiaha‘o Church is the Tomb of King Lunalilo, a substantial memorial that is one of the first cement-block structures in the Islands. Many of early missionaries of the Hawaiian Islands are buried in a cemetery behind Kawaiaha‘o Church. (See Timeline: 1821, Sep. 15; 1837; 1843, July 31; 1872, June 11; and Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

1842, September 21—Under the command of Captain Doane, the brig Sarah Abigail arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Tenth Company of American missionaries.

1842—Birth of William Pitt Kīna‘u (1842-1859) to William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I) and Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani. (See Glossary for expanded genealogy of William Pitt Kīna‘u.)

1842—Hawai‘i’s first commercial coffee plantation is established in Hanalei, Kaua‘i by British subject Godfrey Rhodes and Frenchman John Bernard.

1843, February 10—Lord George Paulet of Britain arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on the frigate Carysfort. Using the threat of military might, Paulet demands a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain. King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) acquiesces to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag is raised in Honolulu.

King Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803-1873) resigns on May 10, bringing the public papers of the king to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[lvii]) to keep them from being taken by the British naval officers.

Judd then writes appeals to London and Washington for help in resisting Paulet’s illegal activities. At the Mausoleum, Judd uses the coffin of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu as a desk as he writes his appeals.

Judd’s appeals result in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas in July of 1843, and he rescinds the cession on July 31, 1843 and restores the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) (See 1843, July 31.)

Judd later heads a group that journeys to Europe and the United States to improve foreign relations. The group includes two future kings: Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani (King Kamehameha IV) and Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha (King Kamehameha V). (See 1843, July 31; 1849, September 11; and Restoration Day, Chapter 12.)

1843, May 2—Herman Melville becomes a pinsetter in a Honolulu bowling alley after abandoning his job on the whale ship Charles and Henry in the Marquesas, being caught and tried for mutiny, and then escaping and making his way to Lahaina and then Honolulu.

In 1843, Melville leaves the Hawaiian Islands as an enlisted seaman aboard the U.S. warship United States, and later writes the American classic, Moby Dick.

1843, July 31—The provisional cession of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain is rescinded by Admiral Richard Thomas (1777-1851) of Britain, sent by Queen Victoria to restore control of the Hawaiian Islands to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

Admiral Thomas arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on July 26 on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin, and on July 31, the British flag is lowered and the Hawaiian flag is raised.

Later that day, King Kamehameha III gives a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which will later become Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono” (“The life of the land is perpetuated (preserved) in righteousness”).

The date of July 31 is later proclaimed Restoration Day. (Note: An 1847 lū‘au celebration commemorating Restoration Day was attended by an estimated 10,000 people.)

1843, November 28—Great Britain and France issue a joint declaration, signed in London, formally recognizing the independence of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i (referred to at the time as the Sandwich Islands). (See Restoration Day, Chapter 12.)

1843—The Reverend S. C. Damon founds The Friend and serves as the editor and publisher of the monthly journal, which continues to be published for more than 100 years.

1843—Our Lady of Peace Cathedral is constructed in Honolulu at 1184 Bishop St. (now facing Fort Street Mall) on land originally given to the mission by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

The church is built of coral blocks covered with stucco. Built to serve Honolulu’s Roman Catholic Diocese, Our Lady of Peace Cathedral is the first Roman Catholic Church in the Hawaiian Islands, and also the United States’ oldest Catholic cathedral in continuous use.

In 1864, Father Damien is ordained a Roman Catholic priest at Our Lady of Peace Cathedral (see Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2). In 1847, a pipe organ is installed (the first in the Islands). A new model is installed in 1934 and then renovated in 1985. The tower of the cathedral is rebuilt twice, most recently in 1917.

The tower’s clock, installed in 1852, is the one of the oldest tower clocks in the Hawaiian Islands. During shipment to the Hawaiian Islands from France, the clock that was originally ordered was switched with the one that was delivered. The two bells in the cathedral’s tower were made in France in 1853.

The building undergoes several renovations over the years including one in 1929 that produces the building’s current facade. In the cathedral’s courtyard is an 1893 statue that is a duplicate of a 16th century wooden statue in Paris at the Convent of the Sacred Hearts Sisters.

Plaques on the statue are inscribed with the words “In memory of the first Roman Catholic Church. Our Lady of Peace 1827-1893,” in English, Hawaiian, Portuguese, and French. The statue’s location marks the spot of the original missionary church, a small wooden building.

Our Lady of Peace Cathedral is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, and the Hawai‘i Register of Historic Places in 1981. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1843—Reverend Sheldon Dibble (1809-1845) publishes the History of the Sandwich Islands (Lahaina, Maui: Press of the Mission Seminary).

1843 to 1854—During this period, an average of more than 400 whaling ships winter in the Hawaiian Islands each year.

1844, April 23—Birth of Sanford Ballard Dole (1844-1926). He later becomes: President of the Provisional Government (1893-1894) after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; President of the Republic of Hawai‘i (1894-1898); and then the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i (1898-1903).

1844, July 15—Under the command of Captain Doane, the brig Globe arrives in the Hawaiian Islands carrying the Eleventh Company of American missionaries.

1844, Summer—American recognition of the Hawaiian government is reaffirmed in Washington D.C. by United States Secretary of State James C. Calhoun.

1845—Lahainaluna Seminary Press publishes the first English-Hawaiian Dictionary, He Hoakakaolelo no na Hualelo Beritania (A Dictionary of English Words), which is prepared (edited) by Artemas Bishop (1795-1872) and Joseph S. Emerson (1800-1867). (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

1845—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) grants a piece of land in the ‘Āhuimanu area of O‘ahu to the Catholic mission for the first Catholic school in the Hawaiian Islands.

1845—The steep, winding Pali trail, long used by farmers carrying produce from the fertile windward side to the port city of Honolulu, is widened and paved with rocks, and then widened again in 1862 to accommodate horses, dynamited and paved in 1896, then widened again in 1900 to accommodate automobiles.

In May of 1957, the first two tunnels on the Nu‘uanu Pali Highway, which follows the route of the old Pali trail, open to one way traffic, providing passage through the Ko‘olau Mountains from Nu‘uanu Valley to the windward side of O‘ahu. (See 1957, May.)

1845—The capitol of the Hawaiian Kingdom is moved from Lahaina, Maui to Honolulu’s Hale Ali‘i, which was built by the high chief Mataio Kekūanaō‘a for his daughter, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu.

Kekūanaō‘a gave Hale Ali‘i to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) in 1845 and it became the royal residence for the next four monarchs over 33 years. Today it is the site of ‘Iolani Palace.

1845—Robert C. Janion and James Starkey found a small trading company in the Hawaiian Islands. The company is boarded in 1857 by Theophilus Harris Davies (1833-1898).

At the age of 23, Davies came to the Hawaiian Islands from Britain and became a prominent Honolulu businessman, and founder of the “Big Five” firm of Theo H. Davies & Co. Davies was also the guardian of Princess Ka‘iulani when she went to England to attend boarding school, and he accompanied her to Washington D.C. after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy to request assistance in restoring Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] to the throne. (See 1875, Oct. 16.)

1845—The first coffee export from the Hawaiian Islands consists of a shipment of 248 pounds (112 kg) of coffee.

1845—Theophilus Metcalf, the first commercial photographer in the Hawaiian Islands, takes Daguerreotype photographs that are considered to be the first photographs taken in the Islands.

1846—This is the peak year for whaling ship arrivals at Hawaiian ports, with at least 596 whaling ships arriving, including 429 at Lahaina and 167 at Honolulu. In the 1840s and 1850s, thousands of Hawaiians are recruited to work aboard the whaling ships. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1846, March—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) passes the First Organic Act, establishing an executive branch of government as well as a Privy Council. The Second Organic Act is enacted on April 27, 1846, establishing a new system of land ownership. The Third Organic Act is enacted on January 10, 1848, reforming Hawai‘i’s judicial system. (See 1848.)

1846, March 22—Under the command of Rear Admiral Hamelin, the French naval frigate Virginie arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. Hamelin repays the $20,000 that had been demanded by Captain Laplace in 1839. (See 1839, July 9; and French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1846, May 22—Under the command of Sir George W. Gordon, the British sidewheel steamer Cormorant becomes the first steam vessel to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands under power.

1846, October 5—Under the command of Steen Bille, the Danish Navy corvette Galathea arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. On October 16, 1846, Bille signs a treaty with the Hawaiian government.

1846—Pioneer merchant John H. Wood arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. He later constructs, on Fort Street, the first brick store building. Wood lived where the Foster Botanical Gardens is now located. (See 1930.)

1847—Washington Place is completed in Honolulu at 20 South Beretania Street by John Dominis, a sea captain and merchant. John Dominis is also the father of John Owen Dominis, husband of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], who later inherits Washington Place and lives there until she dies in 1917. (See 1921.)

In 1921, due to the political efforts of Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi], the Territory of Hawai’i purchases the stately Washington Place and it is used as a governor’s mansion.

Renovations to Washington Place take place in 1922, 1929, and 1953, and in 1973 the building is placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Washington Place is now a Museum with historical exhibits primarily dedicated to telling the story of Queen Lili‘uokalani. The museum, known as a historic interpretive center, includes displays of the Queen’s personal effects as well as important personal papers and historical documents. Washington Place also continues to be used as a public reception area.

Washington Place was named a National Historic Landmark in 2007. (See Washington Place, Chapter 12.)

1847, September 11—The 275-seat Thespian Theatre opens at King and Maunakea Streets, becoming Honolulu’s first theater. The opening performances include The Adopted Child and Fortune’s Frolic. The Thespian closes after just one season, to be followed by the Royal Hawaiian Theatre, which opens in 1848.

1847—A copper cent bearing the likeness of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) is minted, becoming the first official coin of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

1848, January 10—The third Organic Act reforms Hawai‘i’s judicial system.

1848, January 27—Total control over the land of the Hawaiian Islands by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) ends with the institution of a new system of private property ownership known as the Great Māhele (mahele means “division”).

The new law divides most of the land in the Hawaiian Islands between King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and 245 of his chiefs (ali‘i), with smaller plots offered to commoners (maka‘āinana), who receive only an estimated 30,000 acres (12,140 ha) out of a total of about 4.5 million acres (1.82 million ha).

The Māhele (“Division”) is completed on March 7, and the following day the king divides the remaining land between the king and the government. The end result is that about 24% of Hawai‘i’s land is owned by the king (Crown lands); 37% is owned by the government; and 38% is given to the ruling ali‘i (chiefs). The land given to chiefs was primarily the portion of the lands of the Hawaiian Islands that became today’s private lands, sold and traded.

The Great Māhele is conducted from January 27, 1848 to March 7, 1848. Two years later, in 1850, non-Hawaiians are allowed to purchase land, and they soon hold virtually all privately owned land.

1848, February 26—Under Captain Hollis, the Twelfth (and final) Company of American missionaries arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on the bark Samoset.

1848-1849—Epidemics of influenza, diarrhea, whooping cough, and measles sweep through the Hawaiian Islands.

The measles epidemic is brought to Hilo by an American warship, and in less than two years kills about 10,000 people throughout the Hawaiian Islands (mostly native Hawaiians), an estimated ten to twenty-five percent of all native Hawaiians, including virtually all the babies born during these years.

1849-1851—The California Gold Rush creates a demand for Hawaiian agricultural products, such as potatoes, oranges, coffee, and molasses.

1848, April—Two French ships arrive off Honolulu under the command of Rear Admiral Legoarant de Tromelin, who demands equality of worship and an end to duties on French imports, claiming these acts violate an earlier treaty.

Tromelin engages in reprisals that include taking over government buildings and ransacking Fort Kekuanohu in Honolulu. Tromelin departs ten days later. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

1849—The royal brothers Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani and Lot Kamehameha (the future kings Kamehameha IV and V) set sail to tour the United States and Europe with the goal of improving international relations and recognition of Hawaiian independence.

The royal brothers are accompanied by Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd (see 1843, Feb. 10). The American racial prejudice experienced by the young royal brothers on this journey is formative in the decidedly pro-British reign of King Kamehameha IV.

1849—Heinrich (Henry) Hackfeld, a German captain, and his brother-in-law J. C. Pflueger, found a merchandising firm that later becomes American Factors Ltd. (Amfac), one of the “Big Five” companies that control the sugarcane industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

1849, August 12—The Poursuivante, a French Navy frigate, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands. The captain presents ten demands, and then engages in reprisals.

1849—The Massachusetts becomes the first steam-powered propeller vessel to arrive in the Islands.

1850—The native Hawaiian population is estimated to be about 82,000, which is less than one third of the estimated native population in 1778, when Western contact was established with the arrival of Captain Cook.

1850—A Honolulu Post Office opens under postmaster Henry M. Whitney. By 1855, mail from New York takes about 35 days to reach the Hawaiian Islands.


1850—
Hawai‘i’s legislature passes the Masters and Servants Act, establishing a contract labor system that begins the mass importation of laborers to work on sugar plantations and allowing persons over twenty years of age to sign a contract binding them to an employer for up to five years. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1850, February 15, 16—An unnamed storm, likely a hurricane, hits Lahaina, Maui, destroying an estimated 100 homes including the king’s palace, and killing at least five people aboard the ship Sophia. (See Hurricanes, Chapter 12.)

1850, December 12—Ten Mormons arrive in the Hawaiian Islands from the California gold camps, and become the first Mormon missionaries in the Hawaiian Islands. In 1855, one of the men, George Q. Cannon, publishes a Hawaiian translation of the Book of Mormon, titled Ka Buke a Moramona.

In Lā‘ie, O‘ahu, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is established, and soon wins over large numbers of Hawaiians to their faith. In 1865 the Mormons purchase 6,000 acres (2,428 ha) of land in the Lā‘ie region.

In 1919, the Mormons in Lā‘ie use volcanic rocks and crushed coral to build a smaller version of the Mormon temple in Salt Lake City, Utah. Constructed at the base of the Ko‘olau Mountains, the temple is dedicated on November 27, 1919, becoming the first Mormon temple built outside of the continental United States. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Mormons in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1850, December 27—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) signs an ordinance establishing the Honolulu Fire Department, the first fire department in the Hawaiian Islands. The Honolulu Fire Department was organized by Alexander Joy Cartwright. The first steam fire engines arrived in the Islands in 1879.

1850—The Kuleana Act is passed to define the land rights of maka‘āinana (commoners) on lands they have cultivated (kuleana).

The Act authorizes a Land Commission to grant land titles, and about 11,000 maka‘āinana (commoners) are granted 28,600 acres (11,574 ha). This is less than 1% of the available land, though much of it is located in prime agricultural areas.

Requirements included having the land surveyed, filing a claim with the Land Commission, and proving the land was being cultivated to earn a living.

The Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles, usually simply called the Land Commission, and is appointed in December of 1845 by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) to determine land rights.

Commoners are given the right to buy the land they cultivate in November of 1846, but the process for this to occur is not enacted into law until August of 1850. The Land Commission is dissolved in 1855.

The Legislature also passes a law that allows non-Hawaiians (resident aliens) to own land in Hawai‘i. By 1890, more than 75 percent of lands originally granted to chiefs is owned by non-Hawaiians.

The massive loss of Hawaiian-owned lands to non-Hawaiians is exacerbated by a law passed by the Legislature in 1874 removing mortgage transactions from the courts and placing them in private hands. This results in huge losses of lands by natives to non-Hawaiians in the 1880s. The law apparently allows the lender to foreclose without notice, then buy the land in a rigged auction.

1851—Birth of Miriam Kapili Likelike (1851-1887) to Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole. She will later become Princess Likelike, as the sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].

Princess Likelike

Biographical Sketch: Princess Likelike (Miriam Kapili Likelike)

Born: 1851.

Died: 1887.

Father: Caesar Kapa‘akea.

Mother: Keohokālole.

Brothers: David La‘amea Kalākaua [King Kalākaua], William Pitt Leleōhoku (II).

Sister: Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].

Husband: Archibald Scott Cleghorn (married September 22, 1870).

Daughter: Princess Ka‘iulani [Victoria Kawēkiu Ka‘iulani].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e.

Great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka).

Great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki.

Great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)).

Great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

Summary of Life of:

Princess Likelike [Miriam Kapili Likelike]:

· Declared a princess on February 14, 1874, along with Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]), by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], who also declared that when he was no longer king, his successor would be his younger brother William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)].

· Married Archibald Scott Cleghorn on September 22, 1870, and they give birth to Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani (1875—1899). (See 1875, October 16.)

1851—William Hillebrand (1821—1886), a Prussian doctor, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

In the 1860s Hillebrand becomes head of Queen’s Hospital, which is named after Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885), wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani).

Hillebrand also works with the Bureau of Immigration in 1865 and is instrumental in importing workers from the Madeira Islands, beginning the immigration of many Portuguese laborers to the Hawaiian Islands.

Hillebrand becomes a member of the Privy Council of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and becomes famous for his botany work, including an 1888 book that becomes the best source regarding Hawaiian flora. Hillebrand experiments with various plants, animals and birds, including many non-native species.

In 1890, Hillebrand’s property is sold to Captain and Mrs. Thomas R. Foster. In 1930, 6 acres (2.4 ha) of the property (at Nu‘uanu Avenue and Vineyard Boulevard in downtown Honolulu) is dedicated as a city park and botanical garden, now known as Foster Botanical Gardens (see 1930).

Hillebrand originally bought the property in 1855 from Queen Kalama [Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama [Kamālama]], the wife of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

1851—A total of 220 whaling ships stop at Hawaiian ports, including 90 in Honolulu, 103 in Lahaina, and 27 at other ports. At this time, half the American whaling fleet is centered in New Bedford, Massachusetts.

Boats go to sea for up to three years, returning with barrels of oil from sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). This oil helps fuel the Industrial Revolution.

1851—Missionaries Samuel Northrup Castle (1808—1894) and Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871) form the company Castle & Cooke, which sells medicine, farm machines, and sewing tools. In 1907 the company becomes the agent for Matson Navigation and acquires interest in Matson.

Castle & Cooke later obtains an interest in the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (see 1901), which is renamed Dole Company and becomes part of the food division of Castle & Cooke. The owner, billionaire David Murdock, separates the companies again in the 1990s.

Under Murdock, Castle & Cooke currently owns much of Lāna‘i (developed as a resort destination) as well as a significant amount of land on O‘ahu. (See Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1851—David M. Weston, of the East Maui Plantation, invents a centrifugal machine that separates sugar from molasses. This speeds up the drying process.

1851—The Thetis arrives from China with 195 men and 20 boys, the first contract laborers to come to the Hawaiian Islands to work on sugar plantations. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1851, August 8—The first branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Hawaiian Islands is established on Maui.

1852—The Honolulu Courthouse is built on Queen Street near the old Honolulu Fort, using coral blocks. A year later a second story is added. The Supreme Court meets in the building as does the Legislature of Hawai‘i.

The building is one of the largest in Honolulu, and is also the site of many social events including banquets, musical performances, church services, and official ceremonies.

1852—The Hawaiian Guard is organized in Honolulu by about 50 foreign businessmen. The purpose of the soldiers is to keep the peace in Honolulu and stop riots. This group is considered the origin of today’s Hawai‘i National Guard.

1852—Old School Hall is built at Punahou School in Honolulu, using coral from Kewalo Basin, stone from Rock Hill, and wood from Mānoa. Roof slate and window glass were imported from New England.

1852—This is a peak year for ship arrivals at Hawaiian ports, with a total of 519 whaling ships and 235 merchant ships arriving, as well as four national ships, totaling 758 ship arrivals.

1852—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) adopts a new Hawaiian constitution, providing for a Legislature of two houses, nobles appointed by the king, and representatives appointed by the people.

The constitution is designed by and favors American interests, with Western government structures that are largely the result of influence by the king’s American and European advisers, particularly Dr. Gerrit P. Judd.

1852, November 8—The death of imprisoned whaler Henry Burns causes thousands of sailors to riot and set fire to the Honolulu police station. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1852, January 3—The Thetis arrives from China carrying 195 men and boys. These are the first Chinese contract laborers to come to the Hawaiian Islands. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1853—The first of several devastating smallpox epidemics, infects about 10,000 people, taking more than 5,000 lives. In 1861, Hawai‘i’s second smallpox epidemic takes many lives.

A third smallpox epidemic occurs in 1873. Hawai‘i’s fourth smallpox epidemic takes place in 1881-1882, with at least 780 cases reported and more than 280 people, mostly native Hawaiians, dying from the disease. (See 1861; 1873; 1881.)

1853—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is 73,134, including 2,119 foreigners. The native Hawaiian population continues to decline from an estimated 300,000 people living in the Hawaiian Islands at the time of first Western contact (see 1778, Jan. 18).

1853—The first steam-operated sugar mill begins operating at Kaua‘i’s Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation. This is the first use of steam power in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1853—A sidewheel steamer, the 114-ton, 106-foot S.B. Wheeler, arrives from the United States. The ship is renamed the Akamai, and the Hawaiian Steam Navigation Company uses it for interisland trade and Hawai‘i’s first regular interisland steamer service.

1854—The two-story Melchers Building is constructed of coral blocks at 51 Merchant Street in Honolulu. Built for the retail firm of Melchers and Reiner, the style is 19th Century Commercial.

The Melchers Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Now covered with plaster and stucco, the building remains standing as Honolulu’s oldest commercial structure.

1854, December 15—King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) dies childless at age 41, ending a 30-year reign, during which he institutes a constitutional monarchy. (See 1814, Mar. 17.)

1854—Prince Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani, the 21-year-old grandson of King Kamehameha I and hānai son of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), comes to the throne as King Kamehameha IV.

With the help of American businessmen living on the Hawaiian Islands, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) begins setting up plantation agriculture (the sugarcane industry) as the main force of the economy of the Hawaiian Islands.

The sugar industry imports many contract laborers from Japan, China, and the Portuguese Azores. Sugar industry leaders gain influence and begin discussing the benefits of annexation to the United States, including the elimination of tariffs. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1856—On Kaua‘i, a 10-mile (16-km) long irrigation ditch is dug to supply water for the production of sugarcane at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation, which is run by William Harrison Rice.

This use of irrigation to grow sugarcane is the beginning of what will be a massive expansion of sugarcane production as a commercial crop. William Harrison Rice is a former missionary who taps Kaua‘i’s plenteous stream water to irrigate the sugarcane during the two years it needs to ripen.

1856—A weekly newspaper, The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, is founded. In 1882 it becomes a daily newspaper, and is the predecessor to today’s Honolulu Advertiser. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1856, June 19—King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) marries Emma Na‘ea Rooke [Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], a great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I, at Kawaiaha‘o Church. (See 1858, May 20.)

1856—The steamship West Point (carrying a cargo of oranges) wrecks on the rocks in a squall while leaving port at Kōloa, Kaua‘i. This was the first wreck of a steamship in the Hawaiian Islands.

1857—Lot Kamehameha, Minister of the Interior, forms the volunteer group Honolulu Rifles for the purpose of protecting life and property against “lawless mobs.” The Honolulu Rifles are later instrumental in supporting the Committee of Public Safety during the overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy in 1893. (See 1893.)

1858, May 20—Birth of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) to Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani). The young prince is the godchild of Queen Victoria. (See the Glossary for an expanded genealogy of Prince Albert Edward Kauikeaouli.)

1858, August 17—Charles Reed Bishop and A. W. Aldrich found the firm Aldrich & Bishop, Hawai‘i’s first permanent, locally-owned bank. The bank is later renamed Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd, and is known today as the First Hawaiian Bank.

1858, November—Henry MacFarlane introduces gas lighting in his billiard saloon at Honolulu’s Commercial Hotel. This is the first introduction of gas lighting in the Hawaiian Islands, and soon gas lighting is widely used in Honolulu. (See 1859, Oct. 26.)

1858—Charles Reed Bishop founds the firm Aldrich & Bishop, which later becomes Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd, known today as the First Hawaiian Bank. Much of the bank’s initial business involves loans to companies involved in the whaling and sugar industries, including the “Big Five” companies: Alexander & Baldwin; Castle & Cooke; Amfac; Theo H. Davies; and C. Brewer.

1859—Oil is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania, and it becomes the new source of lubricants for industry, marking the end of the heyday of the whaling industry. By this date, whales were rapidly disappearing due to over-harvesting.

1859—The Episcopal Church is established in the Hawaiian Islands. The first Episcopal Bishop arrives in Honolulu in 1862.

1859—549 whaling ships stop at Hawaiian ports, including 249 ships arriving in Honolulu, 116 ships arriving in Lahaina, and 184 ships arriving in other ports. The large number of foreigners brought by whaling ships increases the likelihood of natives contracting foreign diseases.

1859, May 20—The first formal (documented) outrigger regatta is held. The event is in honor of the first birthday of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), the son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani). (See 1858, May 20.)

1859, October 26—The Honolulu Gas Company, chartered by the 1854 legislature, begins providing gas lighting in Honolulu, initially installing gasoline lamp streetlights at major intersections as well as in several major buildings and some private homes. (See 1858, Nov.)

1859-1885—These are the peak years of the commercial pulu industry in the Hawaiian Islands. Pulu is the reddish-brown or golden-yellow silky hair that grows at the base of the pepe‘e (young fronds) and at the bud stems of the native hāpu‘u (Cibotium species, tree ferns), which are common in many wet and shady forest areas of the Hawaiian Islands.

During the commercial pulu industry in the Hawaiian Islands, a great deal of pulu is exported for use as stuffing for mattresses and pillows. Extensive cutting of hāpu‘u tree ferns to get the relatively small amount of pulu threatens the species’ survival. In 1869 alone, more than 623,000 pounds (282,588 kg) of pulu are harvested.

In ancient Hawai‘i, pulu had various medicinal uses, including as an absorbent for dressing wounds and as a stuffing for embalming the dead. (See Hāpu‘u in Native Plants and Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 8, for more information about pulu.)

1860—The home of Dr. Hugo Stangenwald (1829—1899) is built on Honolulu’s ‘Iliahi Street in Nu‘uanu. (See 1901.)

1860—Measles and whooping cough epidemics take many lives. The population of the Hawaiian Islands is about 69,800 people. The native Hawaiian population continues to decline from an estimated 300,000 people living in the Hawaiian Islands at the time of first Western contact (1778).

1860—Queen’s Hospital is constructed at the corner of Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu. The hospital is named after Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], the wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and the mother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862).

Queen Emma is the adopted daughter of her maternal aunt, Grace Kamaikui Young Rooke and her husband, the English physician Dr. Thomas Charles Byde Rooke (Queen Emma’s biological parents were George Na‘ea and Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young).

Queen Emma and King Kamehameha IV originally established the Queen’s Hospital in the late 1850s to help the Hawaiian people, who were being devastated by foreign diseases.

1860— Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) with their son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), visit Kaua‘i and stay at the estate of the Foreign Minister of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Robert Crichton Wyllie, who owns a large Hanalei Valley sugar plantation.

Wyllie’s estate includes a great deal of land above the eastern side of Hanalei Valley. To honor young Prince Albert (the heir to the Hawaiian Kingdom), Wyllie changes the name of his estate to Princeville Plantation. (See 1862.) Tragically, Prince Albert dies in 1862 at the age of four.

1860—Rice seed is brought to the Hawaiian Islands from South Carolina, beginning a new industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

By 1870, rice exports reach one million pounds per year, and increase to about two million pounds per year by one decade later. Rice exports in 1899 total more than 33 million pounds.

In 1899, O‘ahu has the most rice acreage in the Hawaiian Islands, with more than 9,000 acres in cultivation. Another major rice producing region is Hanalei on Kaua‘i. (See 1907.)

1860, July 18—The steamer Kilauea begins making the first regular interisland trips.

1861—The second smallpox epidemic to hit the Hawaiian Islands takes many lives. (See 1853; 1873; 1881.)

1861—The United States’ Civil War causes the price of sugar to rise.

1861—King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) signs a treaty of neutrality with the United States. This takes place as a precaution in case the American Civil War extends into the Pacific region.

1861, March 8—The first operatic performance in the Hawaiian Islands is given at the Royal Hawaiian Theater in Honolulu.

1862—Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī, the future Queen Lili‘uokalani, marries John Owen Dominis.

1862—Death of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] at age four. Prince Albert was the son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

1863, Nov. 30—King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) dies without appointing a successor. He is succeeded by his brother, Prince Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha, who becomes King Kamehameha V.

With the approval of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu and the Privy Council, Prince Lot proclaims himself king, without opposition, and angers American interests and businessmen when he refuses to take an oath to uphold the Constitution of 1852 (which was designed by and favors American interests).

1864, August 20—King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) proclaims a new constitution, which modifies the existing constitution and gives greater power to the king, but less control to the Privy Council and Legislative Assembly, limiting their powers of voting.

The new constitution angers foreigners, though most native Hawaiians support the return to monarchical leadership. The people of the Hawaiian Islands will live under this new constitution for the next 23 years, until King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] signs the “Bayonet Constitution” in 1887.

1864—George N. Wilcox (1893-1933) leases Grove Farm sugar plantation in Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i. He eventually acquires more land and builds Grove Farm into a major plantation.

Wilcox uses the irrigation methods pioneered by William Harrison Rice to grow sugarcane. The operation is a success, but the methods are still primitive, using ox-pulled carts, which are extremely slow, about 1 mile per hour (1.6 km/hour) to haul the sugarcane. Sugar mills soon begin using steam power.

1864—Eliza (McHutcheson) Sinclair purchases the island of Ni‘ihau from King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) for the price of $10,000.

1864—Father Damien is ordained a Roman Catholic priest at Honolulu’s Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace. (See 1865; and Heroes of Kalaupapa, Chapter 12.)

1865—Lorin Andrews publishes a Hawaiian-English dictionary containing about 15,000 words.

1865—The first arrivals of victims of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) come to Kalawao on Moloka‘i’s Kalaupapa Peninsula. Hansen’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a slow-growing bacterium. The disease bears the name of Norwegian physician Dr. Gerhard Armauer Hansen who, in 1873, discovered the bacteria and its relation to the disease.

Accessible only by boat, foot, or mule, the Kalaupapa settlement is intended to segregate the Hansen’s disease patients from the rest of the population. The number of patients grows to about 800 by 1873, when a Belgian priest named Father Damien (Joseph Damien DeVeuster) arrives as a volunteer to minister to the patients of the colony.

Father Damien dies of Hansen’s disease 16 years later, in 1889. Eventually nearly 9,000 people are quarantined at Kalaupapa.

Hansen’s disease primarily affects the patient’s skin and nerves as well as mucous membranes. Today Hansen’s disease is 100% curable using antibiotics. There is still some uncertainty how the disease is transmitted, but researchers believe nasal secretions and long-term contact with infected people may be the main factors.

Ninety-five percent of the general population have a natural immunity to the bacteria. From 1991 to 2002, there were an average of about 20 cases per year reported in the Hawaiian Islands, mostly among recent immigrants from Asia and Pacific regions.]

[Note: Father Damien’s spirit lives on as one of Hawai‘i’s beloved heroes. Referred to as the “Martyr of Moloka‘i,” Father Damien is today immortalized in a statue that faces Beretania Street on O‘ahu, in front of the State Capitol Building.

(For more information about Father Damien, see Damien Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; also see Chapter 11, Timeline: 1873; 1889; 1969; 1995 and Heroes of Kalaupapa—Father Damien and Mother Marianne, Chapter 12.)

1865—The Royal Mausoleum, designed by Theodore Heuck (Honolulu’s first resident architect), is built in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[lviii]).

The Mausoleum is planned by King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] for their deceased son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) (see 1862). The second body placed in the Mausoleum is King Kamehameha IV.

Other deceased royalty are later transferred from the first Royal Mausoleum at ‘Iolani Palace to the new Royal Mausoleum, which now holds the remains of King Kamehameha II through V as well as King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and other important persons of Hawai‘i’s past.

1866, March 18—Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), a Missouri-born, California newspaper correspondent and former riverboat pilot who had just begun going by the pseudonym Mark Twain, arrives in the Hawaiian Islands, then called the Sandwich Islands, aboard the steamer Ajax. Clemens is on assignment to write a series of travel letters about the whaling and sugarcane industries.

Clemens proceeds to travel around O‘ahu, Maui (including the summit of Haleakalā), and the island of Hawai‘i (including the summit of Kīlauea Volcano). Clemens writes about his Hawaiian adventures in travel letters as well as in Roughing It, published in 1872.

Clemens later writes The Innocents Abroad, and then his most famous work, Huckleberry Finn. (See Mark Twain in the Sandwich Islands, Chapter 12.)

1866, May 29—Death of Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, sister of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

1866—A record export crop of cotton, totaling more than 22,000 pounds (9,979 kg), is produced in the Hawaiian Islands.

1866, September 4—The Daily Hawaiian Herald becomes the first daily newspaper in the Hawaiian Islands, and continues publication until December 21, 1866. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1866—The population of cattle in the Hawaiian Islands is about 60,000 head, and many are undomesticated.

1867—St. Andrew’s Cathedral opens in Honolulu at Beretania and Queen Emma Streets (Queen Emma Square). The building’s style is Gothic.

King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] raised the initial $30,000 to begin construction of the Honolulu cathedral, and prefabricated sandstone blocks were imported.

The king and queen took interest in building an Anglican church in Honolulu after they visited England’s Queen Victoria in 1861 and were impressed by the Church of England.

St. Andrew’s Cathedral is named after the day called St. Andrew’s Feast, which falls on the same day of the year that King Kamehameha IV died in 1863. In 1867 the French Gothic nave is completed, using stone from England. During this time, Episcopalians in the Hawaiian Islands went by the title Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church.

In 1886, the church’s choir section is completed. An enlargement to the church takes place in 1912, when two bays are added, and then another enlargement takes place in 1958 when a huge stained glass mural is installed across the front of the church.

The mural represents the history of Christianity and incorporates Hawaiian themes including King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma. St. Andrew’s is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

1867—Steamship mail service is inaugurated between the Hawaiian Islands and San Francisco.

1868—The peak years of whaling in Hawaiian waters are over, but commercial whaling increases worldwide as the harpoon gun is perfected by a Norwegian sealer named Svend Foyn.

The new harpoon gun drastically improves the whalers’ ability to hunt whales. Foyn also designs a steam whaleship upon which to mount the harpoon-shooting gun.

Foyn’s harpoon has long barbs that open inside the whale along with a vial of sulfuric acid that causes the whale to suffer a painful death lasting up to two hours. Soon after the invention of the harpoon gun comes the development of exploding tips, and the grenade-harpoon becomes the most lethal weapon, capable of exploding inside the whale and killing it with massive internal injuries.

1868—Death of Judge Lorrin Andrews (1795-1868). Lorrin Andrews was the head of Maui’s Lahainaluna School, and also authored a Hawaiian dictionary and grammar book. Andrews was an associate justice of Hawai‘i’s Supreme Court, and also a judge on the probate court.

1868, April 2—An earthquake estimated to have a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale strikes the southern end of the island of Hawai‘i. The quake destroys nearly every European-style home in the Ka‘ū district, and causes a mud flow in Wood Valley that buries a village of 31 people along with about 50 animals. In all, more than 40 people are killed along with many cattle.

The earthquake also generates what is known as a localized tsunami, with water surging ashore high enough to cover the tops of coconut trees estimated at 60 feet (18.3 m) high. The ancient village of ‘Āpua in Puna on Hawai‘i Island is swept away. The localized tsunami kills 48 people. (See Tsunamis, Chapters 4 and 12.)

1868—The Spring Pioneer Omnibus Line begins operating horse-drawn carts in Honolulu, beginning the first public transit service in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1868—A lava flow from Hawai‘i Island’s Mauna Loa Volcano enters the Pacific Ocean to the west of South Point in Kā‘ū and also forms the 240-foot (73-m) high littoral cone called Pu‘uhou (“New hill”[lix]). (See Mauna Loa Vocano in Hawai‘i Island section, Chapter 2).

1868—The Scioto arrives carrying the first mass emigration of Japanese to work on sugar plantations. These initial migrants, 142 men and six women, are mostly tradesmen and craftsmen, and do not have contracts or government permission. They are called gannenmono (“first year men”), referring to the first year of Japan’s Meiji era. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1869—The first lighthouse at Honolulu Harbor begins operation.

1869—More than 623,000 pounds (282,588 kg) of pulu are harvested and exported for sale as stuffing mattresses and pillows. Pulu is the reddish-brown or golden-yellow silky hair that grows at the base of the pepe‘e (young fronds) and at the bud stems of native hāpu‘u (tree ferns).

The peak of the pulu industry occurs between 1859 and 1885, when a great deal of pulu is exported for use as stuffing for mattresses and pillows. Extensive cutting of tree ferns to get the relatively small amount of pulu threatens the species’ survival.

1870—A jubilee celebrates the 50th Anniversary of the arrival of the First Company of American missionaries in the Hawaiian Islands.

1870—The first cases of scarlet fever in the Hawaiian Islands are documented.

1870— Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] starts St. Andrew’s Priory School for Girls, dedicated primarily to serving native Hawaiian girls. Nursing is promoted as a major career goal among the students.

1870-1871— Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] and an entourage of about 100 retainers and servants visit Kaua‘i, staying at the queen’s Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate, which was deeded to her by her aunt Hikoni. On this visit, Queen Emma and her retinue, complete with hula dancers and musicians, journey up to the highlands forests of the Alaka‘i Swamp and Kōke‘e. They were guided by an elderly Hawaiian named Kaluahi.

The group rests while music and hula dancing entertain the Queen, who also recites chants.[lx] At this point the horses have to be left behind and the group descends on foot into the valley toward the Alaka‘i.

The first night is spent at Waineki (“Bulrush water”[lxi]) in the Aiponui forest, where a platform made from branches of ‘ōhi‘a lehua is built for Queen Emma.[lxii]

The royal party eventually reaches the end of the trail where the overlook called Kilohana (“Lookout Point”[lxiii]) provides spectacular views of Wainiha Valley and Kaua‘i’s north shore. In honor of the mountain journey the queen’s estate in Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i is renamed Mauna Kilohana.

1870—The firm of Alexander & Baldwin is established by Samuel Thomas Alexander and Henry Perrine Baldwin. The firm later becomes one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies (see 1880).

Baldwin (who had lost his arm in a factory accident) and Alexander had purchased 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land for $110 a year earlier in 1869 in Makawao, Maui for the purpose of growing sugarcane.

In 1876, the firm begins the construction of the 17-mile (27-km) long Hāmākua irrigation ditch to carry water from Haleakalā to East Maui.

The Hawaiian Sugar Company is established by Alexander & Baldwin in 1889 in Makaweli, Kaua‘i, and then in 1894 begins its own sugar agency in San Francisco, California. In 1898, Alexander & Baldwin take control of Pu‘unēnē, Maui’s Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company, and then incorporate in the Hawaiian Islands in 1900.

Today the firm of Alexander & Baldwin is worth more than $900 million, and owns Matson Navigation as well as commercial properties on the United States Mainland, and significant amounts of land in the Hawaiian Islands.

1870s—During this decade, at least 73 sugar plantations are in operation in the Hawaiian Islands.

1871, March 26—Birth of Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi to David Kahelepouli Pi‘ikoi and Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike near Hō‘ai Bay at Kukui‘ula (“Red light”[lxiv]), near Kōloa, Kaua‘i.

Prince Kūhiō

Biographical Sketch:

Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi](1871—1922)

Born: March 26, 1871.

Father: David Kahelepouli Pi‘ikoi.

Mother: Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (sister of Queen Kapi‘olani).

Brothers: Prince Edward Keali‘ihonui; Prince David Kawānanakoa.

Wife: Elizabeth Kahanu Ka‘auwai (daughter of Kaua‘i chief).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kūhiō and Kinoiki (parents of Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike).

Great grandparents: Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] and Kaumuali‘i (parents of Kinoiki).

Great great grandparents: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei (parents of Kaumuali‘i).

Great great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Summary of Life of:

Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi]:

· Born in the Kōloa region of Kaua‘i’s southern coast near Hō‘ai Bay in a grass house at an ancient fishing village called Kukui‘ula (“Red light”[lxv]).

· Nephew and adopted son of Queen Kapi‘olani (sister of Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike).

· Prince Kūhiō was the youngest of three boys, all considered ali‘i (royalty) due to their royal descent from Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler (king) Kaumuali‘i. One brother, Edward Keali‘ihonui, died in his teens. Jonah Kūhiō and his other brother, David Kawānanakoa, were adopted into the childless royal family of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Kapi‘olani after the boys’ father, David Kahalepouli Pi‘ikoi, died when Kūhiō was ten.

· Kalaniana‘ole, means “The royal chief without measure,”[lxvi] referring to the prince’s noble heredity, which includes the royal lineage of Kūhiō’s mother, Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike, who was appointed governor of Hawai‘i Island by King Kalākaua.

· When Kūhiō was 13 years old, King Kalākaua declared Jonah and his brother David princes by royal decree with the intent that they would carry on the Kalākaua dynasty. King Kalākaua and Queen Kapi‘olani held an official coronation on February 12, 1883 at ‘Iolani Palace, and the jeweled royal crowns were carried by Prince Kūhiō and his brother David Kawānanakoa.

· Due to his cherubic and handsome looks, Prince Kūhiō was sometimes referred to as Prince Cupid, a name given to him in his youth by his French teacher.

· Prince Kūhiō attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846) and Punahou School on O‘ahu, and then attended St. Matthew’s College in California before enrolling in the Royal Agricultural College in Cirencester, England. He then graduated from an English business school.

· Prince Kūhiō was a master of the traditional Hawaiian art of lua (ancient Hawaiian form of martial arts). He also competed on school teams in the sports of football and track.

· In 1884, Kūhiō was appointed to the Cabinet of the Hawaiian Kingdom by King Kalākaua to administer the Department of the Interior.

· With the support of King Kalākaua, Prince Kūhiō studied Japanese culture and government for one year in Japan. The king hoped the Prince would find a royal Japanese bride and form a marital alliance between the Hawaiian Islands and Japan.

· Prince Kūhiō was named as presumptive heir to the throne by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] after she ascended to the throne in 1891, making Kūhiō the last royally-designated heir.

· After he returned to the Hawaiian Islands just before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, Prince Kūhiō worked to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne.

· In 1895 at the age of 24, Prince Kūhiō participated in a royalist uprising (a counter-revolution) against the Republic of Hawai‘i.

· Colonel Samuel Nowlein, an advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani, informed fellow revolutionist Prince Kūhiō on January 3, 1895 that officers of the Republic of Hawai‘i had discovered that they were planning to stage a counter-revolution to restore the rule of Queen Lili‘uokalani, and that the officers knew of the arms and ammunition that were going to be used for this purpose and that these arms were on a ship, the steamer Waimanalo under the command of Captain William Davies, offshore of O‘ahu.

· Prince Kūhiō, with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903) and John Henry Wise (1869—1937), sailed out to the Waimanalo in a canoe at Queen Lili‘uokalani’s Waikīkī boathouse. The weapons had been loaded into two boats. Under the command of Wilcox, the two boats sailed for Moloka‘i until out of sight of the Waimanalo, then headed to Kāhala where the men buried the weapons under the sand.

· Prince Kūhiō was arrested by the Provisional Government, charged with treason, and imprisoned for one year.

· After his release from prison, Prince Kūhiō married Elizabeth Kahanu Ka‘auwai, a full-blooded Hawaiian chiefess who was the daughter of a Maui chief, and they took a trip to Africa.

· Disheartened by the events in the Hawaiian Islands, Prince Kūhiō joined the British Army in South Africa in the Boer War.

· Prince Kūhiō was next in line to ascend to the throne after Princess Ka‘iulani passed away in 1899, but the restoration of the monarchy became more unlikely with each passing year.

· Prince Kūhiō and his wife returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1901. He helped organize the Republican Party in 1902 and that same year he was elected as the Territory of Hawai‘i’s second, non-voting delegate to the United States Congress (after Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903)), serving in the position for a total of 20 years (ten, two-year terms) until he died in 1922.

· Prince Kūhiō helped to found the Order of Kamehameha in 1903 and the Hawaiian Civic Club of Honolulu in 1918. The Civic Club’s tradition of community involvement continues today.

· Due to his political efforts to help Hawaiians and promote self-sufficiency among the native population, Prince Kūhiō was known as Ke Ali‘i Maka‘āinana, which means “Chief of the Commoners,” “Citizen Prince,” or “Prince of the People.”

· Throughout his life, Prince Kūhiō worked to preserve the traditions and culture of native Hawaiians. One of Prince Kūhiō’s legacies was his inspired involvement in the passing of the Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act, which was enacted on July 9, 1921 to provide low-cost homestead and farming land to Hawaiians with at least 50% native Hawaiian ancestry based on blood quantum.

· A total of 203,500 acres (82,354 ha) was designated as “available lands” for the program, but the sugar companies had lobbied to exclude all areas that were not used for sugar, which included most of the best agricultural land in the Hawaiian Islands. No money was available to develop the second-tier parcels and thus most of the lands were not used.

· During the first 70 years after the passage of Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act of 1920, just 3,000 families received lands and many people who were on the original list of applications passed away before receiving land.

· Of his political efforts, Prince Kūhiō stated, “The legislation proposed seeks to place the Hawaiian back on the soil, so that the valuable and sturdy traits of that race, peculiarly adapted to the islands, shall be preserved to posterity.”[lxvii]

· Prince Kūhiō’s home was called Pualeilani, which means “Flower from the wreath of heaven.” The home was located across Kalākaua Avenue from Kūhiō Beach Park.

· Prince Kūhiō passed away due to heart disease on January 7, 1922 at the age of 50. He was given the last state funeral held for a Hawaiian ali‘i (royalty), and was laid to rest at the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[lxviii]).

· Prince Kūhiō Park is located near the Prince Kūhiō’s birthplace on Kaua‘i’s southern shore west of Kōloa. The park features a pond and terraced stone walls, Hō‘ai Heiau, and a statue of the prince that was unveiled on June 17, 1928 with about 10,000 people in attendance.

· Prince Kūhiō’s life is celebrated with an annual state holiday each year on Prince Kūhiō Day, the prince’s birthday, March 26. Prince Kūhiō Day is traditionally a day of canoe races and other local events, including a ceremony at Prince Kūhiō Park on Kaua‘i.

· Kūhiō Beach Park in Waikīkī is named after Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922), whose home fronting the beach was torn down in 1936. (See Kūhiō Beach Park; and Statue of Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Prince Kūhiō Park / Hō‘ai Heiau in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1871, July 22—The Honolulu Skating Rink opens on Hotel Street in Buffum’s Hall. Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] attends the grand opening, which includes a Virginia reel and other dances performed on roller skates. The skating rink is run by Williams & Wallace, open five nights a week and the fee to skate at the rink is 25 cents per hour.

1871, August 9—An unnamed hurricane hits the islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i, causing an estimated $10,000 in damage and destroying about 150 houses.

1871—The medieval looking ‘Iolani Barracks opens (construction began in 1866), featuring firing loops built into the walls and archery parapets located atop the building.

Designed by Theodore Heuck, a German immigrant, the structure is originally known as Halekoa and used by the Kingdom’s army, formerly called the Household Troops and comprised of about 60 soldiers. An inner courtyard area is used for roll call. The army is later known as the Household Guard under King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], or Royal Guard, and includes the Royal Hawaiian Band.

‘Iolani Barracks is originally constructed on the site where the State Capitol now stands. Stone by stone, ‘Iolani Barracks was moved in 1965 to its present location, at 364 South King Street on the ‘Iolani Palace grounds, and completely restored.

‘Iolani Barracks was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. (See ‘Iolani Barracks in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1871—The Kamehameha V Post Office Building is constructed on Merchant and Bethel Streets in downtown Honolulu. The building is constructed in the Renaissance Revival style by architect J. G. Osborne, and becomes the main Honolulu Post Office until 1922.

The Kamehameha V Post Office Building remains today as America’s oldest reinforced concrete building, and is now occupied by the State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.

1871—North of the Bering Strait, an early Arctic freeze destroys the North Pacific whaling fleet. The fleet includes at least 30 ships, and seven of the ships are Hawai‘i-owned.

About this time, the flow of whaling ships through Hawaiian waters virtually ends. New shipping and hunting technologies evolve, and for the next century Pacific whaling is centered in the polar regions.

Pelagic factory ships begin to target humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae; Hawaiian name: koholā). (See Humpback Whales section, Chapter 6; and The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

1872, Feb. 19—The cornerstone is laid for Ali‘iōlani Hale, a judiciary building in Honolulu. (See 1874.)

1872, June 11— The Royal Hawaiian Band gives its first concert under the lead of Heinrich “Henry” Berger (1844-1929), who is brought from Germany to lead the band. Berger had attended the Berlin Conservatory of Music, and is picked by German leader Wilhelm I, for King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), to become bandmaster of the Royal Hawaiian Band.

Berger holds the post for 43 years, giving more than 9,000 concerts including several United States Mainland tours with the band, increasing the popularity of Hawaiian music.

Berger authors the music of Hawai‘i’s State song, Hawai‘i Pono‘ī (the words to the song are written by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]). Berger is also an organist at Kawaiaha‘o Church, and assists Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in the writing of the well-known song, Aloha ‘Oe.

A royal proclamation by King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) on June 11, 1872 begins the recognition of “Commemoration Day,” which later becomes known as “King Kamehameha Day,” which is celebrated every June 11. On this day the King Kamehameha statue in front of Ali‘iōlani Hale in Honolulu is draped with many different lei, some more than 26 feet (8 m) long. (See King Kamehameha Day, Chapter 12.)

1872, October 19—An electric telegraph is put into operation in Honolulu.

1872—Sugarcane production in the Hawaiian Islands averages about 9,586 tons (8,700 mton) annually.

1872—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 56,897 people.

1872, December 11—Death of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha). On January 8, 1873, William Charles Lunalilo ascends to the throne as King Lunalilo. Lunalilo is elected king by a vote of the Legislature because King Kamehameha V dies without naming a successor.

King Lunalilo immediately begins to amend the Constitution of 1864, including ending the property qualification for voting. Lunalilo dies just over one year after being elected king, the shortest reign of any Hawaiian monarch.

1873, January 8—King Lunalilo (William Charles Lunalilo) succeeds King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha). (See 1835, Jan. 31 for Biographical Sketch.)

1873, January 25—Scottish author Isabella Bird Bishop (1832-1904) arrives in the Hawaiian Islands.

Bird soon travels around the Hawaiian Islands and writes about Kīlauea Volcano and the island of Hawai‘i as well as Maui’s Haleakalā and Kaua‘i. She later publishes an illustrated book, The Hawaiian Archipelago: Six Months Among the Palm Groves, Coral Reefs, and Volcanoes of the Sandwich Islands (London: John Murray, 1875). Isabella Bird Bishop later becomes the first female fellow of the Royal Geographic Society. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12s.)

1873—At least 500 leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients are sent to Moloka‘i’s Kalaupapa Peninsula leper settlement, bringing the total number of patients there to about 800.

Also in 1873, a Belgian priest known as Father Damien (Joseph Damien DeVeuster) volunteers to minister to the needy at the Kalaupapa leper (Hansen’s disease) colony, building Our Lady of Sorrows Catholic Church at Kalua‘aha, Moloka‘i in 1874 on the site of Moloka‘i’s first Christian mission.

Father Damien serves tirelessly at Kalaupapa for 30 years, eventually contracting the disease himself in 1885, and dying of Hansen’s disease at Kalaupapa in 1889. (For more information about Father Damien, see Damien Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Chatper 11, Timeline: 1865; 1889; 1969; 1995; and Heroes of Kalaupapa, Chapter 12.)

1873—King Lunalilo travels to Hilo on the battleship Pensacola. The vessel visits the Hawaiian Islands numerous times in the 1860s and 1870s. Pensacola Street in Makiki, Honolulu is later named after the vessel.

1873—A third smallpox epidemic occurs in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1853; 1861; 1881.)

1873, September 7—The Household Troops, the army of the Hawaiian Kingdom, rebel against their officers and remain in their barracks. Six days later, King Lunalilo convinces the troops to lay down their arms, and then he disbands the army.

1874, February 3—Death of King Lunalilo (1835-1874). (See 1835, Jan. 31 for Biographical Sketch.)

1874, February 12—David La‘amea Kalākaua is elected king after the death of King Lunalilo on February 3, 1874. The tally of the votes in the Legislative election is 39-6.

After the results are announced, the courthouse is attacked and ransacked, legislators are beaten, and one delegate is thrown out of a window. The violence leaves many injured and one dead. Native Hawaiians that voted for Kalākaua are particularly targeted. Many of the native Hawaiians are devoted to Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], who had also put forth her claim to the throne.

American and British warships provide armed marines to restore order. King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] takes an oath of allegiance to the 1864 Constitution of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

During King Kalākaua’s reign, Hawaiian music and hula (which had been banned by the missionaries), is again performed publicly. King Kalākaua later comes to be known as the “Merrie Monarch” for his reintroduction of hula and other ancient customs. (See 1883, Feb. 12.)

A Hawaiian saying states: “Ka hiku o na lani.” (“The seventh of the heavenly ones.”), which is “...a term of affection for Kalākaua, who was the seventh ruler of united Hawai‘i.”[lxix]

1874, Feb. 14— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] declares that when he is no longer king his successor will be his younger brother Prince William Pitt Leleiōhoku. Two new princesses are designatedPrincess Kamaka‘eha Dominis (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani) and Princess Likelike.

After Prince William Pitt Leleiōhoku passes away in 1877 at the age of 22, King Kalākaua declares Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis heir apparent. Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis was proclaimed the heir apparent by King Kalākaua on April 11, 1877.

1874, Nov. 17— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and a royal party leave for San Francisco on the steamer Benicia for a goodwill tour of the United States and to promote the Reciprocity Treaty, which had been repeatedly delayed. Around this time King Kalākaua fights constitutional battles with the kingdom’s governmental Legislature, which has resident American businessmen as members.

Eventually King Kalākaua loses some authority. King Kalākaua is the first king to visit the United States, including Washington D.C., and he arrives back in the Hawaiian Islands on the U.S.S. Pensacola on February 15, 1875.

1874— Construction is completed on Honolulu’s Ali‘iōlani Hale, which becomes the new seat of the Hawaiian government due to the extensive damage of the Honolulu Courthouse caused by supporters of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] when they protested the election lost to King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Begun in 1872, Ali‘iōlani Hale was constructed using concrete blocks. Ali‘iōlani was one of the names of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and is likely a reference to the name Ali‘i-iō-lani, which means “Chief unto heavens,” referring to a person (chief or ruler) of a heavenly nature.

Ali‘iōlani houses the Supreme Court, and the Legislature. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and two associate justices appointed by the king with the advice of the Privy Council. The 1874 Legislature consists of the House of Representatives (27 people elected by eligible voters) and the House of Nobles (15 people elected by the king).

The Hawaiian National Museum is established on September 9, 1874 in Ali‘iōlani Hale with a collection that includes many artifacts donated by Hawaiian royalty. The Hawaiian National Museum at Ali‘iōlani Hale opens on November 8, 1875.

After the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, the Provisional Government uses Ali‘iōlani Hale as their headquarters. Ali‘iōlani Hale undergoes reconstruction in 1911 because it is in disrepair due to termite damage. The building is set on fire so only the exterior walls remain.

Architects Ripley & Reynolds design the new floor plan, which still exists today. The new design includes a rotunda and double staircase, along with steel beams to reinforce the structure. (See 1872, Feb. 19; also see Ali‘iōlani Hale in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Ali‘iōlani Hale, Chapter 12.)

1874, December 8—From the second floor of Ali‘iōlani Hale, scientists observe the Transit of Venus and gather valuable astronomical information in conjunction with a British astronomical team. (See Ali‘iōlani Hale in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1874—Belgian priest Father Damien (Joseph Damien DeVeuster) builds Our Lady of Sorrows Catholic church at Kalua‘aha, Moloka‘i. This is also the site of Moloka‘i’s first Christian mission. (See 1832.)

1875, Feb. 15— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and his royal party return from their goodwill tour of the United States. They arrive in the Hawaiian Islands on the U.S.S. Pensacola.

1875, Oct. 16—Birth of Victoria Kawēkiu J. Lunalilo Kalaninuiahilapalapa Ka‘iulani Cleghorn (later to become Princess Ka‘iulani) to Archibald Scott Cleghorn and Princess Miriam Likelike.

Princess Ka‘iulani

Biographical Sketch: Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani

Born: October 16, 1875. 

Died: 1899. 

Father: Archibald Scott Cleghorn. 

Mother: Miriam Likelike (sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]). 

On mother’s side: 

Grandparents: Keohokālole and Caesar Kapa‘akea (parents of Miriam Likelike). 

Great grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e (parents of Keohokālole). 

Great great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka). 

Great great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani). 

Great grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki (parents of Caesar Kapa‘akea). 

Great great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)). 

Great great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani) 

Summary of Life of Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani:

· Princess Ka‘iulani was proclaimed heir apparent to the Hawaiian Kingdom when Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] ascended to the throne in 1891.

· Attended boarding school in England under the guardianship of Theophilus Harris Davies (1833—1898), who had been a friend of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and was a prominent Honolulu businessman and founder of the “Big Five” firm of Theo H. Davies & Co. When Princess Ka‘iulani departed for England, author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894), who had visited her in Waikīkī, wrote a celebrated poem:

Forth from her land to mine she goes,

The island maid, the island rose,

Light of heart and bright of face

The daughter of a double race.

Her islands here in Southern sun

Shall mourn their Kaiulani gone.

And I, in her dear banyan’s shade,

Look vainly for my little maid.

But our Scots Islands far away

Shall glitter with unwanted day,

And cast for once their tempest by

To smile in Kaiulani’s eye.

Robert Louis Stevenson, 1889

· After the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, the 17-year-old Princess Ka‘iulani (who was in England at the time) went to Washington D.C. with her guardian Theophilus Harris Davies to appeal to President Grover Cleveland for the restoration of the monarchy. Cleveland eventually ordered the monarchy restored, though this never occurred.

· Princess Ka‘iulani was a talented artist, musician, horseback rider, and swimmer, and was also active in many charitable causes.

· Princess Ka‘iulani had many peacocks (also known by the Hawaiian word pīkake), and she was referred to by some as the “Princess of the Peacocks.” The birds roamed the gardens of fragrant, white Arabian jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac) at Princess Ka‘iulani’s spacious Waikīkī estate known as ‘Āinahau, which was built by her father, Archibald Scott Cleghorn, the Governor of O‘ahu. The blossom of the white Arabian jasmine flower was a favorite of Princess Ka‘iulani. From its association with the young princess, the Arabian jasmine flower later also became known by the Hawaiian term pīkake.

· On March 6, 1899, at the age of 23, Princess Ka‘iulani died at ‘Āinahau, where her favored flowers grew and where her peacocks roamed. The princess had become ill after going horseback riding in a rainstorm, and her death was attributed to a fever. Many believe, however, that she died of a broken heart, as the last Hawaiian princess and heiress to a vanished throne.

· On the night Princess Ka‘iulani died, her pīkake (peacocks) are said to have made extremely loud vocal displays of their grief.

(For more information about Princess Ka‘iulani, see 1899; also see Statue of Princess Ka‘iulani in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Pīkake in Lei Flowers section, Chapter 3.)

1875—The overall population in the Hawaiian Islands begins to increase rapidly after 1875, but the native Hawaiian population continues to decline. At the beginning of King Kalākaua’s reign (1874), native Hawaiians make up 82% of the population. At the end of Kalākaua’s reign (1891) Hawaiians constitute 50% of the population.

1875— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] negotiates the Reciprocity Treaty, allowing Hawaiian products to be sold in the United States without customs or duties.

The treaty is signed in Washington D.C. on January 30, 1875. Then on August 15, 1876 the United States Senate ratifies the treaty, and on September 17, 1876, the United States Congress passes a motion to give effect to the treaty, thus allowing Hawaiian sugar into the United States duty free. In return, the United States is allowed to use Pearl Harbor as a naval base. (See 1887.)

The Reciprocity Treaty results in a rapid expansion of the sugar business in the Hawaiian Islands, which increases ten-fold over the next 15 years, and then continues to double each decade. The sugar business also brings many Hawaiian merchants and sugar planters into positions of influence as their profits increase dramatically.

The expansion of the sugar industry provides an economic boost for the Hawaiian Islands, and opens the door to the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1876—Another Arctic freeze (see 1871) destroys at least 13 whaling ships there and takes 50 lives. Two whaling ships from the Hawaiian Islands are abandoned.

1876—Hawai‘i Pono‘ī (Hawai‘i’s Own) is designated as the national anthem of the Hawaiian Islands. The lyrics to the song were written by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], and the music was written by Captain Henry Berger, bandmaster of the Royal Hawaiian Band, in 1874. In 1967 the song is designated as the official anthem of the State of Hawai‘i.

1876—Death of Hawaiian historian Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau (1815-1876), prominent Hawaiian historian, teacher, judge, and founding member of Royal Hawaiian Historical Society. (See 1815; Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12; and Appendix 2 for more information about Samuel Mānaiakalani Kamakau.)

1876—Alexander & Baldwin begins construction of the Hāmākua irrigation ditch on Maui. When it is completed in 1877, the ditch is 17 miles (27 km) long, from Haleakalā to East Maui, and provides water for growing sugarcane.

1876—Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884) travels to England with her husband, Charles Reed Bishop. The couple is presented at Queen Victoria’s Court and later received by Pope Pius IX in Rome. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12.)

1876, June 25—In the United States, Cheyenne and Sioux Indians defeat the 7th Cavalry at the battle of Little Big Horn in Montana. The 7th Cavalry is headed by Lieutenant Col. George A. Custer.

1876—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is 53,900 people. After this date, the population stops decreasing and begins to increase, though the native population continues to decline.

1877—Elisha Hunt Allen (1804-1883) becomes Minister to the United States from Hawai‘i. Hunt had formerly been an American consul in Honolulu and then in 1853 was appointed a Minister of Finance in the Cabinet of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

1877— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] dedicates Kapi‘olani Park, located on the far eastern (Diamond Head) side of Waikīkī, named in honor of his wife, Queen Kapi‘olani. The park is used for band concerts, polo games, horse races, and in later years, car races.

Today Kapi‘olani Park is the site of many sporting events and also home to the Kapi‘olani Bandstand, the Waikīkī Shell, and the Honolulu Zoo. (See Honolulu Zoo in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2).

1877, April 11— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] declares Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis heir apparent to the throne.

1877, May 9—A large earthquake occurs near Peru, resulting in a tsunami that arrives in Hilo before dawn. Thirty-seven houses are destroyed, 45 people killed, and many more are injured. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4, and Chapter 12/)

1877—Charles H. Dickey installs the first commercial telegraph system in the Hawaiian Islands between his stores in Ha‘ikū and Makawao on Maui. (See 1880, Dec. 30; and Communication, Chapter 12.)

1877—The firm of Alexander & Baldwin completes construction of the 17-mile-long Hāmākua irrigation ditch from Haleakalā to East Maui. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1878—The East Maui Telegraph Company (under Charles H. Dickey) installs the first telephone line in the Hawaiian Islands, between Wailuku, Maui and Kahului. Alexander Graham had patented the telephone two years earlier, in 1876.

The Hawaiian Bell Telephone Co. is incorporated in 1880. (See 1880, Dec. 30; and Communication, Chapter 12.)

1878—Portuguese workers from the Madeira Islands arrive in the Hawaiian Islands aboard the Priscilla to work in Hawai‘i’s sugarcane fields. This marks the beginning of an influx of Portuguese sugar plantation laborers that totals an estimated 18,000 workers over the next two decades and 20,000 by 1913.

The Portuguese workers are virtually all Catholics, thus strengthening the presence of the Catholic Church in the Islands. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1878—The Bank of Bishop & Company Building (Bishop Bank Building) is constructed at 63 Merchant Street in Honolulu. The architect is Thomas J. Baker.

The building is constructed of brick and features a corner entry similar to the nearby Royal Saloon. The building’s parapet is said to be fortress-like, and other features include arched doorframes and windows, and a decorative cornice.

Bishop Bank moved out in 1925, and the building housed law offices and other business offices. The corner entry and many of the building’s features are now stuccoed over.

The structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, and today is the only remaining Northern Italian Renaissance Revival style building still standing in Honolulu.

1878—The Falls of Clyde is constructed by Russell & Company of Port Glasgow, Scotland. Today it is parked at the Hawai‘i Maritime Center in Honolulu, and remains as the world’s last remaining full-rigged, four-masted ship.

The wrought iron Falls of Clyde has a length of 266 feet (81 m) on its deck, and a breadth of 40 feet (12 m). The ship also has a mast height of 138 feet (42 m), and a net tonnage of 1,740 tons (1,579 mtons).

Named after the waterfalls on the river Clyde, the Falls of Clyde was the first of nine vessels of the Falls Line built by Russell & Company. (See Falls of Clyde in Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum section, O‘ahu, Chapter 2.)

1878—Claus Spreckels helps secure and develop some 18,000 acres of leased Crown lands on Maui, leading to the establishment of the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co.

Spreckels constructs the 30-mile (48-km) long Ha‘ikū Ditch between 1878 and 1880 to carry 50 million gallons (189 million liters) of water daily to sugarcane fields in Pu‘unēnē and Spreckelsville. Spreckels became known as the “Sugar King of Hawai‘i” and is later accused of corruption involving secret deals with King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

1879—Portuguese contract laborers arriving on the Ravenscrag bring an instrument called the cavaquinho (on mainland Portugal) or braguinha (on Madeira) to the Hawaiian Islands. A local variant of the instrument comes to be known as the ‘ukulele, and quickly becomes a popular instrument in the Hawaiian Islands.

‘Ukulele means “leaping fleas,” and is said to refer to the swift movements of the player’s fingers. Others believe the name is a reference to Edward Purvis, a small, quick man who popularized the instrument.

1879, February—The first demonstration of recorded sound in the Hawaiian Islands occurs when an Edison phonograph is brought to Honolulu by J. W. Kohler.

1879, April—The English ship Triumph arrives in Honolulu, becoming the first ship utilizing electricity to visit the Hawaiian Islands. Electricity is used for the ship’s lights as well as its twelve-ton guns.

1879—Prince Henry of Prussia visits King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

1879-1883—Many more native Hawaiian lives are lost to foreign diseases. From 1879 to 1881, epidemics of measles and whooping cough occur, and then the first case of mumps in the Hawaiian Islands occurs in 1880.

In 1882, the fourth smallpox epidemic in the Hawaiian Islands begins, with 780 cases reported and 282 dying from the disease.

1879—Hawai‘i State Library opens on King Street in Honolulu. Construction of a new Library building occurred in 1911 and additions were built in 1930. Particularly notable is the library’s entrance, consisting of 20-foot (6.1 m) high “Tuscan” columns and 18-foot (5.5 m) arches. The Hawai‘i State Library is located at 478 South King Street. Phone: 808-586-3500. Reference Services Phone: 586-3621; 1-800-390-3611.

The original “Reading Room” opened in 1879, and only men were allowed to check out books from the original collection of 5,000 volumes. This was sponsored by the Hawai‘i Workingmen’s Library Association, who were trying to keep rowdy seamen out of trouble.

Construction of the new Hawai‘i State Library building in 1911 was made possible by a $100,000 donation by industrialist and donor-philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in 1898 after annexation.

Designed by Henry D. Whitfield (Carnegie’s brother-in-law), the structure was built in the Classical Revival style, with a four-story, rectangular main building and a six-story tower at the rear.

Two wings to expand the library were built in 1930, creating the open-air center courtyard. A bust of Andrew Carnegie greets visitors at the entrance. (See Hawai‘i State Library in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1879, July 1—The first artesian well in the Hawaiian Islands is bored by James Campbell (1826-1900), near his ranch in Honouliuli, O‘ahu. Soon other wells are bored, providing water for the cultivation of sugarcane on thousands of acres of ‘Ewa, O‘ahu.

Campbell was born in Ireland, ran away at age 13, and was later stranded on a South Sea island after a wreck of his whaling vessel. He eventually became an extremely successful businessman, owning much of Lahaina.

Campbell engaged in many business ventures, and supported the first electric-light and telephone companies in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1879, July 20—The Kahului & Wailuku Railroad begins operating on Maui, becoming Hawai‘i’s first common rail carrier and allowing central Maui’s sugar and pineapple crops to be brought to the wharves at Kahului, which eventually replaces Lahaina as the primary port.

1879, December 31—The cornerstone is laid for ‘Iolani Palace in midtown Honolulu. A project of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], ‘Iolani Palace is built on the site of the earlier royal palace, called Hale Ali‘i, which was constructed in 1845 for King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

Hale Ali‘i was named ‘Iolani in 1863 at the request of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), who wanted a name chosen to honor his deceased brother, the former king, Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani). ‘Iolani was one of King Kamehameha IV’s Hawaiian names, and means “Hawk of heaven,” or “Royal hawk.” Ancient Hawaiians considered the flight of the ‘io (Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian hawk) a sign of royalty.

Some of the stones used in the foundation of ‘Iolani Palace were brought from Kūki‘i Heiau (built by a Hawai‘i Island chief named ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] in Puna on the island of Hawai‘i.

Completed in 1882, ‘Iolani Palace would serve as a home for King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Kapi‘olani and then for Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].

‘Iolani Palace serves first as a royal palace, and later as the capitol building of the Republic, the Territory, and then the State of Hawai‘i. (See 1883, Feb.12; and ‘Iolani Palace, Chapter 12.)

1880—Lava flows from Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawai‘i Island reach the edge of Hilo, causing great concern. King Kamehameha’s granddaughter, Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826-1883), travels to the area and offers chants and gifts to supplicate the wrath of the volcano goddess Pele—the lava flow stops just on the edge of town. (See Historic Eruptions of Mauna Loa Volcano, and The Legend of Pele, Chapter 12.)

1880—By this date there are 63 sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, and all are controlled by the “Big Five” companies: Theo H. Davies & Co. Ltd.; Amfac Inc.; C. Brewer & Co. Ltd; Alexander & Baldwin Inc.; and Castle & Cooke Inc.

Pineapple production becomes commercially successful in the Hawaiian Islands. Sugar and pineapple production dominate the economy of the Hawaiian Islands until 1959 when statehood and increased jet travel allow tourism to thrive.

1880, December 30—The Hawaiian Bell Telephone Company, organized by Charles O. Berger, is incorporated. Soon thereafter, a telephone is installed in ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu. (See 1878.)

1890—Ship owner Thomas R. Foster and his part Hawaiian wife Mary Foster purchase the Honolulu property of German botanist Dr. William Hillebrand. The property later becomes known as Foster Botanical Gardens, which is expanded when Mary Foster purchases surrounding property.

Mary Foster bequeaths the land to the city of Honolulu in 1930, and it is joined with a neighboring property that had been donated for park use by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], who had a cottage there when she was a princess, having earlier purchased the property from Queen Kalama [Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama [Kamālama]]. This northern section of the property is now known as Lili‘uokalani Garden. (See 1822, April; 1855; 1891; 1930.)

1880—Kuan Yin Temple opens in Honolulu on land now included in Foster Botanical Gardens. The Buddhist temple is devoted to the Chinese goddess of mercy, Kuan Yin (also spelled Guanyin), which means “One Who Sees and Hears the Cry from the Human World.”

The Kuan Yin Temple has a green-tile roof, red-painted pillars, an intricately carved altar, and features Kuan Yin, as well as Da Moh and Hua Tuo (Wie Tor and Kuan Ti). Placing fruits on the altar is believed to promote fertility.

1880—St. Louis College, a Catholic high school for boys, is established in Honolulu, and later supplemented by Chaminade College, now called Chaminade University.

1881— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], the last of Hawai‘i’s kings, leaves on a journey around the world. During his trip he calls on 11 heads of state, including the leaders of the United States, Japan and Great Britain. King Kalākaua becomes the first ruler of any country to sail around the world.

1881—William Herbert Purvis introduces macadamia nuts from Australia. Commercial processing begins in 1934, and the first major commercial crop is produced in 1956.

1881—The Music Hall Theater is founded in Honolulu on King Street, across from ‘Iolani Palace and next to Ali‘iōlani Hale. After closing due to a smallpox epidemic, the theater reopens as the Royal Opera House in 1883.

1881-1882—A fourth smallpox epidemic sweeps through the Hawaiian Islands. The disease is apparently brought to the Hawaiian Islands by someone on a ship of Chinese immigrant laborers who came to the Hawaiian Islands to work for the sugarcane industry.

Approximately 797 cases of smallpox occur in the Hawaiian Islands, resulting in an estimated 287 deaths (mostly native Hawaiians). (See 1853; 1861; 1873; and Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1881, August 21—The first electric lights in the Hawaiian Islands are demonstrated at Mill Number One on Maui’s Spreckelsville Plantation. Two years earlier, in 1879, the English warship Triumph displayed its electric lights offshore. (See Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1881—The Hawaiian Gazette Building is built in downtown Honolulu on Merchant Street for use by the Hawaiian Gazette newspaper.

1882—A statue of King Kamehameha I arrives in Honolulu. It is a duplicate of the original statue cast by American sculptor Thomas Gould in Italy in 1880. The original statue was lost in transport to the Hawaiian Islands when the vessel carrying it sank off the Falkland Islands.

After the loss of the original, a new statue was ordered, and this duplicate statue was sent to the Hawaiian Islands and placed in front of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the judiciary building in downtown Honolulu (see 1883, Feb.12; and O‘ahu section, Chapter 2).

The original statue of King Kamehameha I is now on the island of Hawai‘i where it stands in front of the North Kohala Civic Center in Kapa‘au, near King Kamehameha’s birthplace. (See Statue of King Kamehameha I in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Kapa‘au and Hāwī in Hawai‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1882—Captain William Matson purchases his first schooner, the Emma Claudine, to make trips between the Hawaiian Islands (then called the Sandwich Islands) and the United States. This is considered the beginning of Hawai‘i’s tourism industry.

In the Hawaiian Islands, Matson befriends Claus Spreckels, who later finances new ships for Matson’s growing shipping enterprise. (See 1908; 1927; and 1958, August 31.)

1882—The Interisland Steam Navigation Company is established.

1883, Feb. 12— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] has an official coronation on the grounds of the newly completed ‘Iolani Palace in midtown Honolulu. The coronation marks the beginning of King Kalākaua’s support of traditional Hawaiian practices, including the revival of hula.

As part of the ceremony, a statue of King Kamehameha I is unveiled across the street from ‘Iolani Palace in front of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the Judiciary Building. (See 1874.) The former king, Kamehameha I is also known as Kamehameha the Great, the most renowned and revered warrior and ruler of the Hawaiian Islands, responsible for uniting the Hawaiian Islands under one rule and establishing the Kingdom of Hawai‘i, which lasted until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893.

Note: A royal proclamation in 1872 began the recognition of what was then known as Commemoration Day but is now known as King Kamehameha Day, which is celebrated every June 11. On this date the King Kamehameha I statue is draped with many different types of lei, some more than 26 feet (8 m) long.

The statue of King Kamehameha I in front of Ali‘iōlani Hale, now an O‘ahu landmark, is a replica of the original 9-ton (8-mton) statue cast by American sculptor Thomas Gould in Italy in 1883 (based on an early engraving). That statue was lost in transport to the Hawaiian Islands, but later found in the Falkland Islands soon after the duplicate statue arrived in Honolulu.

The original statue is now on Hawai‘i Island where it stands in front of the North Kohala Civic Center in Kapa‘au, not far from where the future ruler of the Hawaiian Kingdom was born. (See Timeline: 1753.)

The King Kamehameha I statue is about 8½ feet (2.6 m) tall, showing the warrior king holding an ihe (spear), and wearing a mahiole (feather-crested helmet). He is also wearing an ‘ahu ‘ula (royal feather cloak) a malo (loin cloth), and kāma‘a‘ie (braided sandals).

The statue is said to represent King Kamehameha I at the age of about 45. (See Timeline:1882; Statue of King Kamehameha I in O‘ahu and Hawai‘i Island sections, Chapter 2; and The Coronation Pavilion and Statue of King Kamehameha I, Chapter 12.)

1883—Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, the granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, passes away and her will bequeaths to Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884) 353,000 acres (142,854 ha) of Kamehameha landsnearly nine percent of all land in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12.)

1883, September 30—Seventy-two mongooses from Jamaica arrive in Hilo. The predatory animals are brought by Mr. J. Tucker, who is sponsored by the Hilo Planter’s Association in an effort to control the cane rats plaguing sugar plantations. The mongooses instead begin preying on native birds, eventually decimating numerous species.

1883, November 7—Mother Marianne Cope arrives in the Hawaiian Islands along with three other Franciscan nuns. (See 1888; 1996; 2004, Jan.; and Kalaupapa in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Heroes of Kalaupapa, Chapter 12.)

1884—Death of the potential heir to the throne, Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884), whose husband, businessman Charles R. Bishop, became extremely wealthy due to ownership of Kamehameha family lands.

Princess Pauahi, a great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, wills 434,000 acres (175,634 ha) of land in perpetual trust to assist in the establishment of two schools in the Kamehameha name. Kamehameha School for Boys opens in Honolulu on October 4, 1887, and Kamehameha School for Girls opens in Honolulu on December 19, 1894.

Today Kamehameha Schools include the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006.

In that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands.

The trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children.

(See 1831; 1887; 1894; also see Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

1884—Francis Gay and cousin Aubrey Robinson found Gay & Robinson, which becomes a major sugar producer.

1884—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is reported to be more than 80,000 people, which is an increase of 24,000 people from just twelve years earlier, though the native population continues to decline.

1884—Lawyer Paul Newman arrives in the Hawaiian Islands from San Francisco. King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] makes him a noble, and later he becomes a member of the Cabinet of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]. He then defends her when she is tried for treason. (See 1895, Jan. 6).

1884—Currency in the Hawaiian Islands is standardized with the passage of a new currency act that makes United States silver and gold coins as well as Hawaiian silver coins the official legal tender of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

1885, February 8—The City of Tokio arrives in Honolulu with the first official (government sponsored) Japanese contract workers, 676 men and 158 women. The arrival is the result of a treaty signed by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] with Japan’s Emperor Meiji permitting the large-scale immigration of sugar plantation laborers, resulting in approximately 70,000 Japanese coming to the Hawaiian Islands.

Between 1878 and 1887, many Portuguese workers also come to the Hawaiian Islands from the islands of Madeira and the Azores. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1885, April 25—Death of Dowager Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885).

Queen Emma was the granddaughter of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and his second wife, the chiefess Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o], and great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I.

Queen Emma was born in 1836 to Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young and George Na‘ea, and then adopted by her maternal aunt, Grace Kamaikui Young Rooke and her husband Dr. Thomas Charles Byde Rooke, who belonged to the Church of England.

Emma was married to King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) on June 19, 1856. (See 1836; 1856, June 19; 1860, July 17; 1862; 1874, Feb. 12.)

1886—Passage of the Hawaiian Kingdom Chinese Exclusion Act halts the importation of Chinese laborers. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1886, July 21—Electric lights are installed at ‘Iolani Palace. Five lamps in all are installed, including one at the Palace, one at the gate to the Palace on Richards Street, two on King Street, and one at the Government Building. Within two years Honolulu’s streetlights, which were formerly gasoline lamps, are also replaced with electric lights.

1886, November—King Kalākaua’s 50th birthday jubilee is held at ‘Iolani Palace. (See ‘Iolani Palace in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and The Coronation Pavilion, Chapter 12.)

1886—A three-day fire engulfs eight blocks of Honolulu’s Chinatown district and burns the homes of 7,000 Chinese and 350 Hawaiians, causing about $1.5 million in damage.

1886—About one fourth of the population of the Hawaiian Islands is comprised of people from Japan.

1887—The Bayonet Constitution

The Bayonet Constitution is instigated by the Hawaiian League, a political organization of American merchants whose membership includes Sanford Ballard Dole. (See 1844, April 23.) They consider King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to be corrupt. When King Kalākaua’s government sells its opium monopoly to a Chinese interest, the American’s try to restrict King Kalākaua’s power.

Holding a mass meeting, the League demands that King Kalākaua dismiss his Cabinet and sign a new constitution. A radical faction of the League wants to march to ‘Iolani Palace with guns, and annex the Hawaiian Islands to the United States, but Dole and the majority only wish to control King Kalākaua’s monarchical powers.

Ultimately, King Kalākaua signs a new constitution, which is later given the nickname “The Bayonet Constitution,” a term that implies that the document was signed at gunpoint.

Accounts vary on the actual threats that were wielded against the king to force him to attach his signature to the new constitution, but the effects of the new document include drastic changes that severely curtail the king’s power, ending 23 years of rule under the previous constitution of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

One result of the Bayonet Constitution is that a vote of the Legislature becomes necessary to replace Cabinet members. The constitution also allows nobles to be elected by those who own large amounts of land, and this significantly reduces the power of Asians and native Hawaiians. The constitution allows the Legislature to override the king’s veto, and extends voting rights to all Europeans and Americans who will take an oath to support the new constitution.

One view of these events attributes the new constitution to mercantile, commercial and industrial interests, including the Chamber of Commerce, sugar planters, and missionary store workers banding together with the aim of abrogating the monarchy, declaring the Hawaiian Islands a Republic, and annexing Hawai‘i to the United States. Politically known as the “down-town” party, they seek to reduce the King Kalākaua’s sovereign power. (See The Bayonet Constitution, Chapter 12.)

1887— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] signs a lease of Pearl Harbor to the United States for eight years. This action is a result of the Reciprocity Treaty, allowing Hawaiian products to be sold in the United States without customs or duties. (See 1875; and Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1887—Kamehameha School for Boys opens in Honolulu under the terms of the will of benefactor Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884), the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I. After Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop passes away in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop plays a large role in carrying out the wishes stated in his wife’s will, which included the establishment of Kamehameha Schools.

Princess Pauahi’s estate is incredibly wealthy in land assets but very limited in available cash, so Charles Reed Bishop contributes much of his own money to help construct the first school buildings at the original Kalihi location on O‘ahu. The first buildings include the Preparatory Department facilities constructed in 1888, as well as Bishop Hall, constructed in 1891.

Bishop Hall becomes part of the Bishop Museum when the Kamehameha School is relocated in the 1960s. In 1897, Bernice Pauahi Bishop Memorial Chapel is built. (See 1831; 1894.)

1887—Queen Kapi‘olani (1834-1899) attends the jubilee of Great Britain’s Queen Victoria. Later on her journey Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] visits United States President Grover Cleveland.

1888, Jan. 14—The Hawaiian League attempts to get Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis, heir apparent to the throne, to take the throne from King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]. She refuses out of loyalty to King Kalākaua.

1888—Roman Catholic nun Mother Marianne Cope (1836-1918) travels to the leper settlement on Moloka‘i’s Kalaupapa Peninsula to minister to the victims of leprosy (Hansen’s disease), which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a slow-growing bacterium. Mother Marianne first works alongside Father Damien, and then continues working at Kalaupapa for decades after Damien’s passing.

Mother Marianne ministers to Hansen’s disease patients for a total of 30 years (1888-1918), until she passes away in 1918 at the age of 80. Born in Germany as Barbara Koob, she took the name Marianne upon joining the New York’s Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis in 1862.

Mother Marianne later volunteered to minister to Hansen’s disease patients in Honolulu, and moved to Kalaupapa five years later to supervise a new girls’ home, eventually also running a home for boys.

Mother Marianne was known for her uplifting attitude, and for helping the patients in many small but extremely meaningful ways, such as planting flowers and trees, and organizing picnics. She also sewed them clothes and played piano so they could sing along.

King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] honored Mother Marianne with royal decorations, and Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894) also wrote of her. (See 1996; 2004, Jan.; and Kalaupapa in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Heroes of Kalaupapa, Chapter 12.)

1888, December 28—A mule-drawn tram becomes the first streetcar in Honolulu. The mule-car service is offered by Hawaiian Tramways, Ltd., which is taken over in 1900 by the Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co. (HRT). (See Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1888—Honolulu’s gasoline lamp street lights are replaced with electric lights as Princess Ka‘iulani starts the machines that generate the power to light downtown Honolulu. In 1889 a government electric plant produces power for the incandescent lighting of homes and buildings. A water-driven power plant in Nu‘uanu produces the power.

1888—The monthly Paradise of the Pacific magazine, founded by Thomas George Thrum (1842—1932) and James J. Williams (1853—1926), begins publication (the magazine is incorporated into Honolulu Magazine in 1966).

1888—Benjamin Franklin Dillingham forms the Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway & Land Company, and the first train, a Baldwin locomotive and two excursion cars, runs on September 4, 1889. With the permission of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], the first 9 miles (14.5 km) of track opens on November 16, 1889 (King Kalākaua’s 53rd birthday) when about 4,000 Hawaiian residents enjoy free rides. The opening of the railroad has a significant influence on generating land sales and helping the sugar and pineapple industries.

Railroad use in the Hawaiian Islands peaks in the early 1900s with seven major railroads running on about 160 miles (257 km) of track. The rails are mostly used to carry sugar and pineapple as well as construction materials. During World War II the rails carry significant amounts of military personnel as well as civilians.

Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway and Land Company’s “narrow gauge” line with its double-track main line was one of the most advanced rail systems, including Mikado locomotives and automatic block signals.

1889, July 30—Robert W. Wilcox (who is part Hawaiian) leads about 150 armed insurgents in a revolt against King Kalākaua’s signing of the 1887 “Bayonet Constitution.” At 6 a.m. the men march to Ali‘iōlani Hale (the Judiciary Building), the government building in Honolulu, and take over the building as well as the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace.

The rebels oppose reform measures instituted in 1887, and want King Kalākaua to proclaim a new constitution. King Kalākaua refuses and shots are exchanged between Wilcox’s men and government forces, who place sharpshooters in the tower of Kawaiaha‘o Church and surrounding buildings. Bombs made with dynamite are thrown into the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace, scattering the rebels.

Seven insurgents are killed during the rebellion and 12 more wounded. The head of the force suppressing the revolt is John Harris Soper (1846-1944), Marshal of the Kingdom. Wilcox surrenders and is tried for treason, but is later acquitted, claiming the king sanctioned his actions.

Soper later heads the forces of the Provisional Government, suppressing the counter-revolution of 1895 that attempts to reinstate Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] to the throne. (See 1895, Jan. 6.)

1889—Father Damien (Joseph Damien DeVeuster) dies of leprosy (Hansen’s disease) at the Kalaupapa Peninsula leper settlement on Moloka‘i, 16 years after he volunteered to minister to the patients. (See 1873; 1885.)

Today Father Damien’s spirit lives on in the hearts and minds of Hawaiians, as he is one of Hawai‘i’s beloved heroes. Referred to as the “Martyr of Moloka‘i,” Father Damien is today immortalized by a statue that faces Beretania St. on O‘ahu, in front of the State Capitol Building, and a statue in Washington D.C’s National Statuary Hall. (See 1969.)

In 1936, Father Damien’s body was exhumed in Moloka‘i and sent to Belgium. Bones from Father Damien’s hand were given to a delegation of former patients at Kalaupapa, and the bones were reinterred on Moloka‘i.

Pope John Paul II beatified Father Damien on June 4, 1995. (For more information about Father Damien, see Damien Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1889—Charles Reed Bishop founds the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu in honor of his wife, Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884), a Hawaiian princess (and great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I) who died in 1884 (see 1884), leaving an extensive collection of royal family heirlooms and historic artifacts of the Kamehameha era.

Charles Reed Bishop constructs Polynesian Hall and Hawaiian Hall on the same site as Kamehameha School. The Museum is founded to preserve and showcase the possessions of Princess Pauahi, as well as items from the estate of the late Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836-1885).

Collection materials initially come from three prominent women who pass away in the mid-1880s: Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (granddaughter of King Kamehameha I); Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop (great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I); and Queen Emma, wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I.

The Bishop Museum collection is greatly increased by the transfer of ownership of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i’s National Museum collection to Bishop Museum. (See Ali‘iōlani Hale, Chapter 12.)

An expressed goal of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum is to provide enjoyment and education for the Hawaiian people. The Hawaiian name of the Bishop Museum, Hale-hō‘ike‘ike-o-Kamehameha, means “Exhibition house of Kamehameha.” (See Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12.)

1889—Renowned Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894) and his family arrive in Waikīkī on the chartered yacht Casco to stay for five months. Stevenson visits the Hawaiian Islands again in 1893.

Already famous for such works as Treasure Island and Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson began writing some of his finest stories during his time in Hawai‘i, including The Isle of Voices and The Bottle Imp, both with Island settings. (See 1875, Oct. 16; and Historic Waikīkī and San Souci Beach; O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1889—The Perry Building is constructed at Hotel Street and Nu‘uanu Avenue by the widow of the Portuguese consul, Jason Perry. In recent times the building has been used for office space.

1889, November 2—The first successful manned hot-air balloon flight in the Hawaiian Islands takes place in O‘ahu’s Kapi‘olani Park when Joseph Lawrence Van Tassel ascends to an altitude of 1 mile (1.6 km) and then parachutes back to Earth.

Less than three weeks later, on November 18, Van Tassel attempts the same thing from Pūowaina (Punchbowl), but drowns when winds blow him off course and he lands in Ke‘ehi Lagoon. This is the first air fatality in the Hawaiian Islands.

1889—The first interisland undersea cable connects Moloka‘i and Maui. In November of 1900, the first interisland radio message is sent from Honolulu to Moloka‘i, via a kite flying on Maui. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1890—It is estimated that less than 40,000 native Hawaiians remain, down from the estimated population of more than 300,000 people in the Hawaiian Islands at the time of Western Contact (see 1778, Jan. 18).

The main cause of the decline of the native Hawaiian population is the introduction of foreign diseases including measles, smallpox, Asiatic cholera, whooping cough, scarlet fever, diphtheria, influenza, syphilis, gonorrhea, bubonic plague, dysentery, and numerous other maladies.

The clash of cultures as well as the loss of land, religion, rituals, and language also has devastating negative affects on the native population.

1890— King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] takes a trip to the United States, appointing Princess Lili‘uokalani as sole Regent in his absence.

1890—A diphtheria epidemic strikes the Hawaiian Islands.

1890—Kapi‘olani Maternity Hospital (Home) opens at Beretania and Makiki Streets, moving to Punahou Street in 1929. The hospital is originally sponsored by the society called Ho‘oulu a Ho‘ōla Lāhui (“Propagate and Perpetuate Nation”), whose first president is Queen Kapi‘olani. (See 1834.)

1890—The Maui population of the endemic Hawaiian nēnē (Branta sandvicensis) becomes extinct.

1890—The Royal Saloon Building is constructed of brick in Honolulu’s Chinatown district at Nu‘uanu and Merchant Street. Previously a drinking establishment was located on the site. Bar owner W. C. Peacock had the new building constructed in 1889 when Merchant Street was widened.

The Royal Saloon is a one-story building with cast iron ornamentation and white stucco pilasters, balustrade, and cornice. Around 1920, an addition was constructed on the Nu‘uanu Avenue side of the building. The Royal Saloon Building now houses Murphy’s Bar & Grill.

1890s—Joseph M. Poepoe, a lawyer and member of Hawai‘i’s Legislature, is also editor of the Hawaiian language newspaper Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a.

1890—Passage of the McKinley Tariff by the United States eliminates advantages that Hawai‘i’s sugar producers have over foreign producers. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1891—The Hawaiian Electric Company begins providing service to Hawaiian Island residents.

1891, January 20—Death of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] (1836-1891).

King Kalākaua dies in San Francisco, California and his sister comes to the throne as Queen Lili‘uokalani on January 29, 1891. Cabinet Ministers wait for Lili‘uokalani at ‘Iolani Palace to have her swear allegiance to the Bayonet Constitution.

From 1891 to 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] attempts to reassert royal power. She is opposed by resident pro-business, pro-annexation Americans, and the conflict leads to a series of events in the middle of January 1893 (see below), during which time the Hawaiian monarchy is overthrown with the support of U.S. troops, and a Provisional Government is formed. (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

1891—The T. R. Foster Building is constructed at 902 Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu’s Chinatown district. The building has cast iron ornamentation, and now houses O‘Tooles Pub. (See 1882, April; 1851; 1890; 1930.)

1893, January—Backed by 162 U.S. marines from the U.S.S. Boston, an insurrection against Queen Lili‘uokalani is led by a small group of United States sugar planters and businessmen who depose the queen, abrogate the monarchy, and declare a Provisional Government (with the goal of annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States).

Hawai‘i’s previous 98 years of rule, under eight different monarchs, is effectively ended. Details of the events leading to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy are described below.

1893, January 4—The U.S.S. Boston, with United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens (1820-1895) aboard, spends ten days off Honolulu engaged in target practice.

1893, January 14— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] informs her Cabinet members that she plans to proclaim a new constitution at the request of a majority of the Hawaiian people. She instructs her Cabinet to go to ‘Iolani Palace to sign the new constitution.

After the prorogation (closing) of the Legislature at Ali‘iōlani Hale, Queen Lili‘uokalani invites her Cabinet Ministers to ‘Iolani Palace to sign the new constitution, which they had helped to prepare.

When the Cabinet Ministers refuse to sign the new constitution, Queen Lili‘uokalani decides to defer any action, and gives a speech from the lānai of ‘Iolani Palace, telling the many people outside (who are gathered there in anticipation of a new constitution being announced) to go home peacefully because she will not be able to declare a new constitution.

A group of annexation supporters then hold a meeting and form the “Committee of Public Safety.” They declare Queen Lili‘uokalani’s actions treasonous, and make plans for a Provisional Government with the goal of eventually annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States. (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy.)

1893, January 15—In consultation with John Leavitt Stevens (U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i), the Committee of Public Safety is assured that Stevens will land troops from the U.S.S. Boston if any danger is posed to American lives or property.

The Committee of Public Safety calls a meeting for the following day for all supporters of annexation. Supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani also call for a meeting on the same day.

1893, January 16— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] declares in an official proclamation that changes to the constitution will only be made with the consent of the Legislature. Two mass meetings (see above) are held, one by supporters of annexation, and the other by supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani.

Judge Hartwell arranges for military forces to come ashore under the pretense of protecting American lives and property. U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens orders the troops from the U.S.S. Boston ashore in Honolulu, saying it is necessary to protect American lives and property.

Stevens claims the Americans are in danger and have no protection. Troops from the U.S.S. Boston come ashore on January 16 at 5 p.m. The troops march down King Street past Ali‘iōlani Hale and ‘Iolani Palace, and then station themselves at Arion Hall, across from ‘Iolani Palace. Meanwhile, the Committee of Public Safety meets to further their plans for a Provisional Government.

1893, January 17— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] is deposed.

Queen Lili‘uokalani requests assistance from the U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, but Stevens refuses. The Honolulu Rifles, an armed volunteer group, assemble in Ali‘iōlani Hale in opposition to the loyalist guard across the street at ‘Iolani Palace.

At 2:30 p.m., January 17, 1893 on the rear veranda of Ali‘iōlani Hale, a Provisional Government is proclaimed, and is recognized by U. S. Minister to Hawai‘i John L. Stevens as Hawai‘i’s lawful government. At 6 p.m. that same day, Queen Lili‘uokalani yields not to the Provisional Government but to the United States government, “...until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.”[lxx]

As stated in The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii:Queen Liliuokalani issued the following statement yielding her authority to the United States Government rather than to the Provisional Government:

‘I Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the Constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the Provisional Government. Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do this under protest and impelled by said force yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands. Done at Honolulu this 17th day of January, A.D. 1893”[lxxi] (Lili‘uokalani later states that she resigned her throne to avoid bloodshed, fearing the bombing of ‘Iolani Palace and loss of lives.)

The Committee of Public Safety meets on January 17, 1893 at 8 p.m. to finalize the Provisional Government’s officers and Cabinet. Sanford Ballard Dole is asked to be president. That evening, about 100 armed men gather around Ali‘iōlani Hale in support of the annexationists. They post guards around Ali‘iōlani Hale, the new headquarters of the Provisional Government, and hold drills on King Street in front of ‘Iolani Palace.

Martial Law is declared, and troops from the U.S.S. Boston remain nearby. At this point the Hawaiian monarchy is essentially overthrown. (See 1993, Nov.23 for a synopsis of the events of the overthrow, as given by the United States Congress in Public Law 103-150, an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.[lxxii])

1893, February 1—The U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, who favors annexation, recognizes the new Provisional Government and raises the United States flag over the Hawaiian Islands. Troops from the U.S.S. Boston take over as official guards of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the headquarters of the Provisional Government.

1893, March 4—Grover Cleveland succeeds Benjamin Harrison as President of the United States. Cleveland is a Democrat, replacing Harrison’s Republican (pro-annexation) administration.

1893, March 9—President Cleveland withdraws the annexation treaty from the Senate and sends James H. Blount (1837-1903) to the Hawaiian Islands with a letter to Sanford Ballard Dole.

The letter gives Blount “paramount authority” to lead an investigation into the revolution. Blount, a Congressman, and former Colonel in the American Civil War, is authorized to interview all involved parties and conduct an impartial finding of the facts.

1893, Mar. 29—James H. Blount arrives by order of President Cleveland to investigate the events leading to the overthrow of the Hawaiian government, and orders that the American flag be taken down and the Hawaiian flag raised. The United States naval forces are sent back to their ships.

On October 18, 1893, the Blount Report blames the overthrow of the monarchy on United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens, and suggests restoring the Hawaiian government. President Cleveland denounces the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts.” President Cleveland also sends word that he regrets the “unauthorized intervention” that has taken away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty.

On November 4, 1893, orders are given by President Cleveland to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani’s power. The Provisional Government refuses to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict will force them to give up power.

President Cleveland, though he does not support annexation, is reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans (and their mostly American supporters). (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

1893, June—Sanford Ballard Dole, the President of the Provisional Government, moves the government’s executive departments to ‘Iolani Palace, with the garrison occupying the adjacent ‘Iolani Barracks. The ‘Iolani Palace location was thought to be better defensively in the event of an attack.

The Provisional Government also passes a resolution renaming ‘Iolani Palace as the “Executive Building,” and renaming Ali‘iōlani Hale as the “Court House” (though it was commonly called the Judiciary Building).

1893—The Sans Souci Hotel opens in Waikīkī along the shoreline of Kapi‘olani Park, and hosts Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894) for a five week visit. (See Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

1894, May—The Provisional Government calls a Constitutional Convention to draft the constitution of the “Republic of Hawai‘i.” In the courtroom of the Supreme Court at Ali‘iōlani Hale the new constitution is written by nineteen delegates appointed by the Provisional Government along with 18 elected delegates.

Those who voted for delegates were required to swear they would never support the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy, and they were also required to sign an oath of allegiance to the Republic of Hawai‘i.

The new constitution creates an elected Senate and House of Representatives, though voters for Senate delegates must have property, or high incomes, or have been one of the original supporters of the 1893 overthrow. People of Asian descent are excluded. All voters are required to sign an oath of allegiance.

1894, July 5—The leaders of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy proclaim the Republic of Hawai‘i, with Sanford Ballard Dole as president. On the following day a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], attempt a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the queen.

Hundreds of men are arrested, including Robert W. Wilcox (see 1889, July 30), who is condemned to death, but pardoned a few months later. (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

1894, December 19—The Kamehameha School for Girls opens in Honolulu under the terms of the will of benefactor Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884), the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I. (See 1831; 1887.)

c.1894—Lā‘ie, O‘ahu resident Joseph Kekuku develops the steel guitar and a unique playing style that allows better harmonics, glissandos, and slurs not previously possible. The steel guitar, or kīkā kila (kīkā means guitar; kila means steel), is considered just one of two major instruments invented in the United States (the other is the banjo).

1895, Jan. 6—A small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], attempt a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen.

The uprising apparently takes place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denies any involvement. Hundreds of men are arrested, including Robert W. Wilcox, who is condemned to death. Wilcox’s sentence is lessened, and within a few months he is pardoned.

On January 7, 1895, Martial Law is declared and a military commission is appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others. On January 16, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani is imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for misprision of treason (knowing of treason, the attempted counter-revolution, but not disclosing it).

On January 24, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani signs a formal abdication, which calls for the recognition of the Republic of Hawai‘i as the lawful government. Queen Lili‘uokalani later claims that this abdication was invalid due to coercion, and had been agreed to only to spare the lives of her supporters.

On February 5, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani is arraigned before a military commission for treason, a charge that is later changed to misprision of treason, which involves knowing of treason (the attempted counter-revolution) but not disclosing it.

On February 27, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani is found guilty of misprision of treason and sentenced to a fine of $5,000 and imprisonment with hard labor for five years. This sentence is not carried out, though Lili‘uokalani remains imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for seven months.

Queen Lili‘uokalani remains imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for seven months. She is released from confinement on September 6, 1895; then confined to Washington Place until February 6, 1896; and then island-restricted until October 6, 1896. Her freedom is restricted for 21 months in all, from Jan. 16, 1895 until October 6 1896. (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

1895, March 19—Martial Law in the Hawaiian Islands is ended. In all, 37 people are found guilty of treason and open rebellion, 141 guilty of treason, and 12 guilty of misprision. Twenty-two people are exiled to the United States.

1895, August—An epidemic of Asiatic cholera infects at least 91 people, killing 65.

1896—The Bishop Estate Building is constructed on Merchant Street in Honolulu. The architects of the buildings are C. B. Ripley & Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and the structure is built in the Romanesque Revival style, using blue stone.

Note: Today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12.)

1897— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] visits Washington D.C. and petitions President McKinley to restore the rights of the Hawaiian people.

At this time there are an estimated 9,500 voters of Hawaiian birth and nationality, with a total population in the Hawaiian Islands of more than 109,000 people. Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition is not acted upon by President McKinley.

The Provisional Government also sends a petition to Washington D.C., and that petition (unlike Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition) is acted upon. At this time, the revolutionists of the missionary party consist of about 637 voters.

President McKinley sends the annexation treaty to the Senate on June 16, 1897. Queen Lili‘uokalani submits a formal protest, but it is ineffective.

The United States Senate later claims that President McKinley’s act of sending the bill to the United States Senate amounted to a recognition of Hawai‘i’s Provisional Government.

While acknowledging that the native monarchy was overthrown, they claim that McKinley’s recognition of the Provisional Government means the facts will not be reviewed further by the United States.

1897, February 5—The first motion pictures in the Hawaiian Islands are shown on Edison’s Veriscope. Seven short scenes are screened.

1897—The Irwin Block is constructed at 928 Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu’s Chinatown district by William G. Irwin, a sugarcane entrepreneur.

The architects of the two-story, high-ceilinged building are C. B. Ripley and Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and the building’s style is Richardsonian Romanesque. The exterior is rough-hewn volcanic stone and brick.

The building is used for about 25 years by Yoichi Takakuwa as a wholesale store and political headquarters. In 1923, the building is bought by Nippu Jiji (a Japanese-language newspaper originally founded as The Yamato in 1895 and later called Hawaii Times), which occupies the building until 1984. Cornices on the building show the dates 1895 and 1923.

In 1973, the structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Extensive interior renovations take place in 1982, and an interior mezzanine level is added along with a five-story addition on the rear of the building.

1897—Native Hawaiians in Waikīkī organize Hui Pākākā Nalu, charging tourists $1/hour for ocean canoe rides. This is the forerunner of the Waikīkī Beachboys, a renowned group of water sports instructors working on the beaches fronting the Royal Hawaiian and Moana Hotels from the 1920s to the 1950s. (See The Waikīkī Beachboys, Chapter 12.)

1897, September 7—Two native Hawaiian groups, Hui Kalai‘āina and Hui Aloha ‘Āina, hold a mass rally attended by thousands of native Hawaiians at Palace Square in front of ‘Iolani Palace, launching an anti-annexation petition drive on all the Islands.

In December of 1897, native Hawaiian representatives travel to Washington D.C. and present petitions against annexation to the United States Senate. Numerous pro-annexation senators are persuaded to change their minds, leaving the Senate twelve votes short of passing an annexation treaty. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, Chapter 12.)

1897—Hawai‘i’s first electric elevators are installed in Honolulu at the Mott-Smith Building (at Hotel and Fort Streets) and the Emmeluth Building (at King and Bishop Streets).

1898—Chang Apana becomes a member of the Honolulu Police Department. His skill and determination in solving cases, and his Asian ancestry, inspire the creation of the character “Charlie Chan.”

1898, April 24—Spain declares war on the United States with the goal of freeing Cuba from Spanish rule.

1898, June 15—The Spanish-American War moves to the Pacific’s Spanish Philippines, thus helping the cause of those favoring the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States.

The United States House of Representatives passes a resolution of annexation by a vote of 209 to 91. During the Spanish-American War, the Hawaiian Islands are used as a coaling base for the United States fleet.

1898—Camp McKinley, a tent encampment of United States infantry and engineers, is set up at Waikīkī’s Kapi‘olani Park.

1898—The first golf course in the Hawaiian Islands is built in Moanalua Valley, O‘ahu. Builders of the golf course at Moanalua are Samuel Mills Damon, A. Garvie, and landscape architect Donald MacIntyre.

1898, July 6—Annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States

On June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moves to the Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands become strategically important coaling base for the United States fleet. This gives renewed impetus toward annexation of Hawai‘i to the United States, which is passed by a Joint Resolution of the United States Congress on July 6, 1898. The resolution passes by a vote of 42 to 21.

President McKinley signs the resolution on July 7, 1898, and Hawai‘i is annexed to the United States by a joint resolution of the Congress of the United States.

The annexation occurs despite the strong opposition of native Hawaiians, and is due in part to the influences of the Spanish-American War, the use of the Hawaiian Islands as a coaling base for the United States fleet, and Hawai‘i’s strategically advantageous location.

With annexation, about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian crown lands and government lands are ceded to the federal government. The official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States takes place on August 12, 1898.

At ‘Iolani Palace the Hawaiian flag is taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which is raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i. Sanford B. Dole becomes the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, and The Newlands Resolution, Chapter 12.)

1898, August 2— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] arrives back in the Hawaiian Islands.

1898, August 16—Camp McKinley, a tent encampment of United States infantry and engineers, is set up at Waikīkī’s Kapi‘olani Park. This is the first United States Army camp in the Hawaiian Islands, and home to the First New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1898—Two Edison photographers record the first motion picture scenes filmed in the Islands.

1898—The New Hawaiian Opera House opens, and the first production is Il Trovatore.

1898—Recordings of “My Honolulu Lady” and “Honolulu Cake Walk” become the earliest known Hawaiian music recordings. Listed in a 1901 Columbia Records catalog is the song “Pua i Kaoakalani” as well as “Aloha Oe,” written by Princess Lili‘uokalani in 1878.

1899, March 6—Death of Princess Ka‘iulani (1875-1899)

Princess Ka‘iulani, heir to the vanished throne, dies at the age of 23. The last Hawaiian princess, Ka‘iulani passed away at her Waikīkī estate known as ‘Āinahau, the palace of her uncle, King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]. Though the death of Ka‘iulani is attributed to a fever, many believe she died of a broken heart as the last Hawaiian princess and heiress to a vanished throne.

Princess Ka‘iulani’s treasured peacocks (pīkake) roamed the estate’s beautiful gardens of fragrant, white Arabian jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac), which were favorites of the princess.

The peacocks are said to have made loud vocal displays of their grief on the night Prince Ka‘iulani died. From the flower’s association with the young princess, the Arabian jasmine is now also known by the Hawaiian term pīkake. (See 1875 for Biographical Sketch of Princess Ka‘iulani; also see Pīkake in Lei Flowers section, Chapter 3.) ; and Princess Ka‘iulaniHeir to a Vanished Throne, Chapter 12.)

1899—The bubonic plague sweeps through Honolulu.

1899—The Judd Building is constructed on Fort Street in Honolulu. Designed by architect Oliver Green Traphagen, the building is four-stories tall, and has the first passenger elevator in the Hawaiian Islands. Later a fifth floor is added.

1899, October 8—The first automobiles in the Hawaiian Islands, two “Wood electrics,” arrive in Honolulu for Edward D. Tenney and Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911).

1899—The Hilo wharf is constructed.

1899, November—Lili‘uokalani, Hawai‘i’s former queen and last monarch, leaves the Hawaiian Islands on a boat to San Francisco, and from there travels to Washington D.C. Her goal is to appeal (again) for the rights of the Hawaiian people, and for a settlement on crown lands.

1900-1920—The population of the Hawaiian Islands in 1900 is documented at 154,001 people, including about 25% Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian; 40% Japanese; 16% Chinese; 12% Portuguese; and about 5% Caucasian.

The first two decades of the 1900s see a mass migration to the Hawaiian Islands by hundreds of thousands of foreigners, at the same time that the native Hawaiian population suffers a massive decline due to foreign diseases and other causes. Foreigners outnumber those of Polynesian descent (native Hawaiians).

Earlier waves of Portuguese laborers and immigrant laborers from China and Japan are supplemented by the importation of laborers from Puerto Rico (1900), Korea (1903), and the Philippines (1907-1931). In 1900 there are more than 60,000 Japanese in the Hawaiian Islands, and by 1920, they comprise more than 40% of the total population. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1900—By this date, at least 100 sugar mills in the Hawaiian Islands are operated by at least 51 sugar companies

1900, January 20—A fire is intentionally set in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague. The fire accidentally gets out of control and burns more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents. The fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days.

1900, April 30—The Organic Act is signed by United States President McKinley, establishing a Territorial government in the Hawaiian Islands, and thus Hawaiian citizens of the Republic become American citizens of the Territory of Hawai‘i. On June 14, 1900 the incorporated Territory of Hawai‘i is officially established.

The first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i is Sanford Ballard Dole (1844-1926), one of the original revolutionaries and also the former President of the Provisional Government (1893-1894) after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; President of the Republic of Hawai‘i (1895-1898); and then the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i, serving in that post until 1903.

In November of 1900, Robert W. Wilcox, a member of the Home Rule Party and a participant in two attempted revolutions (see 1889, July 30; 1895, Jan.6), is elected as the Territory’s first delegate to Congress (as a non-voting member). The Home Rule Party was organized by former royalists against the overthrow of the monarchy.

Though Hawaiian residents become United States citizens, they are still not allowed to vote in presidential elections. The Hawaiian Islands may send one representative to Congress, and this delegate may debate and introduce bills, but cannot vote.

Hawaiian voters elect a House of Representatives and a Territorial Senate. Any bill passed by the Hawai‘i Legislature may be vetoed by the United States Congress.

Wilcox fought successfully to make literacy and education, not property ownership, the requirement for voting in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Organic Act, Chapter 12.)

1900—The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi; Hawaiian name: ‘ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua) nears extinction due to continued hunting of the species.

1900—The National Guard of the Republic of Hawai‘i officially becomes part of the United States military and Guard members take an oath of allegiance to the United States. The Guard includes a total of about 525 men in nine companies.

1900, November—An electric trolley (tram line) is put into operation in Honolulu, replacing horse-driven and mule-driven tram cars.

Operated by Pacific Heights Electric Railway Company, Ltd., the electric streetcars are open-sided, carrying thirty passengers, and initially run between Pacific Heights and upper Nu‘uanu Avenue. (See 1888, December 28; and Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1900—The Royal Brewery Building is constructed by the Honolulu Brewing and Malting Company in Honolulu at 553 South Queen Street.

The steel-frame, concrete structure is the original home of Primo Beer, which remains there until 1960. The building’s style is Romanesque Revival, with a decorative casing of red brick and a grand facade facing Queen Street.

1900—The New China Daily Press becomes the first Chinese newspaper in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1900, December 23—The SS City of Rio de Janeiro arrives with 56 contract laborers who become the Puerto Rican residents of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1900-1909—During this decade, after the overthrow of the monarchy, the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] makes five more trips to the United States to appeal for a settlement of the disputed crown lands and fair treatment for the Hawaiian people.

1901, March 11—The Moana Hotel opens in Waikīkī, becoming the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands and Waikīkī’s first major hotel. The 75-room, 4-story hotel is built by Walter Peacock, an English businessman, at a cost of $150,000. The hotel becomes known as the “First Lady of Waikīkī.”

Rooms were initially $1.50 per night and each room featured a bathroom and telephone (luxurious amenities at the time). The hotel also boasted O‘ahu’s first electric elevator. left off 22] (See Historic Waikīkī in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

1901—This year marks the last documented sighting of the Hawai‘i Island’s ‘ō‘ō bird (Moho nobilis). This extinction was followed, in 1904, by the last documented sighting of Moloka‘i and Maui’s ‘ō‘ō bird (Moho bishopi).

The ‘ō‘ō extinctions are precipitated by: loss of habitat; foreign diseases that kill the birds; capture of the birds by native Hawaiians for food and/or Hawaiian featherwork; foreigners capturing or killing the native birds for various reasons (e.g., collecting); and other causes. (See Native Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 7.)

1901—A Columbia Records catalog lists “Aloha Oe” and “Pua i Kaoakalani,” making them the oldest known Hawaiian music recordings.

1901, March 2—Commercial radio service is established allowing communication between the Hawaiian Islands. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1901—Leahi Hospital opens in Honolulu to treat victims of tuberculosis. According to Place Names of Hawaii,[lxxiii] Lē‘ahi, the name of the tallest peak of Diamond Head, is “a variant name for Lae‘ahi,” and the O‘ahu mountain was given that name because it had been “compared by Pele’s younger sister, Hi‘iaka, to the brow (lae) of the ‘ahi fish.”[lxxiv]

1901, December 4—The Hawaiian Pineapple Company is formed by James Drummond Dole (1877-1958). The first harvest occurs in 1903 and 1,893 cases are canned. Dole later constructs a pineapple cannery, the world’s largest fruit factory, in O‘ahu’s Iwilei district (see 1906), and then begins planting pineapples on Lāna‘i in 1922.

Dole is soon producing about one-third of the world’s crop. (See 1906; 1922; also see Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2; and The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

1901—In the United States, President William McKinley is assassinated by Leon Czolgosz. Theodore Roosevelt becomes President of the United States.

1901—The Pālama Fire Station (Firehouse) is built of brick in Pālama, Honolulu. Beginning in 1965 it was used by the State of Hawai‘i for offices.

1901—The six-story Stangenwald Building is constructed at 119 Merchant Street in Honolulu, on the site of the offices of Hugo Stangenwald (1829—1899), a Honolulu physician who passed away in 1899 (see 1860).

The architect is Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and the building is noted for its Italian Renaissance elements. Features include arched windows, pressed-copper trim, terra cotta ornamentation, and a wrought-iron balustrade.

The Stangenwald Building is considered the first skyscraper in the Hawaiian Islands, and for more than a half century it is the tallest building in Honolulu. It also has the first electric elevator in the Hawaiian Islands, and houses the first shared law library in the Hawaiian Islands.

Built in the wake of the devastating Chinatown fire (see 1900, Jan. 20), the Stangenwald Building is constructed of brick and concrete, with a steel frame and built-in fire hoses.

Considered Honolulu’s first fully fireproof structure, the building has fireproof vaults on every floor. In 1980, a restoration of the structure is completed under Honolulu architect James Tsugawa.

1901—Mendoca Block, a brick building spanning one block long, is constructed at North Hotel and Maunakea Streets in Honolulu’s Chinatown district, becoming one of the first major structures to begin the rebuilding after the devastating 1900 Chinatown fire (see 1900, Jan. 20). The architect is Oliver Green Traphagen. The building is rehabilitated in 1979.

1902—This year marks the beginning of significant labor unrest on sugarcane plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, eventually leading to many strikes and protests.

1902, December 28—The Hawaiian Islands are linked to the United States by a Commercial Pacific Cable Company telegraph cable beneath the Pacific Ocean. The submarine cable, laid by the cable ship Silvertown, is more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) long, extending from Ocean Beach in San Francisco to Waikīkī’s San Souci Beach.

The first message across the new undersea cable is sent to San Francisco from Waikīkī on January 1, 1903. The westward extension of the undersea cable to Midway, Guam, and the Philippines is completed on July 4, 1903, allowing the first round-the-world message.

President Theodore Roosevelt sends a message to the United States and all of its properties and territories, wishing all a happy Independence Day. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1902—Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922), a republican, is elected as Hawai‘i’s second delegate to the United States Congress. (See Biography, Chapter 16.)

Also in 1902, Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] commissions Henry Weeks Jr., a Kona cabinetmaker, to build a 42-foot (12.8-m) racing canoe that becomes known as the ‘Ā. The six-man racing canoe is praised for its design as well as the crews that earn first place in many competitions from 1906 to 1910.

The canoe is now on display at Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu. (See Bishop Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1902—An electric trolley (tram line) is built to connect Waikīkī and downtown Honolulu. This replaces the horse-driven tram cars. The hotel and tram line construction begins the process of popularizing Waikīkī as a resort destination, and is also the impetus for building the Ala Wai Canal to drain the wetlands. (See 1919-1928.)

1903, January 13—The first Korean contract laborers arrive in the Hawaiian Islands aboard the Gaelic, and by the end of 1905 more than 7,500 Korean workers have arrived.

1903—The Portland Building is constructed at South Hotel and Union Mall in Honolulu. The architectural style is of the Late Victorian period.

1903—The Lum Yip Kee Building is constructed at 80 King Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown, though the building doesn’t open until 1910. The building is constructed in the 20th Century Commercial style, and is of added historic importance because it is the site where Dr. Sun Yat-Sen plans a revolution in China with members of the Tung Meng Hui “Alliance Society.” (Note: Dr. Sun Yat-Sen is later considered the founder of modern China.)

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s older brother is Sun Mei, who comes to the Hawaiian Islands in 1871 and lives on O‘ahu and Maui, where he is a rancher and a merchant. Sun Mei brings his younger brother to the Hawaiian Islands and puts him to work in his store.

Sun then enrolls in Bishop’s College School (later called ‘Iolani) at the age of 14. His accomplishments include an English grammar award given to him by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Sun later returns to China where he begins his political activities while continuing to travel back and forth between China and the Hawaiian Islands.

A new facade is added to the Lum Yip Kee building in the 1970s, and then in 1973 the structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. A bust of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen is located in front of the Chinese Cultural Plaza, and another may be seen on Maui.

1903, December 17—In the United States, the Wright brothers fly the first airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

1903—President Theodore Roosevelt designates the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as a seabird refuge, with the exception of Midway Atoll, which is placed under the control of the United States Navy. In 1909, Roosevelt designates the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. (See Midway Atoll in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands section, Chapter 2.)

1904, March 19—The Waikīkī Aquarium is founded at the far eastern (Diamond Head) side of Waikīkī along the shoreline of Kapi‘olani Park, and initially operated by the Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company as an attraction at the end of the streetcar line. (See 1888.)

Waikīkī Aquarium is the oldest aquarium west of the Mississippi River, and the United States’ third oldest public aquarium, exhibiting more than 2,500 organisms.

Waikīkī Aquarium includes more than 420 species of aquatic plants and animals, including black-tip reef sharks, giant clams, translucent jellyfish, colorful reef fish, living coral species, moray eels, a Hawaiian green sea turtle, and Hawaiian monk seals, just to name a few of the species.

The aquarium also provides many interactive, educational opportunities for children, including the “touch-me tide pool.” A small theater shows short educational films. (See Waikīkī Aquarium in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Native Reef Fish of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1904—O‘ahu Market is built at North King and Kekaulike Streets in Honolulu’s Chinatown district. The building’s style is 20th Century Commercial. Built by Chinese entrepreneur Tuck Young, the open-air O‘ahu Market building is constructed using bricks and coral blocks, with a stone foundation and a wooden roof.

The interior is divided into stone-floored stalls that are open to the street. The O‘ahu Market building is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

1904—Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] organizes the Order of Kamehameha in 1903 and initiates the first observance of King Kamehameha Day.

1905—Kahauiki Military Reservation is established in Honolulu, becoming the first permanent United States Army post in the Hawaiian Islands. The post is renamed Shafter Military Reservation in 1907 in honor of Civil War Medal of Honor winner, Major General William R. Shafter (1835-1906). (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1905—Duke Kahanamoku surfs Waikīkī and begins the rebirth of Hawaiian surfing, which had largely disappeared in Hawai‘i after the arrival of New England missionaries in the early 1800s. (See Duke Kahanamoku section, Chapter 3; and Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

1905—The Kohala Ditch is completed on Hawai‘i Island after 18 months of construction, tapping the rivers of the Kohala mountains to irrigate the region’s sugar plantations. The engineering feat includes flumes and tunnels spanning 17 miles. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1905—The home of Fred L. Waldron is constructed on Vancouver Drive in Mānoa, Honolulu. It later becomes the Baptist Student Center.

1905—The Winston and Armstrong Buildings are constructed at the corner of North King and River Streets at the entrance to Honolulu’s Chinatown district, which had been devastated by the 1900 Chinatown fire (see 1900, Jan. 20). The Armstrong building houses Japanese drygoods merchant Musashiya.

1906, August 23—The Territorial Archives Building (Old Archives Building), designed by architect Oliver Green Traphagen in the Renaissance Revival style, is constructed at 364 King Street on the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace in downtown Honolulu, becoming the United States’ first building constructed for the sole purpose of preserving public archive materials. (Note: Hawai‘i was a Territory from 1900 to 1959.)

The Archives includes historical photographs and documents, private papers, records, manuscripts, maps, books, and items from various collections, including the Captain Cook Memorial Collection.

The Archives also contains approximately 100,000 photographs, 1,800 maps, and 9,000 books, many of which contain past government publications. Many papers associated with the Hawaiian Kingdom (before 1893), the Republic of Hawai‘i (1893-1900), the Territorial Government (1900-1959), and the government of the State of Hawai‘i (1959-present) are found in the Archives.

The records span all aspects of the government, including the Executive Branch, Legislature, and Judiciary. The Governors’ Records span from 1900 to the present and include press releases, speeches, and personal papers.

Catalogs and indexes in the Reference Room include the Computerized Library Catalog, which makes it easy to locate information and photos.

Virtually fireproof, the Old Archives Building is primarily stucco-covered brick, and divided into two main sections with a public reading room and offices on one side and a large vault area on the other side.

Additions to the building are constructed in 1929, including another vault area, a basement in the back, and a bay added to the front left side of the building. In 1949, a small addition is made to the rear of the right side wing of the building.

In 1959, when officials decide that State of Hawai‘i buildings should have Hawaiian names, the Old Archives Building is renamed Kana‘ina Building after Charles Kana‘ina (c.1801-1877), the husband of Kekāuluohi (Miriam ‘Auhea, 1794-1845), and they were the parents of King Lunalilo.

Also in 1953, the new Hawai‘i State Archives Building (see 1953) is completed, and the old Archives Building houses the State Attorney General’s office, and then later serves other functions including housing the State of Hawai‘i Identification Office and the Office of Children and Youth.

In 1987, the Friends of ‘Iolani Palace restores the original interior colors and design of the Old Archives Building, which still retains its domed, stained-glass skylight in the foyer as well as the original terrazzo floor.

Friends of ‘Iolani Palace now uses the historical building for its education center and administrative offices. (See Old Archives Building—Kana‘ina Building in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1906—James Drummond Dole (1877-1958) and his Hawaiian Pineapple Company construct a pineapple cannery on O‘ahu in the Iwilei district. At the time it is the largest fruit factory in the world. (See 1901, Dec. 4; 1922.)

1906—The Orpheum Theatre, run by Joel C. Cohen, opens on Fort Street in Honolulu, becoming the first movie theater the Hawaiian Islands and Honolulu’s pioneer of popular-priced theatricals. In 1910, fire destroys the Orpheum along with the Orpheum rooming house.

1906—The wooden bark Carrollton becomes shipwrecked at Midway Atoll. The ship was being used to transport coal from Australia to San Francisco.

1906—Ruger Military Reservation is established at Diamond Head (Lē‘ahi). The Reservation is named in honor of Major General Thomas H. Ruger, who served from 1871 to 1876 as the superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point.

1906, December 20—The first fifteen Filipino farm workers, known as sakada, arrive on the Doric to work on the sugar plantations. This begins a wave of immigration from the Philippines totalling 120,000 workers by 1931 as Filipinos replace Japanese as the majority of farm workers. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1907—The McCandless Building, constructed in 1906 using blue stone, opens in downtown Honolulu at 925 Bethel Street. Lincoln Loy McCandless (1859—1940) is one-third owner. The architect is Harry Livingston Kerr.

The McCandless Building, one of Honolulu’s first modern office buildings, features a wide arcade overhang on the first story, and an entryway adorned with tile and marble. The style of the McCandless Building is Beaux Arts, and it is one of the few Honolulu buildings with a functioning basement.

The McCandless Building is originally planned to be a two-story building, but the plans change in the middle of construction when it is decided that it will instead be a four-story building. A fifth story (built in a different architectural style) is added to the McCandless Building in 1914, and occupied by the Commercial Club, which later becomes the Chamber of Commerce.

James McCandless originally came to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1800s, and was soon joined by his brothers Link and John. The McCandless brothers drilled artesian wells throughout the Hawaiian Islands, and were also part of the “Committee of Safety” which was instrumental in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893.

1907, May 21—Author Jack London and his wife Charmian arrive on the ketch Snark and complete a four-month tour of the Islands. Jack London was the world’s wealthiest writer in 1907, and he financed and helped to build the Snark. Both Jack and Charmian write about Hawai‘i, with Jack reportedly writing precisely 1,000 words per day, including his article “A Royal Sport: Surfing at Waikiki.” The Londons return for another visit in 1915—16.

1907—The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (renamed College of Hawai‘i in 1911) is established in downtown Honolulu as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho. The College opens on September 15, 1908, and is renamed the University of Hawai‘i in 1920.

1907—Honolulu’s Kapālama Basin is dredged to enlarge Honolulu Harbor, and the landfill is used to create Sand Island, which is originally the name of the larger of two islands in Honolulu Harbor (the smaller being called Quarantine Island because a quarantine station was found there in 1869).

Quarantine Island is also called Mauliola, after a god of health. An older name for the island is Kamoku‘ākulikuli, after the ‘ākulikuli plant (Lycium sandwicense). The two islands are joined in 1940.

1907—The Outrigger Canoe Club is established in Waikīkī.

1907—Shafter Military Reservation is established, and named after Civil War Medal of Honor winner, Major General William R. Shafter (1835-1906).

1907—Fort Armstrong is built on Honolulu’s Ka‘akaukukui Reef near Kalehuawehe, a place known for its healing, cleansing baths. Fort Armstrong is named after Brigadier General Samuel C. Armstrong (1839-1893), son of Reverend Richard Armstrong (1805-1860) who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1832 and later died in an accident while riding on a horse. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1907—Rice is the second largest crop in the Islands, with more than 41 million pounds (19 million kilograms) produced on about 9,400 acres (3,800 ha).

1908—The City and County of Honolulu is formed. Favorable trade agreements allow pineapple and sugar plantations to thrive.

1908, November—Joseph James Fern, a stevedore boss working for the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company, becomes the first mayor of the newly established City and County of Honolulu. Elected as a Democrat, Fern is re-elected in 1910, 1912, 1917, and 1919.

1908—The Matson Navigation Company purchases the luxurious 51-passenger steamship Lurline to carry tourists to the Hawaiian Islands. The 146-passenger Wilhelmina joins the fleet in 1910, and the Matsonia begins service between Honolulu and San Francisco in 1914.

By the time of Captain William Matson’s death in 1917 at the age of 67, he ran a fleet of 14 large, modern ships, providing the fastest freight service in the Pacific.

In 1901, Matson Navigation Company built the 75-room Moana Hotel, known as the “First Lady of Waikīkī” and the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands (see 1901, March 11). Matson also built the $4 million Royal Hawaiian, affectionately known as the “Pink Palace,” in 1927 (see 1927, Feb. 1) along with the $7.5-million premier cruise ship, the Malolo, which held up to 650 passengers and provided luxurious transportation to the fine new hotel. (See 1882, 1927; and 1958, August 31.)

1908—Construction of naval facilities begins in Pearl Harbor, which is known by the Hawaiian name, “Pu‘uloa.”

1908-1915—Six coastal artillery battery defenses are constructed on O‘ahu, including Battery Randolph in Waikīkī (now known as the U.S. Army Museum of Hawai‘i—see O‘ahu section, Chapter 2).

Construction also begins on Fort Ruger (established in 1906) at the edge of the Diamond Head (Lē‘ahi) crater. A network of tunnels is carved into the mountain, and cannon emplacements are placed atop the crater rim along with observation posts and bunkers.

Fort Ruger is reinforced during World War II, though the guns are never fired. (See Diamond Head in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1908—Death of Prince David Kawānanakoa, at age 40, due to a heart attack.

1909—Makapu‘u Lighthouse is constructed at Makapu‘u Point in southeast O‘ahu. The lighthouse on Moloka‘i’s Kalaupapa Peninsula installs a Fresnel lens that is the brightest in the Pacific and can be seen 21 miles (34 km) out to sea.

1909—Fort Kamehameha Military Reservation is established at the entrance to Pearl Harbor. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1909—Schofield Barracks Military Reservation is established on 14,000 acres (5,666 ha) on the Leilehua plain in Wahiawā, O‘ahu.

The Barracks are named for President Andrew Johnson’s Secretary of War, Lieutenant General John M. Schofield (1831-1906). The military reservation eventually becomes the biggest permanent United States Army post. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1909, September—The Sacred Hearts Academy, a Catholic school for girls, opens in Honolulu.

1909, October 21—One hundred and fifty Russian laborers arrive in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1909—Yokohama Specie Bank Building is constructed at the corner of Merchant Street and Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu, and becomes the first major Japanese bank in the Hawaiian Islands, opening in 1910. The architect of the building is Harry Livingston Kerr.

Built in the Renaissance Revival style, the building’s features include ornamental oculi (circular windows) at the top, garlands, overhanging cornice, and a Renaissance style entrance noted for its terra cotta step-up.

The Imperial Japanese government chartered Yokohama Shokin Ginko to act as the Japan’s overseas agents, and the Honolulu bank becomes one of several established around the world. Kerr, who designed more than 900 Honolulu buildings, is said to have declared the Yokohama Specie Bank the finest building in Honolulu.

The Yokohama Specie Bank is L-shaped, with Carrera glass wainscoting and copper doors and window casings. The building’s windows are trimmed with marble, which is also used for the interior stairs. Separate entrances are constructed for Chinese, Japanese, and haole customers.

After the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941, the United States’ Alien Custodian Agency confiscate the building, and use the first floor as a storehouse for confiscated goods. City Realty buys the building from the government in 1954, and it is used for office space.

The building is placed on the National Historic Register in 1973, and a mezzanine level is added in the 1980s when the building is restored.

1910, October 10Aviation in the Hawaiian Islands begins when Malcolm and Elbert Tuttle (ages 14 and 13) carry their home-made, 40-pound (18-kg) glider to the top of O‘ahu’s Kaimukī Crater where Malcolm flies the craft, which measures about 15 feet (4.6 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) across, for a distance of about 40 feet (12 m) at a height of about 10 feet (3 m) off the ground. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1910, December 31—About seven years after the Wright brothers make their famous first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, the first airplane flight in the Hawaiian Islands takes place at O‘ahu’s Moanalua Polo Field when J. C. “Bud” Mars flies a Curtiss P18 biplane, the Honolulu Skylark, to an altitude of 500 feet (152m).

Thousands of onlookers pay $1 each to watch the event, and on a subsequent flight, Mars reaches 1,500 feet (457 m). Mars is with a group from New York’s Glenn Curtiss Aircraft Company who had brought two Curtiss P18 biplanes to the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1910—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 191,874 people, including 26,041 Hawaiians and 12,056 part-Hawaiians.

1910—McCandless Block Building is constructed at 9 North Pauahi Street. The architect is Harry Livingston Kerr.

1911—Duke Kahanamoku and friends organize Hui Nalu (Club of the Waves). (See Duke Kahanamoku section, Chapter 3; and Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

1911—Ali‘iōlani Hale, the Judiciary Building in Honolulu, undergoes reconstruction. The building is in disrepair due to termite damage, and is set on fire so only the exterior walls remain. Architects Ripley and Reynolds design the new floor plan, which still exists today. The new design includes a rotunda and double staircase, along with steel beams to reinforce the structure.

1911, June 10Clarence Walker crashes his biplane into a hala tree in Hilo and survives. This is the first airplane crash in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1912, April 14, 15—On its way from New York to Southampton, England, the British luxury liner Titanic sinks on its maiden voyage with 2,224 people on board. About 1,400 of the passengers die in the accident.

1912, July 6—Duke Kahanamoku wins an Olympic gold medal in swimming in Stockholm, Sweden. Kahanamoku completes the 100-meter freestyle event in a world record time of 63.4 seconds. He also wins a silver medal in the 4x200-meter freestyle relay.

“The Duke” later goes on to win two more gold medals, in the 1920 Antwerp Olympics (in the 100-meter freestyle and 4 x 200 meter freestyle relay), as well as a silver medal in the 1924 Paris Olympics (in the 100-meter freestyle), and a bronze medal in the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics as a member of the water polo team. (See Duke Kahanamoku section, Chapter 3; and Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

 

1912, Summer—Using a transmitter on Maui, the Federal Telegraph Company transmits to San Francisco on the first commercial radio telegraph circuit in the Hawaiian Islands.

1912—Hawai‘i Hall is completed, becoming the first permanent building at the University of Hawai‘i’s Mānoa campus.

1912—The Blaisdell Hotel is built at 1154 Fort Street Mall in Honolulu by architect Emory & Webb. Today the building is used for offices and retains its central courtyard and birdcage elevator.

1912, August 17—The first official automobile race in the Hawaiian Islands takes place at Honolulu’s Kapi‘olani Park. The winner of the five-mile (8-km) race wins in a time of 5:57, averaging more than 50 miles per hour (81 km/hr).

1913—Shark God and Hawaiian Love become the first Hollywood movies shot on location in the Islands.

1913—The Honolulu Star-Bulletin is formed when the Evening Bulletin merges with the Hawaiian Star. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

1913, July 13Tom Gunn, a pioneer of Hawaiian aviation, completes the first passenger flight in the Hawaiian Islands when he takes two people (a theater worker and a tailor) for a flight over Schofield Barracks. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1914—In Haleakalā National Park on Maui, Ralph S. Hosmer plants a grove of trees (now known as Hosmer Grove). From 1904 to 1914, Ralph S. Hosmer was the first forester of the Territory of Hawai‘i.

1914—The Honolulu Zoo opens in Kapi‘olani Park on the eastern end of Waikīkī. Covering about 42 acres, the Honolulu Zoo is now home to about 300 species. (See Honolulu Zoo in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1915—The white-trimmed, red-brick Mission Memorial Building is constructed by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association at 558 South King Street in Honolulu, marking the 100th anniversary of missionaries arriving in the Hawaiian Islands.

Designed by Harry Livingston Kerr and Mark Potter, the building’s style is Colonial/Greek Revival, and remains as Hawai‘i’s only example of true Georgian architecture, a style common in New England and derived from British monarchy.

The Mission Memorial Building includes an auditorium; an annex was built in 1930. Today the building is known as City Hall Annex and used for City and County Offices. The Mission Memorial Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

1915—The Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company begins offering bus service using locally built buses. In 1928, American Car & Foundry buses are purchased from the United States Mainland. (See Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1915, July 27The first wireless message between the United States and Japan is relayed from Tokyo through Kahuku, O‘ahu to New York. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1916—Duke Kahanamoku wins the 100-meter freestyle in the American Athletic Union Outdoor Championships. He wins this event again in 1917 and 1920.

1916, February 4—In Honolulu Harbor, the crews of seven interned steamships (including the German cruiser Geier) set their vessels on fire to prevent them from being used by the United States military. Officially the United States is still neutral in the war (which had begun in Europe in 1914). On April 6, 1917, the United States declares war on Germany. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1916—The Wing Wo Tai & Co. Building is constructed in Honolulu’s Chinatown district at 923 Nu‘uanu Avenue to house a Chinese import business.

1917, November 11— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], the former monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom, suffers a stroke in Honolulu and passes away at the age of 79. (See Timeline: 1838, September 2.)

1917, April 6—In the United States President Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany.

To assist in the war effort, the Hawaiian National Guard is mobilized. American combat troops travel to France.

1917—A Shingon Temple is built in Honolulu, and a Shingon mission is established.

1917, November 11— Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], the former monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom, suffers a stroke in Honolulu and passes away at the age of 79.

1917—The Halekūlani Hotel opens in Honolulu. Previous to 1917, the site of Halekūlani Hotel was the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lewers and their hotel named Hau Tree after a very old hau tree on the site. Originally consisting of a beachfront house and five bungalows, the hotel grows modestly over the years until 1981 when it is rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel. Halekūlani is translated as “House befitting heaven,” or “House befitting royalty.”

1917—The island of Lāna‘i is sold to the Baldwin family for use as a cattle ranch.

1917—Charlie Chaplin speaks at a luncheon for the Honolulu Ad Club.

1918—Kilauea—The Hawaiian Volcano becomes the first color film shot in the Islands. The movie is made using the Prizma Color process.

1918—Honpa Hongwanji Mission is built in Honolulu to commemorate the Shin sect of Buddhism’s 700th anniversary, and Dr. Syngman Rhee, South Korea’s first president (in exile in Hawai‘i) founds the Korean Christian Church in Honolulu. The church is built on Liliha Street in 1938, and the front of the building replicates Kwang Wha Mun gate in Seoul, Korea.

The Honpa Hongwanji is the world’s first reinforced concrete Buddhist temple. The Korean Girls’ Seminary is founded by Dr. Syngman Rhee at Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu in 1913, and in 1918 was renamed Korean Christian Institute. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission in the Islands began in 1889 with a small church on Emma Street.

1918—The Honolulu Paper Company opens in Honolulu, eventually becoming Hopaco, a major retail and distribution company of office supplies and other products.

1918, March 15—Major Harold M. Clark of the Fort Kamehameha Aero Squadron completes the first interisland flight in the Hawaiian Islands, from Honolulu to Moloka‘i and back. On November 19, 1918, Corporal Mark Grace of the Sixth Aero Squadron becomes the first aviation fatality in the Hawaiian Islands when his plane goes into a tailspin and crashes. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1918—Syngman Rhee, South Korea’s first president (in exile in the Hawaiian Islands) founds the Korean Christian Church in Honolulu. The church is built on Liliha Street in 1938, and the front of the building replicates Seoul, Korea’s Kwang Wha Mun gate.

1918—Kilauea—The Hawaiian Volcano becomes the first color film shot in the Hawaiian Islands. The film was made using the Prizma Color process.

1918, November 11—World War I ends.

1919, June 11—A historical procession marks the 100th anniversary of the death of King Kamehameha I.

1919—The Minatoya Cafe Building is constructed of stone at 1152 Maunakea Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown district.

1919-1928—The Ala Wai Canal is built to drain the marshlands of Waikīkī. Funds for the project are provided by the Waikīkī Reclamation Project. (See Ala Wai Canal in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1919—The building of the Ala Wai Canal begins. Completed during the next nine years in order to drain the marshlands of Waikīkī, the prominent waterway spans 25 blocks, separating Waikīkī from Honolulu and creating some of Hawai‘i’s most valuable real estate. (See Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

1919—Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] initiates the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act to provide Hawaiians with farming and homestead land. Prince Kūhiō was elected to Congress ten times before he passed away on January 22, 1922 at age 50.

1919—A massive fire in Lahaina destroys two blocks of commercial structures.

1919—Mormons in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu use volcanic rocks and crushed coral to build a smaller version of the Mormon temple in Salt Lake City, Utah. Constructed at the base of the Ko‘olau Mountains, the church is dedicated on November 27, 1919, becoming the first Mormon temple built outside of the continental United States. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Mormons in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1920s—The mechanical sugarcane planter is developed. Plantation owners become extremely powerful, and living conditions on plantations become exceedingly harsh for many plantation workers. Some workers are enslaved and imprisoned.

1920—The United States military begins using the island of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1920—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 255,881 people, with 42.7% of the population being of Japanese descent. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1920—In the United States, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution is adopted, granting women the right to vote (suffrage).

1920—Duke Kahanamoku wins two Olympic gold medals in Antwerp, Belgium, breaking his own 100-meter freestyle world record and helping to set a world record in the freestyle relay. (See Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

1921—Kīlauea National Park is established on Hawai‘i Island.

1921—Honolulu’s Washington Place, the former home of Queen Lili‘uokalani, is purchased by the Territory of Hawai‘i for use as a governor’s mansion. (See 1847.)

1921, July 9—The Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act, which was initiated in 1919 by Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi], is enacted by the United States Congress with the goal of providing farming and homesteading land to Hawaiians with at least 50% native Hawaiian ancestry.

The Hawaiian Homes Commission Act provides for the granting of 99-year leases, with the government keeping the title to the land. A total of 203,500 acres (82,354 ha) is designated as “available lands” for the program, but the sugar companies lobby to exclude most of the best agricultural land in the Hawaiian Islands.

Of his political efforts, Prince Kūhiō states, “The legislation proposed seeks to place the Hawaiian back on the soil, so that the valuable and sturdy traits of that race, peculiarly adapted to the islands, shall be preserved to posterity.”[lxxv]

No money is available to develop the second-tier parcels and thus most of the lands are not used. During the first 70 years after the passage of Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act of 1920, just 3,000 families receive lands. Many people who are on the original list of applications pass away before receiving land.

In 1959, the Act is adopted into the State of Hawai‘i Constitution. In 1996, the Hawai‘i Supreme Court rules that homesteaders may rent their land only to native Hawaiians. By 2004 more than 27,000 Hawaiians have been awarded 6,281 residential leases.

1922—A train belonging to the Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway and Land Company derails at Waikakalaua gulch, killing four people and injuring two, and causing a pile-up of 28 pineapple-filled railroad cars.

1922—James Drummond Dole (1877—1958) purchases 98% of the Hawaiian Island of Lāna‘i for $1,100,000. Dole soon has 19,000 acres (7,700 ha) of pineapples planted on Lāna‘i, and is producing almost one-third of the world’s pineapple crop.

Dole is known as the “Pineapple King” and the pineapple industry dominates the island of Lāna‘i for the next 65 years, producing as many as 250 million pineapples per year.

Lāna‘i City is located about 1,700 feet (518 m) above sea level and set beneath the hills of Lāna‘ihale. (See 1901, Dec. 4; 1906; Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2; The Pineapple Industry and Lāna‘i City, Chapter 12.)

1922—The United States Post Office, Custom House, and Federal Court House is built at 335 Merchant Street in Honolulu.

Designed by New York architects York & Sawyer in the Spanish Mission Revival style, the Post Office building is notable for its arched openings and tile roof, and served as the headquarters for most of the federal agencies in the Hawaiian Islands, including the U.S. District Court and Post Office.

An addition to Post Office structure was built in 1929, and it was renamed the King David Kalākaua Building in 2002 (King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] was Honolulu’s postmaster from 1863 to 1865). The structure is now used by the Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs.

The United States Post Office, Custom House, and Federal Court House building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

1922—Wheeler Field (now known as Wheeler Air Force Base) is established near Schofield Barracks in Wahiawā, O‘ahu. The base is named after Sheldon H. Wheeler, an Air Force major who died in a plane crash in 1921. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1922, September 6—The New Hawaii Theatre, commissioned by Consolidated Amusements Company and costing ½-million dollars, opens at 1130 Bethel Street in Honolulu. Designed by architects Emory & Webb in the Classical Revival/Art Deco style, the theater is designed for live performances as well as for showing the new entertainment medium of movies.

The building cost $500,000 and becomes one of the United States’ most modern theaters, featuring a double-cantilever balcony, Corinthian and Byzantine ornamentation, and Moorish grillwork.

The building’s style is Neoclassical, also said to be Classical Revival, Art Deco, and Beaux Arts. Renovated in the 1970s and 1980s, the New Hawai‘i Theatre recently received yet another renovation, costing $33 million, including the installation of a large, neon marquee. The theater holds 1,726 people, and features wicker chairs and air conditioning.

The building was placed on the National and Hawai‘i Registers of Historic Places in 1978, and is now used as a cultural and performing arts center. (See 1929, July 13.) Note: Tours of the building are given on the first Tuesday of each month; call 808-528-5535 for information.

[Photograph]

1923, February 23—An earthquake in the Aleutian Islands generates a tsunami. Waves more than 20 feet (6 m) high hit the Waiākea area of Hilo, and also causes serious damage in Kahului, Maui. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4.)

1923—The Territorial Legislature designates an emblem for each Hawaiian Island. (See Island Emblems, Chapter 12.)

1923—Izumo Taishakyo Mission of Hawai‘i is constructed at 215 North Kukui Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown district. Designed by architect Hego Fuchino, the structure is built without the use of nails by a master shrine carpenter from Japan.

1924, September 7— Daniel Inouye is the first of four children born to Hyotaro and Kame Inouye. Inouye attends McKinley High School in Honolulu and works at various jobs, including parking cars at Honolulu Stadium. In 1943 at the age of 18, Inouye enlists in the Army, and from 1944 to 1947 he serves in the United States Army’s renowned 442nd Infantry Regiment.

Designated a Sergeant, Inouye fights in the Italian campaign where he becomes a combat platoon leader. Fighting in the French Vosges Mountains in the fall of 1944, Inouye wins a Bronze Star when he helps rescue 211 members of the “Lost Battalion,” a Texas Battalion (1st Battalion, 141st Infantry Battalion, 36th Infantry Division), in Biffontaine. The “Lost Battalion,” known as the “Alamo Regiment” was trapped behind enemy lines for five days, surrounded by Germans and out of food and ammunition.

The rescue of the “Lost Battalion” was considered a pivotal battle in the war, and one of the most famous battles of military history. The motto of the 442nd was “Go For Broke,” a Hawaiian slang term referring to risking everything. For their heroic efforts despite heavy losses in Italy, France, and Germany, the 442nd became known as the “Purple Heart Battalion.”

During an attack on a well-defended hill in Italy, a bullet tears through the abdomen of Inouye (a Second Lieutenant) and comes out his back, just missing his spine. As platoon leader, he alone continues to advance, and throws two hand grenades at the machine gun position that has pinned down his men.

As Inouye advances, a German rifle grenade hits him from close range and tears up his right arm. With his left hand, he throws his last grenade and then fires his submachine gun before finally being stopped when he is hit yet again, this time by a bullet in the leg. Twenty-five Germans are killed and eight captured in the attack led by Inouye.

After nearly two years in the hospital, Inouye returns home in 1947 with the second highest award for military valor, the Distinguished Service Cross. This award is later upgraded to a Medal of Honor (the highest award), which is presented to Inouye by the President of the United States on June 21, 2000.

Twenty-two other former 442nd members also receive the Medal of Honor. Inouye also earns a Purple Heart with cluster and a Bronze Star, along with a dozen other citations and medals.

After attending the University of Hawai‘i (1950) and George Washington University Law School (1952), Inouye becomes Honolulu’s Deputy Public Prosecutor in 1954. Inouye’s involvement in politics begins during the era of McCarthyism, which is particularly directed against those supporting unions in Hawai‘i.

When Inouye and other Democrats are accused of being Communists, Inouye responds: “We bitterly resent having our loyalty and patriotism questioned. I gave this arm to fight Fascists,” he says, shaking his empty right sleeve, adding, “...If my country wants the other one to fight Communists, it can have it.”

Inouye is elected to the House of Representatives of the Territory of Hawai‘i in 1954, re-elected in 1956, then elected to the Territorial Senate in 1958. When Inouye is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1959 after Hawai‘i became the 50th state, he becomes Hawai‘i’s first Congressman and the first Japanese-American in the U.S. House or Congress.

At Inouye’s swearing in the Speaker states “Raise your right hand and repeat after me.” Inouye proudly raises his left hand and states the oath of office.

Inouye is re-elected to the House in 1960, elected to the United States Senate in 1962, and then repeatedly re-elected to the Senate. In 1968, he serves as the Keynote Speaker at the Democratic National Convention and gains fame during the nationally televised Watergate hearings in the 1970s and later as chairman of the Senate Iran-Contra hearings.

In 1993, Inouye helps arrange the return of the island of Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. Inouye receives 76% of the votes when he wins his 7th term in 1998. He is now serving his eighth consecutive term and is the Senate’s third most senior member.

Inouye has been involved in many defense-related issues and serves on the Senate Defense Appropriations Committee, and he continues to lobby for legislation that creates job for residents of the Hawaiian Islands. Inouye’s extensive political influence has helped to allocate hundreds of millions of federal dollars to programs in the State of Hawai‘i. (See 1945-1956; 1959.)

1924—Robert Hind starts the Hind-Clarke Dairy in the area of Honolulu that is now named after him, ‘Āina-Haina.

1924—The Hawaii Building is constructed at 1133 Bethel Street in Honolulu using concrete blocks to simulate stone. The architect is H. R. Stettin.

1924, September 9—On Kaua‘i, sixteen Filipino sugarcane plantation workers and four Hanapēpē police officers die during a brutal suppression of an eight-month strike. The event later becomes known as the Hanapēpē Massacre.

The strike had begun months earlier, on April 1, 1924, when it was called for by Filipino labor leader Pablo Manlapit (a Tagalog). The Filipinos were protesting the fact that they earned only about $10 per day, which was only about half as much as Chinese and Japanese plantation workers.

The striking Filipino plantation workers were primarily Visayans (from the northern Philippines). They sometimes had disagreements with other Filipino sugar plantation workers, including the Ilocanos (from the south-central Philippines).

When two Ilocano boys rode their bikes from their camp at Makaweli to Hanapēpē on September 8, 1924 to buy shoes, they were confronted by about 100 Visayans who wanted them to join their strike.

The two Ilocano workers resisted and were held by the Visayans in a former Japanese schoolhouse. The next day police arrived to rescue the two workers being held by the strikers.

The police retrieved the two workers and were leaving the Japanese schoolhouse without any problems when the first shots were suddenly fired, which quickly led to a pitched battle lasting several hours, with police hunting down the fleeing workers including some who hid in the sugarcane fields. More than 100 workers were arrested and more than 50 are imprisoned up to four years for “rioting.”

News reports of the incident reported that the first shots were fired by workers, but later accounts and interviews determined it was unclear who began the shooting,

Some have blamed the incident on the lack of training among the sheriffs and armed police officers who were sent to retrieve the workers. These “special service” police officers were said to be predominantly local farmers and hunters (mostly Chinese, Portuguese, and Hawaiians) who were deputized as police officers, and were not prepared for such a tense and volatile situation.

More than 200 National Guard soldiers arrived in the days after the incident to keep order. A “mass funeral” was held for 15 of the 16 workers, who were buried in rough wooden caskets in one large trench dug above Hanapēpē Bay, near a Chinese graveyard where one of the sheriff deputies was buried. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1924—The Federal Immigration Act prohibits immigration from Japan. At this time Japanese immigrants total about 200,000 since they began arriving in 1885. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1925, June 14—Duke Kahanamoku performs a daring rescue offshore of Coronal del Mar, California, where he saves eight lives from a capsized boat by rescuing the distressed people on his surfboard. (See Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

1925, August 31—Commander John Rodgers and his four-man crew fly a two-engine PN-9 Navy seaplane from near San Francisco toward the Hawaiian Islands, attempting the first flight between the Hawaiian Islands and the United States Mainland.

Rodgers’ plane runs out of gas 300 miles (483 km) from Maui, and the crew uses improvised sails and tow assistance to reach Kaua‘i’s Ahukini Harbor on September 10, 1925. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1926—Aloha Tower, designed by architect Arthur Reynolds, opens on the waterfront at Honolulu Harbor, becoming the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands and Hawai‘i’s first skyscraper.

Aloha Tower is 184 feet, 2 inches (56 m) high, topped with a 40-foot (12-m) flagstaff and a 7-ton (6.4-mton) clock, and featuring balconied openings. Each side of the tower has a clock face and the word “Aloha.” (See Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

1926, November 11 (Armistice Day)—Honolulu Stadium, constructed by sports promoter J. Ashman Beaver, opens at the corner of King and Isenberg Streets Mō‘ili‘ili, Honolulu, and for the next 50 years is used for polo games, rodeos, high school football games, baseball games, boxing, stock car racing, track and field, hula festivals, spiritual crusades, and even an aquacade featuring Olympian Buster Crabbe.

Honolulu Stadium was sometimes filled with as many as 30,000 people, though it was only built to hold 24,000. Sports stars performing in the stadium included Jesse Owens, Babe Ruth, and Lou Gehrig.

A Hawaiian Baseball League was assembled to play against Connie Mack’s Major League All-Stars, which included Lou Gehrig, who hit a homerun out of the stadium, and Babe Ruth, who hit two doubles. The Hawaiian team lost 8-1.

The Hawaiian Warriors professional football team used Honolulu stadium as did the minor league professional baseball team Hawaiian Islanders. Musical performers in Honolulu Stadium included Irving Berlin and Elvis Presley.

The University of Hawai‘i Warriors football team used Honolulu Stadium until Aloha Stadium opened in 1975 in Hālawa. The structure eventually fell into disrepair and was dubbed the Termite Palace before being demolished in 1976 when Aloha Stadium opened. Honolulu Stadium was replaced with Stadium Park.

1926—The Territorial Office Building opens at 425 South King Street. Designed by architect Arthur Reynolds in the Classical Revival style, the structure is also known as the Kekūanaō‘a Building, after Mataio Kekūanaō‘a, the father of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani.

1927—The Matson Navigation Company purchases the Malolo, a lavish passenger steamship and the fastest ship in the Pacific at the time, to bring visitors to Hawai‘i from the West Coast. The success of the route leads to the construction of three new, larger ships—the Mariposa, Monterey, and Lurline—between 1930 and 1932. (See 1958, Aug. 31.)

1927, February 1—The Royal Hawaiian Hotel (nicknamed the “Pink Palace”) opens in Waikīkī, with the Royal Hawaiian Band playing for 1,200 guests.

The Royal Hawaiian Hotel cost $4 million, featuring elegant chandeliers, high ceilings, pink stucco walls, and pink turrets. The hotel began the restructuring of Waikīkī’s coastline and increased Waikiki‘s reputation as an exotic playground for the rich and famous.

(See Royal Hawaiian Hotel in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

1927, March 21John Rodgers Airport, Hawai‘i’s first official civilian airfield, is dedicated in Honolulu and later renamed Honolulu International Airport. Hilo Airport is dedicated in 1928. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1927—Honolulu Hale, Honolulu’s City Hall, is built at South King and Punchbowl Streets to provide offices for the mayor and city council. Designed by architects Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), Hart Wood (1880—1957) and others, the building has pillars and arches, decorative balconies, ceiling frescoes, and a tiled roof.

Honolulu Hale is modeled after Florence, Italy’s Bargello Palace, which was built in the 13th century. The structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. (See O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Honolulu Hale, Chapter 12.)

1927—The War Memorial Natatorium is built on the waterfront at the eastern end of Waikīkī as a memorial to the 179 men and women of the Hawaiian Islands who died in World War I.

The Natatorium includes a 100-meter-long, tide-fed, saltwater pool built as a memorial to the 179 men and women of the Hawaiian Islands that died as soldiers in World War I. The memorial includes a 20-foot high Memorial Archway.

The pool at the War Memorial Natatorium is later used for training by champion swimmers such as Duke Kahanamoku and Johnny Weissmuller. The pool remains today as the largest saltwater pool in the United States, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Scheduled restoration work costing $6 million was cancelled by new Honolulu mayor Mufi Hannemann on January 3, 2005, his first day in office. (See War Memorial Natatorium in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and War Memorial Natatorium, Chapter 12.)

1927, June 28,29—Albert Hegenberger and Lester Maitland, two lieutenants in the United States Army, complete the first non-stop flight to the Hawaiian Islands (Wheeler Field at Schofield Barracks, O‘ahu) from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California) in the Fokker C-2-3 Wright 220 tri-motor plane Bird of Paradise.

The flight takes 25 hours and 50 minutes. At the time, this is the longest all-water flight. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1927, July 14—The plane of navigator Emily Bronte and pilot Ernest Smith crash lands on Moloka‘i, and Bronte and Smith become the first civilians to fly to the Hawaiian Islands from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California).

Bronte and Smith’s July 14, 1927 journey is first trans-Pacific flight by civilians, covering about 2,200 miles (3,541 km) and taking 26 hours and 36 minutes.

They originally intend to fly to Honolulu, but a fuel shortage leads to the crash landing on Moloka‘i in their 27-foot (8.2-m) monoplane named The City of Oakland. (See Smith and Bronte Landing in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1927, August 16—Eight planes leave Oakland, California for the Hawaiian Islands in the Dole Air Derby, billed as the first trans-oceanic flight race, with entrants competing for the prizes of $25,000 and $10,000, which are offered by James Drummond Dole, president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company (see 1922). This is the first race from the United States Mainland to the Hawaiian Islands.

A total of ten lives are lost when two planes crash on take-off; two planes encounter difficulties and have to turn back; and two planes disappear over the Pacific Ocean.

The winner of the trans-oceanic race is Art Goebel (with navigator William Davis) in the monoplane Woolaroc, with just 4 gallons (15 liters) of fuel to spare. Taking second place is Martin Jensen (with navigator Paul Schluter) in the Aloha. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1927—Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Note: After Lindbergh dies in 1974, he is buried (on August 26, 1974) at Palapala Ho‘omau Congregational Church near his Maui home. His wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh passes away in 2001, and is also buried there. (See Grave of Charles Lindbergh in Maui section, Chapter 2.)

1927—The Spalding House is built by Academy of Arts founder Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke. The building is named after her daughter, Alice (Cooke) Spalding, the wife of Philip E. Spalding, after he donated the house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art.

Located in Makiki Heights, the Honolulu Academy of Arts is a museum, library and educational facility. The art objects of Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke form the basis of the museum’s collection.

1927—St Francis Catholic Hospital is established in Pu‘unui, Honolulu, and named after St. Francis of Assisi.

1927—The O‘ahu Railway & Land Train Terminal opens at 325 North King Street near the piers of Honolulu Harbor. Designed by architect Bertram Goodhue, the building’s style is Spanish Mission Revival.

The Terminal structure features a somewhat open arcade area on the ground floor, stucco walls, a red tile roof, and a four-sided clock tower. The building is placed on the Hawai‘i Register of Historic Places in 1987, and the National Register in 1979

The O‘ahu Railway & Land Company, founded in 1889, was run by Benjamin Franklin Dillingham. With the proliferation of paved roads in the early 1900s, train use gradually declined.

In 1947 passenger service ended and the building was used as a bus depot, then sat empty for a time before being utilized by other businesses. A $1.6 million major renovation took place in 2001. (See 1889, Sept. 4; 1929.)

1927—The YWCA Building opens at 1040 Richards Street in downtown Honolulu. Built in the Mediterranean style, the YWCA Building consists of two structures linked by a two-story loggia, and includes an outdoor court area and 61-foot (18.6-m) swimming pool.

The entrance structure, which includes a stage and auditorium, is named Elizabeth Fuller Memorial Hall after a Hawaiian girl who died while touring with Hawaiian performers in India.

The architect of the YWCA Building is Julia Morgan, who also designed Hearst’s San Simeon in California. The YWCA Building is the first major structure in the Hawaiian Islands designed completely by women (Morgan and landscape architect Catherine Jones Richards). The structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

1928—The Army and Navy YMCA Building opens at 250 South Hotel Street, formerly the site of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel. The property is purchased by the YMCA in 1917, and then $800,000 in renovations are completed under the direction of architect Lincoln Rogers.

The building’s style is Spanish Mission Revival, somewhat resembling an Italian palazzo. The structure is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

In the 1980s, developer Chris Hemmeter purchases the property for $11 million and completes $30 million in renovations, including the addition of a four-story annex at the rear of the building.

The State of Hawai‘i purchases the building in 2000, and it now houses the collection of the Hawai‘i State Art Museum.

1928, September 18—Nineteen-year-old Myles Yutaka Fukunaga abducts and kills Gill Jamieson, the 10-year-old son of Caucasian businessman Frederick Jamieson, vice president of the Hawaiian Trust Company. Fukunaga receives $4,000 in ransom from Frederick Jamieson.

Racial tensions rise as the Japanese community is targeted during a search for the boy, who was tricked into leaving Punahou School when Fukunaga told school administrators that Gill’s mother was in a car accident.

After leaving Punahou School, Fukunaga took Gill Jamieson in a cab to Waikīkī’s Seaside Hotel, where Fukunaga worked. Behind the hotel, Fukunaga attacked the boy with a steel chisel and then choked him to death. Gill Jamieson’s body was found the following day.

A ticket agent for Oahu [O‘ahu] Transit who knew Fukunaga discovered that a serial number on a bill used by Fukunaga that matched the ransom money, and alerted the police. Five days after the murder, Fukunaga was caught when his sister took authorities to him outside a church.

Myles Yutaka Fukunaga admitted his guilt, stating that he sought revenge against Hawaiian Trust for demanding rent from his parents and threatening his parents with eviction. Myles wanted the $10,000 to help his parents and redeem his honor after shaming them with a failed suicide attempt.

National Guardsmen with bayonets were needed to control a crowd of about 20,000 people gathered around the police station when Fukunaga was brought in. Two weeks later Fukunaga was tried (with no defense witnesses called) and convicted. Fukunaga was hanged on November 19, 1929.

1928, October 8—Interisland airmail service is established.

1929—The Honolulu Advertiser Building (commonly called the “News Building”), opens at 605 Kapi‘olani Boulevard. Designed by architects Emory & Webb, the building’s style is Beaux Arts/Renaissance Revival, featuring a grand entrance with a quarried-tile staircase and enameled balusters that once graced an open gallery with a wood parquet floor.

The Honolulu Advertiser Building is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1929 and receives a major addition in 1956.

1929, May 31—Charles Kingsford-Smith and his three-person crew fly a Fokker trimotor plane called Southern Cross from Oakland, California to Australia (via Hawai‘i and Fiji), completing the first complete crossing of the Pacific Ocean by air when they arrive in Sydney on June 10.

With Patrick Gordon Taylor, Kingsford-Smith later completes the first eastbound flight from the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Mainland. (See 1934, October; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1929, November 9—Hawaiian Airways, Ltd., the first interisland airline, begins regular sightseeing trips between the Hawaiian Islands, but the company goes out of business in the following year. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1929, November 11—Inter-Island Airways Ltd. (later renamed Hawaiian Airlines), is founded by Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Sr. (1890—1968), a resident of the Hawaiian Islands and a World War I Navy pilot.

Kennedy soon begins interisland commercial air service operations using a Bellanca monoplane and two Sikorsky S-38-C seven-passenger amphibious airplanes, launching a new era of aviation in the Hawaiian Islands.

The planes initially make three weekly round trips between Honolulu’s John Rodgers Airport (now called Honolulu International Airport) and Hilo, with stops on Maui (the flight takes about 3 hours and 15 minutes). Trips to Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i are made by prior arrangement. Outrigger canoes were used to ferry passengers from the water to the shore.

Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Sr. the son of James Kennedy, an interisland shipping boss. After attending Punahou School and Stanford University, Stanley earned a Silver Star in World War I flying H-16 flying boats over the North Sea. He becomes head of Inter-Island Steam Navigation in 1932.

In 1941, Inter-Island Airways Ltd. becomes Hawaiian Airlines (the same year the 24-passenger DC-3 is introduced). (See 1941; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1929—The stock market crashes in the United States, leading to a worldwide economic depression.

1929, July 13—The Hawaii Theatre begins regular showings of sound films. (See 1922.)

1929—The Gump Building, designed by architect Hart Wood (1880—1957), opens in Waikīkī to house the art treasures of the Gump collection.

1929—The Alexander & Baldwin Building is constructed at 822 Bishop Street in downtown Honolulu. The building is constructed in memory of Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911) and Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904), the founders of the Alexander & Baldwin firm, one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies.

The architects are Charles William Dickey (1871—1942) and Hart Wood (1880—1957), and the building is notable for its recessed entry with mosaic murals.

1929—The Dillingham Transportation Building is constructed at 735 Bishop Street in Honolulu. The architect is Lincoln Rogers of San Diego, California. The building is constructed in the Italian Renaissance/Mediterranean Revival style, and the arcade and entrance lobby display different colors of bricks and marble used with Art Deco patterns and paneled beams.

A plaque on the building commemorates Benjamin Franklin Dillingham, who founded the Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway & Land Co. (See 1889, Sept. 4; 1927.) The family’s connection to transportation also shows in the twisted-rope decorations lining the street openings.

The location of the Dillingham Transportation Building is not far from Honolulu’s piers, and medallions on the arched entrances show sailboats and steam vessels. The building is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

1929—Lei Day becomes an official holiday of the Territory of Hawai‘i. In 1934, the Honolulu city government begins sponsoring an annual Lei Day celebration. (See Lei DayMay 1, Chapter 12.)

1929, August 10—The population of Honolulu is 114,630. The population of the Hawaiian Islands is 357,647.

1930—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 368,336 people.

1930—The North Pacific population of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae; Hawaiian name: koholā) is estimated at 6,000 animals, down from 15,000 in 1905. Improved ships and more efficient hunting methods allow greater takes of most whale species worldwide.

From 1929 and 1979, commercial whalers worldwide harvest more than two million whales (not including dolphins and porpoises). The peak of worldwide commercial whaling occurs in 1938, with a total of 54,835 whales killed (the most tons of whale taken in any year). (See Humpback Whales section, Chapter 6.)

1930—Volcanic eruptions on the island of Hawai‘i create lava flows that threaten the town of Hilo. The Army Air Corps attempts to divert or disperse the lava flows by dropping bombs on the advancing lava. This happens again in 1940.

1930—Mary Foster (1844-1930) wills 6 acres (2.4 ha) at Nu‘uanu Avenue and Vineyard Boulevard in downtown Honolulu for a city park and botanical garden (now called Foster Botanical Gardens). The garden was originally planted by William Hillebrand (1821-1886), a Prussian doctor who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1851 (see 1851) and became a royal physician working at Queen’s Hospital. (See 1822, April.)

Hillebrand was also a member of the Privy Council of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and a famous botanist whose 1888 book became the best source regarding Hawaiian flora.

Hillebrand experimented with various plants, animals, and birds, including many non-native species. He bought the property in 1855 from Queen Kalama [Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama [Kamālama]], the wife of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). (See 1851; 1890.)

1930—Duke Kahanamoku names Papanui surfing spot near Waikīkī. It is known as a place where big boards are ridden (Papanui means “big board”).

1930—The C. Brewer Building is constructed at 827 Fort Street in Honolulu. The architect are Meyers, Murray & Phillips of New York. The building’s style is Mediterranean.

1930—The first radio broadcast to California from the Hawaiian Islands takes place when KGMB transmits a ten-minute Christmas program. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1931—The Honolulu Police Station (now City Departments) is constructed at 842 Bethel Street (at Merchant Street), replacing the 1886 police station. The Honolulu Police Station is built at a cost of $235,000 and is used by the Honolulu Police Department until they move to the old Sears store in 1967. Judges chambers are located on the second and third floors.

Designed by architect Louis E. Davis, the style is Spanish Colonial Revival, also called Spanish Mission Revival. The building is notable for its interior tilework (ceramic tile wainscoting) and cornice-work as well as wrought iron and cast-concrete balconies, window grilles made of perforated concrete and metal, a coffered wooden ceiling, and an exterior staircase.

The station’s front door is more than 18 feet (5.5 m) tall, and adorned with terra cotta scrolls and columns. Eleven tons (10 mtons) of Roja Alacante marble for the interior of the Honolulu Police Station came from France, and the doors were made from Philippines mahogany.

Previously a brick building was on the same site, and had cells in the basement. The lot was originally purchased by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] in 1885. The building is placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

[Photograph]

1931, September 12—Thalia Massie, the wife of a U.S. Navy lieutenant, is beaten and sexually assaulted after a party at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn. Five accused Japanese and Hawaiian men are later set free due to lack of evidence and a deadlocked jury, fueling racial tensions in Honolulu and tensions between the military and local residents, garnering national attention.

Massie’s husband and others kill one of the accused men and are indicted for second degree murder, but convicted only of manslaughter and their sentences commuted. These events contribute to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come. (See The Massie Trial, Chapter 12.)

1931, September 13—The Ala Wai Golf Course opens at 404 Kapahulu Avenue in Honolulu. Initially the course consists of just nine holes, with another nine holes opening in 1937. Seven front-nine holes of the Ala Wai Golf Course are redesigned and realigned in 1989.

1931A 16½-hour Army glider plane flight taking off from the Kāne‘ohe experimental grounds is completed by Lieutenant John C. Crain in a glider designed by Lieutenant W. A. Cocke Jr.. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1932, August 10—Swimmer and Hawaiian resident Clarence “Buster” Crabbe competes at the Los Angeles Olympics, winning a gold medal in the 400-meter freestyle. Crabbe was Hawai‘i’s only medallist in the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, winning a bronze in the 1,500-meter freestyle.

1933—The amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production reaches a peak, totaling more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha). About 96 percent of the sugar crop is controlled by the “Big Five” companies: Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1933, November 1—The last electric trolley runs in Honolulu as buses become the predominant mode of public transit. (See Public Transportation, Chapter 12.)

1933, November 2—Interisland radio telephone service is established in the Hawaiian Islands by The Mutual Telephone Company. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1934—Duke Kahanamoku is elected Sheriff of the City and County of Honolulu. He will serve in this capacity for a total of 26 years, from 1934 to 1960. (See Duke Kahanamoku section, Chapter 3.)

1934, July 26—Franklin Delano Roosevelt becomes the first United States President to visit the Hawaiian Islands, arriving in Honolulu aboard the cruiser Houston.

1934—Varney Memorial Fountain is built on the University of Hawai‘i’s Mānoa campus using money collected from the former students of Ada S. Varney, who taught at the Territorial Normal Training School from 1911-1929.

1934—Lieutenant Colonel Horace M. Hickam dies in Fort Crockett, Texas, in an airplane accident. Later an Air Force base in Honolulu is named after him.

1934—MacKenzie State Park is established in the Puna district on the island of Hawai‘i, and named after forest ranger Albert J. MacKenzie.

1934—Honolulu’s Central Fire Station, designed by engineer John Young and architect Charles Dickey, opens at 104 South Beretania Street, becoming the headquarters of the Honolulu Fire Department. The building’s style is Moderne, with elements of Art Deco (e.g., the aluminum garage doors).

The two-story Central Fire Station building is a large rectangular structure, five bays wide, including three garage bays in the middle, and a hose tower at the rear of the building. Later additions increase office space. The building has louver windows, and a balcony on one end of the structure.

The Central Fire Station is placed on the National and Hawai‘i Registers of Historic Places in 1980.

1934, October—Charles Kingsford-Smith and Patrick Gordon Taylor fly a single-engine Lockheed Altair named Lady Southern Cross from Brisbane, Australia to Oakland, California (via Fiji and Honolulu), completing the first eastbound flight from the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Mainland, arriving in Oakland on November 3, 1934. (See 1929, May 31; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1935, January 11, 12—Amelia Earhart completes the first solo flight from the Hawaiian Islands (Wheeler Field, O‘ahu) to the United States Mainland (Oakland, California). Earhart’s plane is a single-engine Lockheed Vega monoplane. Less than three years earlier, Earhart had become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, completing the flight on May 20-21, 1932.

On May 20, 1937, Earhart begins her second attempt to fly around the world, taking off from Oakland, California. She disappears on July 2, 1937 after taking off with navigator Fred Noonan from Lae, New Guinea on the way to Howland Island, an atoll 2,556 miles (4,113 km) southwest of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1935, April 17—The 19-ton (17-mton), 32-passenger amphibian Pan American Clipper Ship makes its pioneer flight from Alameda, California to the Hawaiian Islands with no passengers, landing at Pearl Harbor after a 19 hour and 48 minute flight (an average flight speed of about 140 miles per hour (225 kilometers per hour).

The pilot, Captain Edwin Musick, and his crew of five, are greeted by about 2,500 people including Governor Joseph B. Poindexter (1869—1951). (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1935, July 3—The Hawaii Calls radio series begins. Webley Edwards produces and directs the show from beachside at Waikīkī’s Royal Hawaiian Hotel and later the Moana Hotel (now the Sheraton Moana Surfrider), Hawaii Calls features top Hawaiian music, including live performances by many top Hawaiian artists.

The show is broadcast on hundreds of radio stations all around the world and runs until 1975, making it the longest running radio program ever. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1935—Congress passes the National Labor Relations Act, opening the way for the systematic organization of unions. This eventually has profound impacts on business and industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

1935—A dockworker’s strike in Hilo is instigated by a local branch of the ILA, an international longshore union. The strike leads to the reinstatement of some workers.

The event is significant in the formation of the International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU), which eventually has major political and labor influence in the Hawaiian Islands.

1935, November—Pan American World Airways begin mail service across the Pacific Ocean. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1935—Five-year-old actress Shirley Temple visits the Hawaiian Islands.

1936—Father Damien’s body is exhumed in Moloka‘i and sent to Belgium. Bones from Father Damien’s hand are given to a delegation of former patients at Kalaupapa, and the bones are reinterred on Moloka‘i.

(See 1995, June 4; also see Damien Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2.)

1936, February 19—Hawai‘i’s first traffic signal is installed in Honolulu at the intersection of Nu‘uanu Avenue and Beretania Street.

1936, October 21, 22—Pan American World Airways flies a Martin M-130 flying boat, the Hawaii Clipper, from San Francisco to Honolulu with seven customers who pay $360 each (one-way), for the 21 hour and 33 minute flight. The plane has a range of 3,200 miles (5,150 kilometers) and can carry 52 passengers.

The plane’s cabin resembles a luxury hotel. Dinner is served on linen tablecloths with fine china. After dinner passengers play bridge and then sleep in plush rooms.

Pan American soon runs twelve flights daily in and out of Honolulu on their “luxury flying boats,” and also run flights from San Francisco to Manila, via Honolulu. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1938—Hemenway Hall is built at the University of Hawai‘i Mānoa. It becomes the student union building, and is named after Board of Regents member Charles Reed Hemenway, who served at the post from 1910 to 1940.

1938—The Wo Fat Restaurant Building is constructed at 115 North Hotel Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown district. The architect is Y. T. Char. This building was reconstructed after being damaged by fire twice (including in 1900), and the current building is considered “Pidgin-Chinese” architectural style.

1938, August 1—The Hilo Longshoremen’s Association goes on strike against the Inter-Island Steamship Navigation Company, and police attack the striking workers at Hilo wharf with bayonets, guns, tear gas and hoses, injuring 51 people.

The event comes to be known as “Bloody Monday,” leading to strikes and violence spanning over a two-year period and shutting down the docks of the Inter-Island Steamship Company. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1939—The Territory of Hawai‘i leases the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1939—The Emerald Building is constructed at 1148 Bishop Street in Honolulu. The building’s Moderne design is produced by architect Alfred Preis.

1940—Hawai‘i’s first escalator, going up only, begins operating at the Honolulu’s House of Mitsukoshi department store at King and Bethel Streets.

1940, November 5—A general election plebiscite favors statehood by a 2 to 1 margin. (See Statehood, Chapter 12.)

1940—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 420,770 people.

1940—The Hawaiian Islands lead the world in pineapple production (see 1946).

1941—Inter-Island Airways Ltd. (See 1929, Jan. 30) is renamed Hawaiian Airlines and introduces a 24-passenger DC-3. After being interrupted by World War II, commercial airlines resumes service in 1945, and the first to begin is Pan American World Airways. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1941, Dec. 7, 7:55 a.m.—More than 350 Japanese bomber planes attack Pearl Harbor. Deaths of United States military personnel total 2,323 people. Sixty civilians are also killed in the attack, and another 1,178 people are wounded.

Eight huge battleships are sunk or damaged, along with three light cruisers, three destroyers, and four smaller ships. In all, 21 United States ships are damaged (19 sunk) and 347 planes are destroyed at Pearl Harbor and other O‘ahu military sites.

1,177 men perish in the fiery sinking of the U.S.S. Arizona, which was at its moorings on Battleship Row and sunk in just nine minutes after being hit by a bomb. Nine hundred crew members of the Arizona remain entombed in the sunken vessel. United States anti-aircraft guns respond to the warplanes 15 minutes after the start of the bombing, and 29 Japanese planes are destroyed.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is considered an act of war, and brings the United States into World War II. (See Pearl Harbor, Chapter 12.)

1941, Dec. 7, 4:30 p.m.—Martial Law is declared by Territorial Governor Joseph B. Poindexter (1869—1951) in a proclamation signed by Hawai‘i’s Territorial Government. General Walter D. Short takes over the powers of the governor.

Martial Law is not lifted until October 19, 1944, imposing many restrictions on residents, including enforced blackouts (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) with blackout wardens patrolling neighborhoods. Many Japanese are arrested and interned under suspicion of espionage or sabotage, though none are ever found guilty.

One Japanese flyer lands on Ni‘ihau, leading to the only armed combat to take place in the Hawaiian Islands during the war. The flyer is killed by Ni‘ihau resident Benehakaka Kanahele. (See Martial Law, Chapter 12.)

1941, December 30—Japanese submarines attack the Hawaiian Islands, shelling the ports of Kahului, Nāwiliwili, and Hilo.

1941—Despite objections by native Hawaiians, the United States Navy gains exclusive use of the island of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1942, January 28—In Hawaiian waters, a Japanese submarine torpedoes an Army transport ship, the Royal T. Frank, killing 21 people.

1942, March 2—A lone Japanese plane bombs Honolulu. Throughout the Hawaiian Islands there is a general fear of being attacked by Japan.

1942, May 10—A significant eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i sends lava flows toward Hilo, threatening Army facilities and leading the Army to attempt to divert the lava flows by dropping bombs on the advancing lava.

1942, June 4—American fighter pilots and dive bombers sink four carriers of the Japanese naval fleet near Midway Atoll in the Battle of Midway. Japan’s naval fleet was attempting to secure Midway Atoll, which is about 1,309 miles (2,107 km) northwest of Honolulu. (See Midway Atoll in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands section, Chapter 3.)

The following day (June 5), United States Admiral Chester William Nimitz (1885—1966), the commander of the Pacific Fleet, announces the victory over the Japanese Fleet at Midway.

The Battle of Midway becomes a turning point of World War II, securing Midway as a strategic Navy base location for the duration of the war and providing a strategic port location for submarines and ships.

During this time about 1,500 people live on Midway Atoll, which has a total area of about 2.5 square miles (6.5 sq. km). (See Midway Atoll section, Chapter 2; and The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1942—A Presidential Order allows eviction of residents of O‘ahu’s Mākua Valley.

1942—Scenes from Song of the Islands, a Betty Grable-Victor Mature movie, are filmed on Hawai‘i Island. Also starring Hilo Hattie, this is the first all-color feature film using scenes from the Hawaiian Islands, and also stars Hilo Hattie.

1942, Summer—Approximately 1,300 Americans of Japanese ancestry in the Hawaiian Islands travel to Wisconsin’s Camp McCoy for training, and then form the 100th Infantry Battalion, which later becomes part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and is known as the “Purple Heart Battalion.” (See 1944; and The 442nd/100th, Chapter 12.)

1943, February 1—The government announces the formation of the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team comprised of Nisei (second generation Japanese-American) volunteers who want to demonstrate their loyalty to the U.S. despite the harsh racism they experience in the wake of the Pearl Harbor attack.

About 10,000 Hawai‘i Nisei volunteer within days, compared to just 1,256 from the United States Mainland. (See The 442nd/100th, Chapter 12.)

1943—Thirty-year-old Richard Palmer Smart becomes the sole owner of Hawai‘i Island’s Parker Ranch, the second largest ranch in the United States at more than a half million acres. (See Parker Ranch, Chapter 12.)

1944, February 13—The United States Navy submarine rescue vehicle U.S.S. Macaw runs aground at Midway Atoll. It had been on a mission to retrieve the submarine U.S.S. Flier when bad weather caused the grounding of the ship. A crew manned the ship’s pumps until a March storm finished off the vessel.

1944, June—The 100th Infantry Battalion joins ranks with the 442nd Regimental Combat Team in Italy, and in October of 1944, the 442nd/100th breaks through German forces and liberates the French towns of Biffontaine and Bruyeres from the Nazis.

The 442nd/100th, which was comprised mostly of Hawai‘i’s Nisei soldiers, fought in Italy before participating in the invasion in southern France. For their heroic efforts despite heavy losses in Italy, France, and Germany, the 442nd became known as the “Purple Heart Battalion.” The motto of the 442nd was “Go For Broke,” a Hawaiian slang term referring to risking everything.

The 442nd/100th rescued 211 members of the “Lost Battalion,” a Texas Battalion (1st Battalion, 141st Infantry Battalion, 36th Infantry Division), in Biffontaine, losing more than half of their own soldiers in the process—800 soldiers in a one month period.

The “Lost Battalion,” known as the “Alamo Regiment” was trapped behind enemy lines for five days, surrounded by Germans and out of food and ammunition. The rescue of the “Lost Battalion” was considered a pivotal battle in the war, and one of the most famous battles of military history.

The 442nd/100th, which eventually became the most decorated unit in United States history, earning more than 18,000 total awards for their stellar war performance record, and their valorous fighting (despite suffering high casualty rates) in Italy, Germany, and France.

Awards given to the 442nd included 9,486 Purple Hearts, 52 Distinguished Service Crosses, 8 Distinguished Unit Citations, and 21 Congressional Medals of Honor. (See The 442nd/100th, Chapter 12.)

1944-1946—Five thousand Italian prisoners of war are held at four locations on O‘ahu: Schofield, Kalihi Valley, Kāne‘ohe, and Sand Island. The prisoners had been captured in 1943 by the British in North Africa. In all, approximately 50,000 Italian P.O.W.’s captured in North Africa were shipped to the United States.

1945, June—About 250,000 U.S. Army troops are in the Hawaiian Islands. Around this time there are also up to 250,000 Navy and Marine Corps members in the Hawaiian Islands. Millions of servicemen pass through the Hawaiian Islands on their way to combat areas in the Pacific.

1945, August 15—Victory in Japan Day (“V-J Day”) is declared after the United States drops nuclear bombs on Japan in Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9). The Japanese officially surrender on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri battleship on September 2, 1945. (See 1945, Sept. 2; and Pearl Harbor; and The U.S. Military.)

1945, September 2—The forces of Japan officially surrender on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri battleship (now berthed at Pearl Harbor’s Battleship Row). (See U.S.S. Missouri in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1945-1956—After World War II ends, the Hawaiian statehood movement grows. Control of economic, political and social life is dominated by Caucasian and Republican corporate interests. These interests are strengthened by trading and sugar firms, including the “Big Five”: Theo H. Davies & Co.; Amfac; C. Brewer; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke.

Unions increase in numbers and power, with their largely non-Caucasian membership laying the foundation for a change to Republican dominance. The International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union signs its first agricultural contract.

Senator Daniel Inouye and other World War II veterans return to the Hawaiian Islands with many ideas for change. Many attend law school and start businesses, and when they find the Republicans non-responsive, they build the Democrats into a powerful political force.

1946, April 1—An earthquake in the Aleutian Islands generates a tsunami that kills 159 people in Hilo and Laupāhoehoe on the island of Hawai‘i. The tsunami destroys 500 buildings in Hilo, where 96 people are killed.

The third tsunami wave is reported to be the biggest of some 15 waves that sweep inland, killing people and destroying property. Water surges as high as 56 feet (17 m) above sea level in some places in the Hawaiian Islands, and more than 33 feet (10 m) above sea level in Hilo.

In addition to the 500 homes and businesses destroyed, 1,000 more are damaged, causing an estimated $26 million damage in all, including railroads, bridges, piers and ships. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4 and Chapter 12.)

1946, July 26—Honolulu publisher Rudy Tongg founds Trans-Pacific Airlines, with the first flight carrying 21 passengers to Hilo from Honolulu. The company is renamed Aloha Airlines in 1958.

1946, August 15—A tribute to Hawai‘i’s World War II veterans is held on O‘ahu at Kapi‘olani Park, and attended by more than 80,000 people. The ceremony includes the official returning to the territory of the colors of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1946—Nine pineapple companies operate nine canneries and 13 plantations on 60,000 acres (24,281 ha), employing up to 20,000 people. Pineapple production is the second largest industry in the Hawaiian Islands, with products valued at 75 million dollars. (See The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

1946, September 1—The “Great Hawai‘i Sugar Strike” occurs when 28,000 workers from 33 sugar plantations go on a statewide strike against the Hawai‘i Employers Council. The ILWU represents the strikers, and the strike lasts 79 days.

The union is victorious, and ILWU national chief Harry Bridges states that Hawai‘i is no longer a feudal colony. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1946, October 17—One of O‘ahu’s oldest sugar plantations, the Waianae Company Ltd., announces that it will cease operations and sell its land, which totals about 10,000 acres (4,047 ha). (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1947—Gabby Pahinui begins recording music, eventually becoming one of Hawai‘i’s most influential slack-key guitarists. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

1947, August 16—An Army B-17 crashes into the ocean about 45 miles (72 km) off Barbers Point, O‘ahu, killing 10 of the 13 aboard, including the ranking United States diplomat in Japan, George Atcheson Jr.

The plane was scheduled to land at Hickam about 35 minutes after the time of the crash. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1948—Seven Hawaiians win Olympic medals in weightlifting and swimming.

1948, September 10—Tripler Army Hospital on O‘ahu is dedicated by the United States Army. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1948, October 26Captain Paul Ramsey pilots the first jet aircraft flight in the Hawaiian Islands, flying the Lockheed TO-1 Shooting Star from Barbers Point Naval Air Station to Honolulu and back in 25 minutes. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1948, December—Young naval officer Jimmy Carter is stationed at Pearl Harbor with the submarine USS Pourfret. The future President Carter lived near Nimitz Gate with his wife Rosalyn until 1951.

1949—Scientists at Pōhakuloa on Hawai‘i Island begin raising extremely endangered nēnē (Hawaiian geese) in captivity. England’s Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust also begins raising the birds in 1951.

The efforts are eventually a great success, with more than 2,000 nēnē raised in captivity between 1960 and 1990, and released on Kaua‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island. (See Nēnē section in Native Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter; and Nēnē—The Hawaiian Goose, Chapter 12.)

1949, September 2—The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is dedicated at Pūowaina (Punchbowl) on the fourth anniversary of V-J Day in a ceremony attended by about 10,000 people.

Today the Cemetery is the final resting place of more than 33,000, including 776 victims of the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack. (See 1986, January 28.)

1949, September 2A new airport opens in Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1949, May 1—The “Great Hawaiian Dock Strike” occurs when the International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU), led by regional director Jack Hall, goes on strike against Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies: Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke.

The strike shuts down the docks as the union demands wage parity with workers on the United States Mainland. The strike lasts more than five months, crippling the flow of goods and food to Hawai‘i, which is almost totally dependent on shipping.

The strike bankrupts many small businesses and results in statewide food shortages. Labor organizers are accused of participation in a Communist plot (this is during the McCarthy era).

The dock strike ends on October 23, 1949 when return-to-work agreements are signed by the ILWU and six waterfront companies. The parties involved ask the government to end the seizure of docks in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1950—The population of the Territory of Hawai‘i is documented at 499,794 people, and about 85% of these are United States citizens.

About one-third of the population of the Hawaiian Islands is Caucasian, one-third Japanese, and 12% are part Hawaiian, with only about 2% pure Hawaiian. About 10% of the population is Filipino, and there are also a small number of Chinese, North Koreans, and Puerto Ricans. (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

1950, April 1—The House Un-American Activities Committee holds hearings at ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu to investigate alleged Communist infiltration of the labor movement, issuing subpoenas to 70 people including Honolulu ILWU leader Jack Kawano, who refuses to testify along with 38 others.

The “Reluctant 39” are charged with contempt of Congress, but the United States Supreme Court later throws out the charges. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1950, June 25—North Korea invades South Korea, beginning the Korean War. The United States sends troops to the conflict, including an estimated 17,000 Hawaiian residents, of which 341 are killed with another 79 missing in action. The war ends on July 27, 1953. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1950, July 4—The United States Treasury Department presents the Hawaiian Islands with an exact (but smaller) replica of the Liberty Bell, which now sits in front of the State Capitol Building in Honolulu on Richards and Beretania Streets.

1950, August 15-17—Hurricane Hiki hits Kaua‘i, bringing 70 mi/hr (113 km/hr) winds, causing $200,000 damage, and killing one person.

1950, November 11The Hāna Airport on Maui is dedicated. A Trans-Pacific Alohaliner becomes the first plane to land at the new airport. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1950, November 27—December 9—The United States First Marine Division engages in what is later known as a legendary battle feat: a fighting withdrawal from the Chosin Reservoir.

Facing temperatures as low as -40 Fahrenheit and huge numbers of Chinese troops, the United States forces inflict heavy damage on ten Chinese infantry divisions.

Also involved is Hawai‘i’s first infantry unit, the 32nd Infantry Regiment (named, “The Queen’s Own” by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in 1916).

1950—An eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i lasts for 23 days, taking only about three hours to reach the ocean in the South Kona area. Many homes and ranches are destroyed.

1951—By this date the population of the endemic nēnē (Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian goose), is down to only about 30 birds in the wild, along with some captive birds in European and American zoos. (See Nēnē section in Native Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 7.)

1951—By this date the population of the endemic nēnē (Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian goose), is down to only about 30 birds in the wild, along with some captive birds in European and American zoos. (See Nēnē section in Native Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 7.)

1951, August 28—Seven union organizers, including Hawai‘i’s regional director, are indicted for violating the Smith Act, which involves advocating the use of force or violence to overthrow the United States government.

The conviction of the seven men in 1953 leads to an all-Islands walkout of union members. The “Hawai‘i Seven” verdict is overturned in 1958 after the United States Supreme Court rules that the teaching of Communism is not illegal. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1952—The Convair 340 airplane provides the first pressurized and air-conditioned cabins used in the Hawaiian Islands, and then in 1958, Hawaiian Airlines purchases a four-engine DC-6 for trans-Pacific military charters.

In 1966, the first interisland jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, is introduced. (See 1929, Jan. 30; 1941; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1952, December 1—The first scheduled television show in the Hawaiian Islands is broadcast by station KGMB-TV. The programming began with a series of live interviews, followed by a Gene Autry movie. (See 1957, May 5; and Communication, Chapter 12.)

1952—Three Hawaiian residents win gold medals in the Helsinki Olympics, including William Woolsey (800-meter freestyle relay); Ford Konno (1,500-meter freestyle); and Yoshio Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke).

1953—From Here to Eternity, based on the novel of the same name by James Jones, is filmed on O‘ahu and includes three weeks of filming at Schofield Barracks. The movie stars Deborah Kerr, Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, and Frank Sinatra.

From Here to Eternity takes place before the Pearl Harbor attack and involves a private who is punished for not boxing on his unit’s team. Meanwhile, his captain’s wife falls in love with the second in command.

Sinatra won an Academy Award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his role as the tough Italian Maggio who had strong convictions and refused to be broken. From Here to Eternity received 13 Academy Award nominations, winning eight.

1953, February 20—President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order placing the island of Kaho‘olawe under the Secretary of the Navy’s jurisdiction, for use by the Navy.

1953—A new Hawai‘i State Archives is constructed on the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace behind the Old Archives Building (Kana‘ina Building), which was built in 1906 (See 1906, Aug. 23.)

The Hawai‘i State Archives allows public access to important historical documents of Hawai‘i’s past, including historical photographs and documents, private papers, records, manuscripts, maps, books, and items from various collections, including the Captain Cook Memorial Collection.

The Archives also contains approximately 100,000 photographs, 1,800 maps, and 9,000 books, many of which contain past government publications. Many papers associated with the Hawaiian Kingdom (before 1893), the Republic of Hawai‘i (1893-1900), the Territorial Government (1900-1959), and the government of the State of Hawai‘i (1959-present) are found in the Archives.

The records span all aspects of the government, including the Executive Branch, Legislature, and Judiciary. The Governors’ Records span from 1900 to the present and include press releases, speeches, and personal papers.

Catalogs and indexes in the Reference Room include the Computerized Library Catalog, which makes it easy to locate information and photos.

In 1959, when officials decide that State of Hawai‘i buildings should have Hawaiian names, the new Hawai‘i State Archives building is renamed Kekāuluohi Building after King Lunalilo’s mother, Kekāuluohi (Miriam ‘Auhea, 1794-1845), who was the mother of King Lunalilo and also Kuhina Nui (Premier) of the Hawaiian Kingdom from 1839 to 1845 during the reign of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli).

(See Hawai‘i State ArchivesKekāuluohi Building in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1953—The Korean War ends.

1954—Proponents of statehood gather 150,000 signatures on a petition, on a roll of blank newsprint that is 3 miles (4.8 km) long on Honolulu’s Bishop Street.

1954—Japanese-Americans returning from World War II lead a “Democratic Revolution.” Many of these returning veterans are distinguished members of the renowned 442nd Infantry Regiment. Democrats gain a majority in the Territorial House of Representatives.

Two years later they win both Houses, and their overriding goal is statehood. The Democrats also favor liberal labor benefits, land reform, and equality in education. (See The Democratic Revolution, Chapter 12.)

1954, May 3—A polio epidemic in the Hawaiian Islands, the second in less than two years, is declared by the Territorial Health Department.

1954—The Caine Mutiny is filmed in the Islands. Starring Humphrey Bogart, the story involves a mutiny aboard the World War II vessel U.S.S. Caine stationed at Pearl Harbor, and the court-martial that follows.

Bogart was nominated for an Academy Award in the Best Actor category for his portrayal of Lieutenant Commander Queeg.

1955—Mister Roberts is filmed in the Islands, starring Henry Fonda in an adaptation of his Broadway hit. Fonda plays Lieutenant Doug Roberts, the chief cargo officer of the supply ship Reluctant during the last few months of World War II.

Jack Lemmon plays Roberts’ friend, Ensign Frank Pulver, while James Cagney is the Reluctant’s surly captain.

1955—Mormons establish the Latter Day Saints Church College of Hawai‘i in Lā‘ie. Dedicated in 1958, the school becomes a branch campus of Provo, Utah’s Brigham Young University in 1974. (See Mormons in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1955—Pineapple production in the Islands peaks, with 76,700 acres planted. (See The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

1955—The worst air disaster in the history of the Hawaiian Islands occurs when a military transport plane crashes in the Wai‘anae Mountains, killing all 66 passengers.

1955—Hawai‘i’s Territorial Senate debates a resolution favoring statehood.

1955, December—Final approval is given by the Hawai‘i Aeronautics Commission for a new jet-age terminal to be built on the mauka (mountain) side of the Honolulu Airport. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1956—Tommy Kono wins his second Olympic gold medal in weightlifting in Melbourne, Australia. Kono won a gold medal in Helsinki in 1952, and was World Champion every year from 1953 to 1959.

During his career Kono set 26 world records and 70 Olympic records. Kono had moved to Honolulu in 1955 and he opened a gym in Wailuku, Maui in 1964.

1955—Church College of Hawai‘i, a Mormon college, is established in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu.

By 1971, the college has about 1,300 students, many of whom come from various Pacific Islands. In 1974 the school becomes a branch campus of Provo, Utah’s Brigham Young University. Now known as BYU-Hawai‘i, it is a 4-year college with an enrollment of about 2,000 undergraduates.

Polynesian shows put on by the college in the 1950s lead to the college’s 1963 construction of the Polynesian Cultural Center, run by the college and staffed by students. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1955, Dec 13—The first commercial jet to come to Honolulu Airport is a swept-wing Comet III, a British transport arriving from Fiji. The jet was on an around-the-world flight.

1956—Sinclair Library is completed on University of Hawai‘i’s Mānoa campus. The library is named after the University’s fourth president, Gregg M. Sinclair, who serves at the post from 1942 to 1955.

1956—Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink is elected to the Territorial House of Representatives, becoming the first Asian-American woman to serve in the Legislature. (See 1964; 2002, Sept. 28.)

1956—MacNeil Hall Observatory and Science Center is built at Honolulu’s Punahou School, and named after Punahou science teacher Wilbur MacNeil. (See 1841.)

1956—The Waikīkī Shell opens in Kapi‘olani Park on the eastern end of Waikīkī.

1956, June 28—Mauna Loa Observatory is dedicated at an elevation of 11,141 feet on Mauna Loa Volcano, and scientists at the Observatory begin monitoring climate change and atmospheric data.

Today the Observatory is well known for its consistent monitoring of the rapidly rising levels of carbon dioxide thought to contribute to global warming, and researchers at the Observatory continue to monitor more than 50 atmospheric chemicals.

1957, March 9—An earthquake in the Aleutian Islands generates a tsunami that destroys 75 homes on Kaua‘i’s northern shore. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4.)

1957—The Vietnam War begins when the communist regime of North Vietnam invades South Vietnam. The conflict lasts until 1975, with an estimated 13,000 residents of the Hawaiian Islands participating in the war, and 221 dying as a result.

O‘ahu’s Tripler Army Medical Center treats many of those wounded in the Vietnam War, and the Hawaiian Islands become a place of recuperation for thousands of servicemen.

1957—The International Marketplace opens on Kalākaua Avenue in Waikīkī, featuring restaurants, shops, kiosks, and eateries centered around a hundred-year-old banyan tree.

1957, May 5—For the first time, a color television program is broadcast in the Hawaiian Islands. The program is shown by channel KHVH-TV and includes color slides and a Bugs Bunny cartoon.

Many residents watch the shows in the lobby of the Hawaiian Village Hotel, and they are also shown nearby at the aluminum-dome auditorium. Only about 50 residents of O‘ahu own color televisions at the time of the first broadcast in 1957. (See 1952, Dec. 1; and Communication, Chapter 12.)

1957, May—The first two tunnels on the Nu‘uanu Pali Highway open to one way traffic, providing passage through the Ko‘olau Mountains from Nu‘uanu Valley to the windward side of O‘ahu. All four lanes are open to two way traffic on August 1, 1961.

The Wilson Tunnels of the Likelike Highway also opened in 1961 to provide passage through the Ko‘olau Mountains.

The Pali Highway follows the route of the ancient Pali trail long used by farmers carrying produce from the fertile windward side to the port city of Honolulu. The steep, winding Pali trail was widened and paved with rocks in 1845, widened again in 1862 to accommodate horses, dynamited and paved in 1896, then widened again in 1900 to accommodate automobiles.

1957—The communist regime of North Vietnam invades South Vietnam, beginning the Vietnam War.

The Vietnam War lasts until 1975, with 221 Hawaiian residents dying in the conflict due to hostile action, and another 51 war-related deaths. In all, about 13,000 Hawaiian residents take part in the war. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1957, July 13The first air terminal on Moloka‘i is dedicated. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1957, September 2—William Francis Quinn (1919—2006) is selected by President Dwight Eisenhower to be the governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i. Quinn later becomes the first elected governor of the State of Hawai‘i. (See 1959.)

1957, October 8—The first message is sent to New York via an undersea telephone cable connecting the United States to the Hawaiian Islands. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1957, November 8—A Pan American Stratocruiser flying from San Francisco to Honolulu crashes into the sea about 1,000 miles (1,609 km) from O‘ahu, killing all 44 aboard.

1957, November 10—Elvis Presley makes his first appearance in the Hawaiian Islands, performing in a concert at Honolulu Stadium.

1957—Four Air Force members are killed when their six-jet B-47 bomber crashes into a Wai‘anae Range mountainside at 400 miles (644 km) per hour.

1958, August 1—An unannounced nuclear test of a nuclear rocket fired from Johnston Island sends up a fireball that creates a spectacle in the Hawaiian Islands as the nuclear flash lights up the sky to the south of the Islands creating a mild panic among some residents. (See 1958, Aug. 12.)

1958, August 12—Early in the morning a nuclear rocket fired from Johnston Island lights up the skies to the south of the Hawaiian Islands.

Unlike the previous unannounced test on August 1, there is no fireball to create a major spectacle, although this time thousands of people in the Hawaiian Islands travel to the coast to view the event. (See 1962.)

1958, August 31—The cargo ship Hawaiian Merchant, owned by Matson Navigation Company, leaves San Francisco, California for the Hawaiian Islands carrying 20 large aluminum deck-top containers that are each 24 feet (7.3 m) long. This begins a new era of shipping using stacked containers that allow mechanization of the loading and unloading processes.

In 1960, Matson’s Hawaiian Citizen goes into service as the company’s first all-container ship. (See 1882; 1908; and 1927.)

1958Trans-Pacific Airlines is renamed Aloha Airlines under company president Dr. Hung Wo Ching and his brother Hung Wai Ching, who serves on the board. The company also uses a new fleet of Jetprop F-27’s. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1959—Hawai‘i is admitted to the United States as the 50th State.

After Hawai‘i’s delegates to Congress (John Burns, Joseph Farrington, and Elizabeth Farrington) push for statehood, the measure passes the United States Senate on March 11, 1959, and then the U.S. House of Representatives on March 12, 1959.

On March 18, 1959, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Act into law, though it requires a plebiscite of Hawaiian residents for approval. This occurs on June 27, 1959 when residents of the Hawaiian Islands vote in favor of statehood, and the plebiscite passes by a huge margin (17 to 1), with only Ni‘ihau opposing it.

Hawai‘i’s first general election is held on July 28, 1859 and William Francis Quinn is elected Governor of Hawai‘i. Oren Ethelbert Long and Hiram L. Fong are elected to be the first senators. Daniel K. Inouye is elected to be the first American congressman of Japanese descent (he was born in the Hawaiian Islands) to serve in the House of Representatives.

On August 21, 1959, President Eisenhower signs the Statehood Proclamation and Hawai‘i is officially admitted as the 50th state. The push for statehood is given impetus by the desire of many residents to have more of a voice in national affairs.

At the time the Hawaiian Islands are sending some $160 million a year to the United States Mainland in federal taxes. On July 4, 1960, a 50th star is added to the flag of the United States, and Hawai‘i’s state flag is formally accepted. (See Statehood, Chapter 12.)

1959—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is about 622,000 people, with more than 240,000 annual visitors.

1959—1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of ceded lands are transferred to the State of Hawai‘i by the United States government. The lands are to be held in trust for five purposes: public education; public use; public improvements; farm and home ownership; and the betterment of Native Hawaiians.

The population of the Hawaiian Islands at this time is about 622,000 people, and there are more than 240,000 visitors to the Hawaiian Islands annually.

1959, July 3—Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy arrives in the Hawaiian Islands to serve as the keynote speaker at a Independence Day function for the Democratic Party.

1959, July 29—Qantas Empire Airways offers commercial jet service between the Hawaiian Islands, Australia, Nadi, and San Francisco on Boeing 707 aircraft, beginning with the arrival of the City of Sydney after its 4 hour and 49 minute flight from San Francisco. Greeting the plane is the Royal Hawaiian Band playing “Waltzing Matilda.”

Pan American soon offers flights from Tokyo to the west coast of the United States, stopping at Honolulu and Wake Island. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1959—Kaiser Hospital opens on O‘ahu.

1959—Kīlauea Iki (“Little Kīlauea”), a crater in the summit area of Kīlauea Volcano, displays a stunning fire show when fountains of lava erupt to heights of 1,900 feet, the highest ever recorded in the Islands. (See Historic Eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1959—Daniel Inouye is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives becoming Hawai‘i’s first Congressman and the first Japanese-American in the U.S. House or Congress. (See Daniel Inouye, Chapter 12.)

1959—Construction begins on Maui’s Kā‘anapali Resort, Hawai‘i’s first master-planned resort. Kā‘anapali Resort now includes six major hotels, four condominium resorts, two 18-hole golf courses, a shopping complex, 40 restaurants, and 30 tennis courts.

1959, August 3—The 50-acre Ala Moana Shopping Center opens at a cost of $28 million. (See Ala Moana, Chapter 12.)

1959—James Michener publishes the novel Hawaii, finishing the best-selling book on the day the United States Congress approves Hawaiian statehood. Michener took up residence in the Islands in 1949 and was active in civic affairs.

1959, August 6—Hurricane Dot passes over Kaua‘i with winds of more than 100 miles/hour and causes $20 million in damage. (See Hurricanes, Chapter 12.)

1959—Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. speaks at O‘ahu’s Punahou School.

1959—The Swordfish becomes the first nuclear submarine to homeport in Pearl Harbor. The submarine was deactivated on November 19, 1987.

1960—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 632,772 people.

1960, May 22—An earthquake in Chile, 6,600 miles (10,622 km) from the Hawaiian Islands, moves a piece of land the size of California 30 feet (9 m) in just minutes.

The tsunami waves generated by the earthquake take about 15 hours to reach the Hawaiian Islands. Hilo is hit by at least seven significant tsunami waves over a two-hour period on the morning of May 23. The third wave is the most destructive.

In Hilo Bay, the tsunami creates a bore that rushes ashore at a speed reported to be more than 37 miles per hour (60 km/hr), surging water as high as 36 feet (11 m) above sea level, killing 61 people. The tsunami also destroys 229 houses and 308 public buildings and businesses. 122 people are killed in Japan.

In all, an estimated 2,000 are killed by the tsunami, mostly in Chile. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4; and Tsunamis, Chapter 12.)

1960, July 4—A 50th star is added to the flag of the United States, and Hawai‘i’s state flag is formally accepted.

1960s—An oil refinery, two cement plants, and a steel mill are the beginnings of heavy industry in the Hawaiian Islands. Many of Hawai‘i’s utility, trading, agricultural, and insurance companies are purchased by large companies on the United States Mainland, while major corporations in the Hawaiian Islands expand their businesses to more than 30 countries.

1960—The East-West Center is established at the University of Hawai‘i to “strengthen understanding and relations between the United States and the countries of the Asia Pacific region.”

1960, August 12—The nose cone of the spacecraft Discoverer 13 is sent back to Earth from about 200 miles (322 km) above the North Pole, and then retrieved from about 250 miles (402 km) north of the Hawaiian Islands after it is spotted by aircraft from Hickam Air Force Base. This is the United States’ first recovery of a man-made object from space.

1960, August 22—The New York Philharmonic Orchestra gives its first concert in the Hawaiian Islands at the Waikīkī Shell. The orchestra is conducted by Leonard Bernstein, and about 9,000 people watch the performance.

1961—Haleakalā National Park is established in East Maui. (See Hāleakala National Park in Maui section, Chapter 2.)

1961—Orvis Auditorium is completed in Honolulu on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. The building is named after Mae Zenke Orvis, whose husband donated the building.

1961, March 25—Elvis Presley gives a concert at Honolulu’s Bloch Arena. The concert is a fundraiser for the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, and raises about $64,000 toward the $500,000 cost of the shrine.

1961, April—Elvis Presley begins filming Blue Hawaii, his most commercially successful movie. Elvis plays Chad Gates, who avoids working in his family’s pineapple business by working for a travel agency.

The Hawaiian Wedding Song is sung by Elvis in the famous wedding scene atop a canoe in the lagoon at the Coco Palms hotel. Other notable Elvis songs in the movie include Blue Hawaii, Rock-a-Hula Blues, Can’t Help Falling in Love, and Aloha ‘Oe, written by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in 1878.

Also opening in 1961 is Gidget Goes Hawaiian, starring Deborah Walley. (See 1964.)

1961—Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway & Land Company merges with Hawaiian Dredging and Construction Company to become the Dillingham Corporation. (See 1927; 1929.)

1962—John Burns is elected Governor of Hawai‘i, and for the first time Democrats control both the executive and legislative branches of the state’s government. Burns serves until 1974.

A former Honolulu police captain, Burns was formerly a U.S. Representative (see 1959) who lobbied for statehood. As governor, Burns was considered the founder of a Democratic political dynasty in the Hawaiian Islands that lasted until the election of Linda Lingle in 2002. (See The Democratic Revolution, Chapter 12.)

1962—Singer Don Ho performs at Duke’s in Waikīkī, eventually becoming one of the mostly widely known musicians from the Islands. Ho releases his first album in 1965 and becomes a staple of the Waikīkī music scene for the next 40 years, including his biggest hit, “Tiny Bubbles.” (See 2007, April 14.)

1962—The movie Donovan’s Reef is filmed on Kaua‘i and stars John Wayne, at the time Hollywood’s most popular star. Wayne plays “Guns” Donovan, a former United States Marine who opens a tropical bar in the South Pacific.

[Photograph: John Wayne on Kaua‘i]

1962, May 31 (Memorial Day)—The U.S.S. Arizona Memorial is dedicated at Pearl Harbor, positioned directly over the wreck of the U.S.S. Arizona. The Memorial honors those who died in the December 7, 1941 attack. (See The U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, Chapter 12.)

1962, October 6—The Sigma 7 spacecraft, after circling Earth six times with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra on board, plunges into the Pacific Ocean about 1,300 miles (2,092 km) north of Honolulu. The aircraft carrier Kearsarge picks up Schirra, who is then flown to O‘ahu’s Hickam Air Force Base.

1962—A nuclear bomb is detonated about 800 miles (1,300 km) from the Hawaiian Islands at Johnston Island, lighting up the Hawaiian sky. (See 1958, Aug. 1.)

1963, October 12—The Polynesian Cultural Center opens in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu. Over the years the Center expands (including a major expansion in 1975), and today it is a major O‘ahu attraction. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Mormons in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

1963—John Dominis Holt writes the essay On Being Hawaiian, considered by many to be a seminal work inspiring a cultural reawakening that comes to be known as the “Hawaiian Renaissance.”

Some of the events associated with this increasing cultural awareness are: the revival of Polynesian canoe culture and navigation; protests against the use of Kaho‘olawe by the military for bombing practice; cultural events reviving hula and ancient traditions; an increase in Hawaiian language programs in schools and universities; and inspirational works by artists, musicians, composers, writers, and political activists.

1963, June 9—President Kennedy gives a speech at the National Conference of Mayors in Honolulu, urging the mayors to help in calming the civil rights crisis occurring at the time. The President had arrived the previous day to a rousing welcome by thousands of people at the airport.

1964—The Honolulu International Center opens, including a sports arena complex, exhibit hall, and auditorium. The site is renamed Blaisdell Center in 1976.

1964—Elvis Presley (see 1961, April) films Paradise Hawaiian Style on Kaua‘i, portraying ex-airline pilot Rick Richards who runs a helicopter sightseeing business and finds romance at different Island locations.

The movie is released in 1966, and in 1967, Elvis and Priscilla Presley marry in Las Vegas, later traveling to Kaua‘i to re-enact the famous Blue Hawaii wedding scene at the Coco Palms Hotel, where Elvis renews his vows to Priscilla.

[Photograph: Elvis outrigger canoe wedding scene; Elvis on Kaua‘i]

1964—The Merrie Monarch Festival premiers as part of the Hula Festival. The Merrie Monarch Festival becomes an organized hula competition in 1971, and television coverage of the event begins in 1981. Today the Merrie Monarch is the premier hula event in the state, and also the largest.

The Merrie Monarch Festival is named in honor of King David La‘amea Kalākaua, who reigned from 1874 to 1891 and was known as the Merrie Monarch for his revival of hula and other Hawaiian customs. (See Chapter 12: The Merrie Monarch Festival; Hula and Mele; Preparing for the Dance; and The Spirit of Aloha.)

1964—One of North America’s largest earthquakes ever recorded occurs in Alaska, registering a magnitude of 8.4 on the Richter scale and generating tsunami waves that cause flooding in Kahului, Maui, and Hilo. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 12.)

1964—One of North America’s largest earthquakes ever recorded (at a magnitude of 8.4 on the Richter scale) occurs in Alaska, sending tsunami waves toward the Hawaiian Islands. The tsunamis cause flooding in Kahului, Maui when an 11-foot (3.4-m) wave arrives. Waves more than 12.5 feet (3.8 m) high arrive in Hilo.

No one dies in the Hawaiian Islands from the tsunami waves, but they also reach Alaska and California. In all, 122 people are killed (nine from the earthquake, and the rest from the resulting tsunamis). (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4.)

1964—Kuykendall Hall is built on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa in Honolulu. The building is named after Ralph S. Kuykendall (1885-1963).

1964—An $84 million undersea cable links Tokyo and the Hawaiian Islands.

1964—The Honolulu International Center opens, including a sports arena complex, exhibit hall, and auditorium. In 1976 it is renamed Blaisdell Center.

1964—The Hawai‘i Institute of Geophysics building is constructed on the University of Hawai‘i Mānoa campus.

1964—Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink becomes the first Asian-American woman elected to the U.S. Congress, serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1964 to 1976. (See 1956; 2002, Sept. 28.)

1964—Caucasians become the majority in the Hawaiian Islands for the first time.

1966—William S. Richardson is appointed Chief Justice of the Hawai‘i Supreme Court by Governor John Burns. Holding the post until 1982, Richardson leads an activist court that significantly expands native Hawaiian rights as well as public access to beaches and state waters. (See 1973.)

1966—The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae: Hawaiian name: koholā) nears extinction, and all hunting of humpback whales is prohibited in the North Pacific Ocean by the International Whaling Commission (though there is no enforcement of the rules, which are not adhered to by all countries).

At this time, the North Pacific humpback whale population probably numbers less than 1,000 whales. Worldwide, humpback populations are less than 10% of their former population. (See Humpback Whales section, Chapter 6.)

1966—Hawaiian Airlines introduces the first interisland jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, reducing inter-island travel time to one half hour or less. (See 1929, Jan. 30; 1941; 1952; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1966—Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, constructed by King Kamehameha I in 1790 near Kawaihae, Kohala on the island of Hawai‘i, is declared a National Historic Landmark. (See 1790; 1791; 1972.)

1966—Thurston Memorial Chapel is constructed on Punahou School campus in Honolulu. The Chapel is a gift of the Thurstons as a memorial to their son, Robert S. Thurston, Jr., who graduated from Punahou in 1941, and then disappeared on a military mission over the Pacific Ocean in 1945. (See 1841.)

1966, October 26—The small, drum-shaped communication satellite, officially known as Intelsat II and affectionately known as the “Lani Bird,” broadcasts the first live television show from the United States Mainland to the Hawaiian Islands. (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

1966—Sugar production in the Islands peaks, with 1,234,121 tons of raw sugar produced. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1966, July 24—Jacqueline Kennedy, the former first lady, leaves the Hawaiian Islands with her two children after a seven week vacation.

In appreciation for the privacy afforded to her during her stay in the Islands, Jacqueline Kennedy writes a letter of thanks and sends it to local newspapers, stating that “I had forgotten and my children have never known what it was like to discover a new place, unwatched and unnoticed.”

1967—The annual visitor count of the Hawaiian Islands exceeds one million people for the first time.

1968—Hawai‘i Democrats establish the nation’s first right-to-strike law for public-employee unions, strengthening a powerful union lobby that begins to significantly influence political change. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1968—Frank F. Fasi is elected as Mayor of the City and County of Honolulu. He eventually serves five consecutive terms. (See 1993, Jan.2.)

1968, January 22—Duke Kahanamoku—an Olympic champion, movie star, sheriff, and Hawai‘i’s official “Ambassador of Aloha”—passes away at the age of 77.

Thousands attend the “Beachboy” funeral ceremony, and Duke’s ashes are scattered in the waters off Waikīkī. (See Duke Kahanamoku, Chapter 12.)

1968—Eddie Aikau becomes Waimea Bay’s first lifeguard. He later saves the lives of many people, and is voted Lifeguard of the Year in 1971. (See Eddie Aikau section, Chapter 3.)

1968—The Financial Plaza of the Pacific is built at the corner of King and Bishop Streets in Honolulu. The architects are Leo S. Wou and Victor Gruen. Laurence Halprin designs the plaza.

1968—The television series Hawaii Five-O debuts on CBS, starring Jack Lord as Steve McGarrett, the head of the special law enforcement unit called Five-O.

Hawaii Five-O runs for the next twelve years, including 284 episodes viewed weekly by as many as 300 million people in 80 countries, boosting the tourism industry in the Hawaiian Islands. (See 1980.)

1969, July 26—The Apollo 11 Columbia 3 space capsule splashes down in the Pacific Ocean after returning from the first human visit to the moon. The craft carries U.S. astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin, Jr., who are picked up by the carrier USS Hornet and brought to Pearl Harbor where they are greeted by an estimated 25,000 people after the historic lunar mission.

The astronauts are able to see the crowds only through the windows of their isolation trailer, and then are kept at Pearl Harbor’s Ford Island for three days before being flown to Houston with the space capsule.

1969—The Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd. is renamed First Hawaiian Bank, and remains today as the oldest financial institution in the state. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12.)

1969—Statues of King Kamehameha I and Father Damien are placed in Washington D.C’s National Statuary Hall to honor the two men as being among the greatest of the United States’ heroes. King Kamehameha I is the only monarch in the Statuary Hall to be honored in this way.

The statue of King Kamehameha I is a duplicate of the one that stands in front of Ali‘iōlani Hale, a judiciary building in Honolulu. (See 1871), and another in front of the North Kohala Civic Center in Kapa‘au on the island of Hawai‘i (see Hawai‘i Island section, Chapter 2).

The statue of Father Damien is a duplicate of the one that stands in front of the State Capitol in Honolulu. (See O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

1969—A lava flow from the ‘Ālo‘i and ‘Alae craters (near Kīlauea Crater) approaches ‘Apua on Hawai‘i Island.

1969—The Japanese fishing vessel Kaiyo Maru No. 25 becomes shipwrecked in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands at Laysan Island.

1969Aloha Airlines replaces their fleet with Boeing 737-200s. In 1970 Pan American began flying 362-passenger Boeing 747 jumbo jets to the Hawaiian Islands from Los Angeles and San Francisco. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1970—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 769,913 people.

1970, October 9—Two thousand hotel workers represented by the ILWU go on strike in what becomes the largest hotel worker’s strike in the history of the Hawaiian Islands, lasting 75 days and ending on December 24, 2000. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1971—On the island of Hawai‘i, a lava flow from Kīlauea Volcano’s Mauna Ulu vent pours into the sea near Kealakomo (“The entrance path”[lxxvi]), adding 97 acres (39 ha) of new land to the island of Hawai‘i. Mauna Ulu means “Growing mountain.”[lxxvii] (See Recent Eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1971—First annual Pipeline Masters surf contest is held on O‘ahu’s north shore.

1971, January 1—Transit workers represented by Hawai‘i Teamsters Local 996 strike against the Honolulu Rapid Transit Company. The strike lasts for two months, inconveniencing some 70,000 commuters and leading to the creation of a city transportation system negotiated by Mayor Frank Fasi. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1971, July 1—A major strike by dockworkers on the United States West Coast and in the Hawaiian Islands begins, with about 15,000 members stopping work until October of 1971 when President Nixon halts the strike for 90 days. The strike resumes the day after Christmas and continues until February, lasting 134 days in all. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

1972, August 17—Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, constructed in 1790 by King Kamehameha I near Kawaihae, Kohala on the island of Hawai‘i, is congressionally authorized as a National Historic Site. (See 1790; 1791; 1792.)

1972, August 30—United States President Richard Nixon arrives in Honolulu for a summit meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka.

1972—The annual visitor count of the Hawaiian Islands exceeds two million people.

1973—A landmark ruling by Chief Justice of the Hawai‘i Supreme Court William S. Richardson in the McBryde Sugar Company v. Robinson court case (see 1966) declares that water supplies must remain within their originating watershed.

Richardson, of Hawaiian-Chinese-Caucasian ancestry, was Hawai‘i’s Democratic Party chairman from 1956 to 1962, and then was elected as Hawai‘i’s lieutenant governor in 1962 on the ticket with Governor John Burns before serving as Chief Justice from 1966 to 1982.

The Richardson court expanded property rights for native Hawaiians and the public, including access to beaches and state waters. Appreciated by native Hawaiians and many members of the general public, Richardson’s activist court was criticized by the legal profession and others.

Drawing inspiration from ancient Hawaiian beliefs and practices, Richardson declared that the Western concept of exclusivity was not always applicable in the Hawaiian Islands, and that the ocean, the beaches, and surface waters belonged to the people.

Richardson helped clarify the rights of native Hawaiians in gaining access to ancient sacred sites on private property for traditional practices, and determined that new land created by lava flows belonged to the state and not the nearest landowner.

The law school at the University of Hawai‘i, which Richardson helped to create, and which is now named in his honor. (See 1966.)

1973—Elvis Presley performs at O‘ahu’s Honolulu International Center (later renamed Blaisdell Center) in his Aloha From Hawaii concert. The show is broadcast live via satellite to an estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide.

1973—The first Honolulu Marathon is held.

1973, April 26—An earthquake in Hilo causes an estimated $1 million damage.

1974—George Ariyoshi is elected as governor of the State of Hawai‘i, becoming the first United States governor of Japanese-American ancestry and serving three terms.

Formerly an attorney, Ariyoshi had been elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1954 before serving as John Burns’ lieutenant governor, and then as acting governor when Burns became ill in 1973.

1974—Church College of Hawai‘i, a Mormon college established 1955 in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu, becomes a branch campus of Provo, Utah’s Brigham Young University. Today BYU-Hawai‘i is a 4-year college with an enrollment of about 2,000 undergraduates. (See 1963, October 12; 1955.)

1974—At the summit of Hawai‘i Island’s Kīlauea Volcano, Halema‘uma‘u Crater erupts, pouring lava onto the crater floor.

1974—Maui resident and famous American aviator Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974) passes away at his home in Kīpahulu near Hāna, Maui, and is buried at Palapala Ho‘omau Congregational Church. His wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh passes away in 2001, and is also buried there.

Charles Lindbergh was known affectionately as the “Lone Eagle” for his completion of the first solo flight across the Atlantic. The inscription on his granite headstone is taken from the Bible’s Psalm 139, and reads, “If I take the wings of morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea...” (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1974, August 16—The Glomar Explorer, owned by Howard Hughes, anchors off of Lahaina, Maui. The ship was used to recover part of a sunken Soviet submarine.

1975—Commercial whale-watching trips to view humpback whales begin taking place in Hawaiian waters, first off Maui and then eventually around all the major Hawaiian Islands. (See 1999).

1975, March 8—The Hōkūle‘a voyaging canoe is launched, and completes its first voyage to Tahiti in 1976. The voyaging canoe was built to show that migrating Polynesians could have sailed east against the prevailing winds. (See 1978; and The Hōkūle‘a Voyaging Canoe, Chapter 12.)

1975—A summit eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i lasts for several days, and blocks a road near the volcano’s summit.

1975, September 12—Aloha Stadium opens in Honolulu, hosting baseball and football games as well as concerts.

The ten-story-tall stadium becomes home to the University of Hawai‘i Warriors football team, and the first game takes place on September 13, 1975 when 32,247 fans watch the University of Hawai‘i Warriors play against Texas A&I.

Aloha Stadium is the first stadium in the U.S. to feature movable stands. Air cushions move the stands into different configurations for baseball and football as well as concerts.

1975, November 29—Two strong earthquakes shake the southeast region of the island of Hawai‘i. One of these earthquakes is at least a 7.2 magnitude on the Richter scale, causing a small eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, and also generating what is known as a localized tsunami.

The tsunami comes ashore near the site of an old Hawaiian village, which is now a campground area called Halapē. The ground in the area sinks some 12 feet (3.7 m), and rocks fall from the cliffs above.

The tsunami wave sweeps some campers onto a rugged lava field and washes some of them into a huge crack in the lava, killing two people and injuring many more. The tsunami also causes damage in California. (See Tsunamis, Chapter 4.)

1975—The National Guard is called to restore order at Hawai‘i State Prison after it is taken over by the prisoners.

1975—The Sugar Act expires, leading to the end of quotas and tariffs imposed to maintain prices of United States sugar. Sugar prices increase from 11 to 65 cents per pound, eventually causing the shutdown of many of sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

1975—Expiration of the Sugar Act, which had imposed a system of quotas and tariffs to maintain prices of United States sugar. In subsequent years, many sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands close.

1976, Jan. 4—The first protest occupation of Kaho‘olawe takes place to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target. Seven of the nine protesters occupying the island were arrested within hours, but two of the protesters were not caught, and remained on the island for three days.

The island is eventually returned to the State of Hawai‘i. (See 1977; 1980; 1994; also see Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1976—Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi; Hawaiian name: ‘ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua) are listed as “depleted” under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and “endangered” under the Federal Endangered Species Act. (See Monk Seals section, Chapter 6.)

1976—The steel Japanese vessel Houei Maru No. 5 becomes shipwrecked at Kure Atoll.

1976—Daniel Kahikina Akaka is elected to the United States Congress.

1977—George Jarrett Helm Jr. and James “Kimo” Mitchell disappeared during their attempt to reclaim Kaho‘olawe for native Hawaiians. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1977, September 13—Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i erupts intermittently, continuing until September 28, 1977.

1978—The Hōkūle‘a voyaging canoe (see 1976) capsizes off Moloka‘i. Eddie Aikau, a respected lifeguard, surfer, and Hawaiian waterman, paddles a surfboard toward land to get help. He is never seen again. The rest of the crew is eventually rescued. (See Eddie Aikau and Hōkūle‘a sections, Chapter 3.)

1978—Jean Sadako King becomes the State of Hawai‘i’s lieutenant governor. She is the first woman to hold the post in Hawai‘i. George Ariyoshi is elected governor for a second term.

The Office of Hawaiian Affairs is created, with the goal of improving the conditions of Native Hawaiians using revenue from ceded lands.

1978—A State Constitutional Convention is held, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs is created, and Hawaiian is declared an official language of the State of Hawai‘i (along with English).

1978—The Nā Hōkū Hanohano Awards are established to recognize excellence in the recording arts in the Hawaiian Islands. The awards are now an annual televised event presented by the Hawaiian Academy of Recording Arts (HARA).

The Nā Hōkū Hanohano category Favorite Entertainer of the Year is voted on by the public while other categories recognize musicians, songwriters, engineers, and producers, and are voted on by those in the music industry.

1978, May—St. Francis Hospital installs the first whole body computerized tomography (CT) scanner in the Hawaiian Islands.

1978, February 18—The first Ironman Triathlon competition includes a 2.4-mile ocean swim, 112-mile bike race, and 26.2 mile marathon. Twelve of the fifteen entrants complete the race.

Today the event is known as the Ironman Triathlon World Championship and 50,000 people from 50 countries compete in qualifying races to become one of up to 2,000 entrants allowed in the Championship, held each year in Kona on Hawai‘i Island.

Tens of thousands of spectators line the route to watch the race, which is also televised. More than $450,000 in prize money is awarded at the Ironman Triathlon, with first place receiving $100,000.

1978, March 16—The Hōkūle‘a voyaging canoe capsizes in large swells and gale-force winds about twelve miles off the island of Lāna‘i, forcing the crew’s 15 members to cling to the canoe’s overturned hull. Eddie Aikau volunteers to paddle his surfboard toward Lāna‘i for help and is never seen again. (See Eddie Would Go, Chapter 12.)

1979—The annual visitor count of the Hawaiian Islands exceeds four million people.

1980—A native Hawaiian group called Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana enters into an agreement with the United States Navy. The consent decree authorizes an archeological survey of the island of Kaho‘olawe as well as goat eradication, and begins clearance of weapons materials from the island’s surface, though military training on Kaho‘olawe continues.

On March 18, 1981, Kaho‘olawe is placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

 

1980—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 964,691 people.

1980-1984—There is a rapid increase in Japanese visitors to the Hawaiian Islands, as well as Japanese investors purchasing land and property, and boosting tourism in the Hawaiian Islands.

1980—The television series Hawaii Five-O ends after twelve seasons, having debuted in 1968 on CBS.

Hawaii Five-O starred Jack Lord as Steve McGarrett, the head of Five-O, a special law enforcement unit. The show was the first network series to be filmed only in the Hawaiian Islands, and also the longest-running crime drama and longest running police show.

There were 284 Hawaii Five-O episodes in all during the twelve-year run. At one point the weekly show had more than 300 million viewers in 80 countries. The show is credited with significantly boosting the tourism industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

1982—The Law of the Sea is ratified, establishing 200-mile (322-km) offshore limits for other nations.

1982—The population of the State of Hawai‘i exceeds 1 million people.

1982—Halema‘uma‘u Crater at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano on Hawai‘i Island erupts, pouring lava onto the crater floor.

Halema‘uma‘u Crater, once about 1,200 feet (366 m) deep, but since 1924 several eruptions have reduced the crater’s depth to only about 280 feet (85 m) deep. (See Historic Eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1982-83—The University of Hawai‘i Rainbow Wahine women’s volleyball team wins back-to-back NCAA championships.

The 1982 win is a comeback from a two-game deficit in the finals against the University of Southern California, the defending national champions. The 1983 win over the University of California—Los Angeles is accomplished in three straight games.

1982, November 3—Hurricane ‘Iwa passes between Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, bringing gusts of wind with speeds of more than 100 miles/hour and causing damages totaling $239 million. (See Hurricanes, Chapter 12.)

1983, January 3—A flank eruption on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano at Nāpau Crater sends up 250-foot (76 m) fountains of lava. The activity moves to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Vent in June of 1983 and sends lava fountains 1,400 feet (427 m) high, with lava flows eventually reaching the Royal Gardens subdivision and burying or burning 16 homes.

This flank eruption has continued almost uninterrupted up to the present day, releasing more than 67 billion cubic feet (1.9 billion cu. m) of lava covering at least 40.7 square miles (105.5 sq. km), increasing the size of Hawai‘i Island by more than 535 acres, and making Kīlauea the longest continuously erupting volcano on Earth today. (See Recent Eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1983, January 13—18—The ‘Onipa‘a Centennial Observance of the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy takes place in downtown Honolulu, including a pro-sovereignty march from Aloha Tower to ‘Iolani Palace. (See ‘Onipa‘a Centennial Observance, Chapter 12.)

1983, August—In one the most famous corporate scandals in the Hawaiian Islands, the investment firm of Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong suffers financial collapse due to the manipulations of Ron Rewald, who deceives a large number of people by purporting to have many local connections, throwing lavish parties, and staging polo matches.

Rewald’s activities result in a loss of about $20 million by 418 investors. In 1985 Rewald is convicted of 94 counts of tax evasion, perjury, and fraud, and sentenced to 18 years in federal prison. He is released in 1995 due to a back injury.

1983—C. Brewer & Co. is the world’s largest producer of macadamia nuts.

1984—A 22-day eruption of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawai‘i sends lava flowing for 16 miles (26 km) down to the 3,200-foot (975-m) level of the mountain.

The lava flow covers more than 18 square miles (47 sq. km), and comes close enough to Hilo to make many people very nervous. (See Historic Eruptions of Mauna Loa Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1984—Duke Kahanamoku is inducted into the United States Olympic Hall of Fame (See Duke Kahanamoku section, Chapter 3.)

1985—More than 4.8 million people visit the Hawaiian Islands.

1985—The first annual Great Aloha Run is held in Honolulu, with more than 11,000 athletes participating.

1985—Businessman David H. Murdock, chief executive of the “Big Five” company Castle & Cooke, purchases ninety-eight percent of the island of Lāna‘i. (See Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Murdock eventually ends pineapple production on Lāna‘i and initiates the construction of two new luxury resorts, the Mānele Bay Hotel on the beach, and the Lodge at Kō‘ele in the mountains, as well as expensive townhouses.

A tourist oriented economy replaces the pineapple industry. (See The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

1985, November 8—Princess Diana and Prince Charles arrive in the Hawaiian Islands, staying for 18 hours before heading on to Washington D.C.

1986, January 28—Ellison Onizuka, the first Hawai‘i-born astronaut and the first American of Japanese ancestry to fly in space, dies along with the crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger as it explodes after takeoff from Florida’s Kennedy Space Center. Major Onizuka initially flew into space aboard the space shuttle Discovery in 1985.

1986, February 25—Ousted Philippines dictator Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (1917—1989) arrives in exile in the Hawaiian Islands aboard a United States Air Force transport plane with his wife Imelda and 89 relatives, friends and assistants as well as $8 million in cash and jewels.

Though he is personally welcomed by Hawai‘i’s Governor George Ariyoshi, two months later Ariyoshi tells Marcos it would be better if he lived somewhere else due to division in the Filipino community over Marcos’ presence in the Islands.

Marcos remains in the Islands and lives lavishly for the next 3½ years before suffering from heart and kidney problems. He passes away on September 28, 1989 at the age of 72 at St. Francis Medical Center.

On September 5, 1993, the body of the former Philippines President is put aboard a plane for the first leg of the trip back to his native town where he will be buried.

A class-action suit against Marcos’ estate is filed by 9,539 Filipinos in a Hawai‘i federal court alleging past human rights abuses. In 1999 a Hawai‘i federal court judge renders a $150 million judgment against Marcos’ estate.

1986—John D. Waihee is elected governor, becoming the first elected governor of Hawaiian ancestry. Waihee served as governor until 1994.

1986—Five O‘ahu hospitals in cooperation with Hawai‘i Health Technologies install the first Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI) in the Hawaiian Islands at Kewalo Basin’s MRI Center of the Pacific.

1986—A worldwide ban on all commercial whaling is enacted by the International Whaling Commission, though the IWC has no enforcement powers.

At this time the population of North Pacific humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae: Hawaiian name: koholā) numbers about 1,500 animals. Less than two-thirds of these North Pacific humpback whales migrate to the Hawaiian Islands each winter to mate and give birth.

The humpback whales return to waters near Alaska during the summer months, where they feed on krill and small fish such as herring. (See Humpback Whales section; Chapter 6.)

1986—Chain of Craters Road on the island of Hawai‘i’s Kīlauea Volcano is blocked by lava flows. The road reopens, but then closes again in 1987.

1986—The State of Hawai‘i annual visitor count exceeds five million people. Tourism continues to grow as the driving force of the economy of the Hawaiian Islands.

1986—Mary Kawena Pūku‘i (1895-1986), one of Hawai‘i’s most revered scholars of Hawaiian culture, literature, and language, passes away in Honolulu at the age of 91.

As the author or co-author of more than 50 books, Mary Kawena Pūku‘i was perhaps the most influential Hawaiian scholar of modern times. Several of her books are now the primary reference tools used by Hawaiian scholars.

Pūku‘i was born in 1985 in Ka‘ū and grew up on Hawai‘i Island. The lineage of her mother, a native Hawaiian, contained respected medical kāhuna, and her grandfather (on her father’s side) was a 17th century poet.

Pūku‘i was raised by her maternal grandmother and studied hula, chants, and legends while speaking only Hawaiian. After the death of her grandmother she lived with her parents speaking English as well as Hawaiian.

In 1957, Mary Kawena Pūku‘i and Samuel H. Elbert published the first edition of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary,[lxxviii] and then in 1986 a revised and enlarged edition was completed. Containing more than 26,000 Hawaiian word, the Pūku‘i and Elbert dictionary is considered the definitive source for Hawaiian word spellings (e.g., diacritical marks), meanings, and pronunciation.

Two other prominent works by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i are Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition,[lxxix] published in 1974, and ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings,[lxxx] published in 1983.

A widely-respected kumu hula, Pūku‘i composed more than 150 chants and songs, and her early works included three papers on hula. Pūku‘i joined the staff of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in 1837, where she became an associate emeritus in Hawaiian culture and worked there for more than a quarter century.

The Hawaiian-English Dictionary[lxxxi] fueled the Hawaiian language movement that was an integral part of the Hawaiian Renaissance. (See 1963.) Mary Kawena Pūku‘i’s legacy is the continuing and pervasive use by modern scholars of the comprehensive resources she developed during her prolific lifetime. (See Mary Kawena Pūku‘i, Chapter 12.)

1986, November 12A British Airways Concorde becomes the first supersonic transport (SST) flight to come to the Hawaiian Islands, flying from Oakland to Honolulu in a record two hours and fifteen minutes. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

1987—The Quiksilver in Memory of Eddie Aikau surf contest is initiated, matching the world’s best big wave surfers against each other in the biggest of waves. The first “Eddie” is won by Clyde Aikau, the brother of Eddie Aikau. (See Eddie Would Go, Chapter 12.)

1987—A Constitutional Convention on the island of Hawai‘i is attended by 250 delegates. The sovereignty group Ka Lahui is formed with the goal of having Congress recognize the Hawaiian Islands as a sovereign nation. Ka Lahui’s membership will swell to more than 20,000 by the mid-1990s.

1988, April 28—Aloha Airlines Flight 243 is flying from Hilo to Honolulu at an elevation of about 24,000 feet (7,315 m), 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Maui, with 89 passengers on board, when a large chunk of the jet’s roof and walls, from the cockpit to the back of the cabin, are suddenly torn from the plane’s cabin, causing an “explosive decompression of the cabin.”

A flight attendant standing at seat row 5 disappears through the hole in the left side of the fuselage. Another flight attendant, who is standing at row 2, is hit in the head by debris and suffers head lacerations and a concussion.

The flight diverts its route, and is able to land safely in Kahului, Maui. A total of seven passengers sustain serious injuries and 57 more passengers receive minor injuries.

The missing flight attendant is not found despite a sea search. The $5 million Aloha Airlines Boeing 737 airplane sustains major damage, and has to be dismantled and sold for parts and scrap.[lxxxii]

1988—The Magnum PI television series, starring Tom Selleck and filmed in the Hawaiian Islands, ends after eight seasons.

1988—Tourism increases to 32% of the state’s economy, up from 3% in the 1950s. Japanese investment capital drives the economy of the Hawaiian Islands in the mid-1980s, but investments and Japanese tourism decrease significantly in the 1990s, contributing to a downturn in Hawai‘i’s economy.

1989—Debbye Turner, competing as Miss Missouri, becomes the first Hawai‘i-born Miss America. Turner was born at Schofield Barracks when her father served in the Army.

1989—Shortly after taking off from Honolulu Airport, a United Airlines 747 flying to Sydney, Australia experiences an electrical short that causes a cargo door to open, causing an explosive decompression and loss of power in two engines. Nine passengers are sucked out of the plane over the ocean and never recovered. The plane lands safely.

1990—Daniel Akaka becomes the first United States Senator of Native Hawaiian ancestry. (See Senator Daniel Akaka, Chapter 12.)

1990, January 17—Operation Desert Storm begins in the Persian Gulf in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1989. The war eventually requires the services of more than 7,000 troops based in Kāne‘ohe, before Iraq accepts United Nations conditions and resolutions on April 7, 1990. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

1990—President George Bush ends the use of the island of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice, and creates a congressional commission to work out a return of the island to Hawaiians. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1990—The population of the Hawaiian Islands is documented at 1,108,228 people, with more than 6.7 million annual visitors.

1990—Lava flows from Kīlauea Volcano on Hawai‘i Island destroy numerous homes in and around Kalapana Gardens along with the county store and the Mauna Kea Congregational Church.

The destruction totals 181 homes by the end of 1990, and the black sand beach on crescent-shaped Kaimū Bay is filled with lava. (See Recent Eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Chapter 12.)

1990—Hawai‘i’s State Legislature clarifies the ceded-lands entitlement law and creates a system to negotiate back payments to native Hawaiians, leading to a $130 million settlement in 1993.

The Office of Hawaiian Affairs does not approve of the settlement and the state Supreme Court encourages an out-of-court settlement, which is agreed to in 1998.

1990, April—Daniel Kahikina Akaka is appointed to the United States Senate after the death of Spark (Sparky) Masayuki Matsunaga (1916—1990).

1990, October 22—United States President George Bush ends the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice, and creates a congressional commission to work out a return of the island to Hawaiians. (See 1993; and Kaho‘olawe section, Chapter 2.)

1991, August—Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. is developed on Maui by twelve Island chefs who form the association to develop a world-class cuisine.

The cuisine centers around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizes a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions. Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards.

The twelve chefs that conceptualize “Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine” are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

1991, September 14—Carolyn Suzanne Sapp, a junior at O‘ahu’s Hawai‘i Pacific University, wins the Miss Hawai‘i pageant and then becomes the first Hawaiian resident to win the Miss America title.

1992—More than 150,000 people go on commercial whale-watching trips in Hawaiian waters. (See Humpback Whales, Chapter 12.)

1992—The wild population of the endangered endemic Hawaiian bird, the ‘alalā (Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian crow) is believed to be just 12 birds, and a recovery program is initiated by the Peregrine Fund with money from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others. (See Hawaiian Crow section in Native Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 7.)

1992, November 4—A large area around the Hawaiian Islands is designated as the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Governor Benjamin Cayetano approves the Sanctuary in State of Hawai‘i waters on June 5, 1997.

1992, December—Ground is broken on the $32.24 million Special Events Arena, renamed Stan Sheriff Center in 1998. Built to hold 10,031 people, the Center is 107 feet (33 m) high and 320 feet (98 m) in diameter, totaling 187,000 square feet (17,373 sq.m.).

On October 21, 1994, a UH Rainbow Wahine volleyball game becomes the first athletic event in the Center. Note: After additions and renovations, the total cost of the Stan Sheriff Center is now up to $44 million. The building now holds 10,300 people, and up to 11,108 people for non-sporting events.

1992—The Keck Telescope, the largest optical-infrared telescope in the world, becomes operable atop Mauna Kea Volcano. In 1996 the Keck II becomes operable, and in March of 2001 the light-gathering powers of the two powerful Keck telescopes are combined. (See Mauna Kea Astronomy, Chapter 12.)

1992, September 11—Hurricane ‘Iniki makes a direct hit on Kaua‘i, damaging 14,000 homes, causing $3 billion in damage, and shutting down 90% of the island’s vacation accommodations. (See Hurricane ‘Iniki Devastates Kaua‘i, Chapter 12.)

1993, January 2—Frank Fasi is inaugurated after being elected to his fifth term as the Mayor of the City and County of Honolulu. (See 1968.)

1993, January 13—January 18—A series of events occur in downtown Honolulu as part of the ‘Onipa‘a Centennial Observance of the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. (‘Onipa‘a means “Stand firm,” and was the motto of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].)

Governor John Waihee orders the American flag lowered and the Hawaiian flag raised on government buildings in the area of the Capitol District. On January 17, 1993, the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy (see 1893), a procession of pro-sovereignty marchers estimated to exceed 10,000 people marches from Aloha Tower to ‘Iolani Palace.

1993, January 27—At the age of 23, Hawai‘i-born Akebono (Chad Rowan) becomes the first sumo wrestler not born in Japan to achieve the esteemed sumo rank of Yokozuna (Grand Champion).

Akebono retires in 2001 at the age of 31 with a record of 566-198, including 11 championships. The rank of Yokozuna had been attained by just 63 others during the previous two centuries.

1993, April 22—Puna Geothermal Venture, on the island of Hawai‘i, begins producing electricity using geothermal energy (heat from beneath the ground’s surface).

1993, May—Hawai‘i’s State Legislature approves a 1994 ballot referendum calling for a Constitutional Convention asking native Hawaiian voters if they want sovereignty.

1993, July 26—The remains of Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia (1792-1818), which had been buried in Connecticut since 1818, are returned to the Hawaiian Islands. On August 15, 1993 the remains are reburied on the island of Hawai‘i, at Kahikolu Cemetery in Nāpō‘opo‘o, South Kona. (See 1792; 1809.)

1993, November 23—United States President William J. Clinton signs Public Law 103-150, an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i in 1893. The apology acknowledges the 100th anniversary of the event. Written as a Joint Resolution of Congress, Public Law 103-150 reads (in part) as follows:

“Whereas, prior to the arrival of the first Europeans in 1778, the Native Hawaiian people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture, and religion;

Whereas a unified monarchical government of the Hawaiian Islands was established in 1810 under Kamehameha I, the first King of Hawaii;

Whereas, from 1826 until 1893, the United States recognized the independence of the Kingdom of Hawaii, extended full and complete diplomatic recognition to the Hawaiian Government, and entered into treaties and conventions with the Hawaiian monarchs to govern commerce and navigation in 1826, 1842, 1849, 1875, and 1887;

Whereas the Congregational Church (now known as the United Church of Christ), through its American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, sponsored and sent more than 100 missionaries to the Kingdom of Hawaii between 1820 and 1850;

Whereas, on January 14, 1893, John L. Stevens (hereafter referred to in this Resolution as the “United States Minister”), the United States Minister assigned to the sovereign and independent Kingdom of Hawaii conspired with a small group of non-Hawaiian residents of the Kingdom of Hawaii, including citizens of the United States, to overthrow the indigenous and lawful Government of Hawaii;

Whereas, in pursuance of the conspiracy to overthrow the Government of Hawaii, the United States Minister and the naval representatives of the United States caused armed naval forces of the United States to invade the sovereign Hawaiian nation on January 16, 1893, and to position themselves near the Hawaiian Government buildings and the Iolani Palace to intimidate Queen Liliuokalani and her Government;

Whereas, on the afternoon of January 17, 1893, a Committee of Safety that represented the American and European sugar planters, descendents of the missionaries, and financiers deposed the Hawaiian monarchy and proclaimed the establishment of a Provisional Government;

Whereas the United States Minister thereupon extended diplomatic recognition to the Provisional Government that was formed by the conspirators without the consent of the Native Hawaiian people or the lawful Government of Hawaii and in violation of treaties between the two nations and of international law;

Whereas, soon thereafter, when informed of the risk of bloodshed with resistance, Queen Liliuokalani issued the following statement yielding her authority to the United States Government rather than to the Provisional Government:

“I Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the Constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom.

“That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the Provisional Government.

“Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do this under protest and impelled by said force yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.”

Done at Honolulu this 17th day of January, A.D. 1893;

Whereas the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum;

Whereas the health and well-being of the native Hawaiian people is intrinsically tied to their deep feelings and attachment to the land;

Whereas, the long-range economic and social changes in Hawaii over the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have been devastating to the population and to the health and well-being of the Hawaiian people;

Whereas the Native Hawaiian people are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territory, and their cultural identity in accordance with their own spiritual and traditional beliefs, customs, practices, language, and social institutions;

The Congress-

...apologizes to the Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, with the participation of agents and citizens of the United States, and the deprivation of the rights of Native Hawaiians to self-determination,” and “expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, in order to provide a proper foundation for reconciliation between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people; and...urges the President of the United States to also acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and to support reconciliation efforts between the United Sates and the Native Hawaiian people.[lxxxiii] (See The U.S. Apology to the Native Hawaiians, Chapter 12.)

1993—The U. S. Navy receives a $400 million authorization from the U. S. Congress to clean ordnance from Kaho‘olawe (through November, 2003, and then later extended four months), and the Kaho‘olawe Island Reserve Commission is put in charge of restoring the island once the ordnance is removed. (See 1994; and Kaho‘olawe section Chapter 2.)

1994—Whale-watching is a $400 million per year industry worldwide.

1994, April 14—The Dalai Lama arrives in the Hawaiian Islands to give several talks.

1994, May 7—Under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe is returned to the State of Hawai‘i after 50 years of military use of the island for bombing practice. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

1994—The Korean-Vietnam War Memorial is dedicated at the State Capitol in Honolulu.

1994—Four hundred Native Hawaiians gather at ‘Iolani Palace and proclaim their right to self-determination as a people, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. The Hawaiian sovereignty movement continues to grow.

1994, May 21—In Mō‘ili‘ili, O‘ahu, the Japanese Cultural Center is dedicated by Japan’s Prince Tomohito and Princess Nobuko.

1994, July 20—A $29 million inter-island fiber-optic cable installed by GTE Hawaiian Tel becomes operational.

1994, August 20—A 9,000-pound (4,082 kg) African elephant named Tyke performing in the Circus International mauls her groomer and then kills her trainer before running from Blaisdell Arena into the streets of Kaka‘ako and then killing another man. Honolulu police officers use high-powered rifles to shoot the elephant.[lxxxiv]

1994—Aloha Tower Marketplace is built in Honolulu on Piers 8, 9, 10, and 11, housing shops, restaurants and live entertainment. The architects are Burno D’Agostino and Edward R. Aotani & Associates.

1994—Benjamin Cayetano, who was lieutenant governor under John D. Waihee (see 1986), is elected Governor of Hawai‘i. Cayetano is the first United States governor of Filipino-American descent, and serves until 2002. The father of Benjamin Cayetano was an immigrant from Urdaneta, Pangasinan.

1995—The population of Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi; Hawaiian name: ‘ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua) is estimated at 1,200 animals, down from around 5,000 in the 1950s. (See Hawaiian Monk Seals section, Chapter 6.)

1995—The Hawai‘iloa voyaging canoe makes its first voyage. The canoe is named after an ancient voyager and built almost entirely out of traditionally materials. (See The Hawai‘iloa Voyaging Canoe, Chapter 12.)

1995, June 4—Pope John Paul II beatifies Father Damien in Brussels, Belgium, bringing the priest one step closer to sainthood. Father Damien ministered to leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients at Kalaupapa, Moloka‘i from 1873 until he died in 1889. (See Damien Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Heroes of Kalaupapa, Chapter 12.)

1996—In a three week period beginning July 17, more than 4,000 earthquakes (a record for Hawaiian volcanoes) are recorded near the summit of Lō‘ihi Seamount, an undersea volcano that is more than 9,000 feet (2,743 m) tall and about ½-mile (.8 km) below the surface of the Pacific Ocean.

Lo‘ihi is located about 18 miles (29 km) off the southeast coast of Hawai‘i Island. (See Lō‘ihi Seamount, Chapter 4.)

1996—The First Hawaiian Center is dedicated in downtown Honolulu. At 428 feet, 11½ inches (131 m), it becomes the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands.

1996—Decades after her canonization cause began, the accuracy of Mother Marianne’s story is verified by Vatican historians. (See 1888; 2004, Jan.; Kalaupapa in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Heroes of Kalaupapa—Father Damien and Mother Marianne, Chapter 12.)

1997, June 26— Renowned Hawaiian musician Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole passes away at age 38 due to respiratory failure.

A pure-blooded Hawaiian, Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole was born on May 20, 1959 and lived in O‘ahu’s Pālolo Valley until the age of ten when his family moved to Mākaha.

The next year Israel and his brother Skippy began playing music, and a few years later they joined with Louis “Moon” Kauakahi, Sam Gray, and Jerome Koko to form the Mākaha Sons of Ni‘ihau.

During the next 15 years, the Mākaha Sons released ten albums, toured the United States, and won numerous Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards. They also hosted an annual Mākaha Bash on Memorial Day at the Waikīkī Shell.

Israel’s brother Skippy Kamakawiwo‘ole passed away in 1982, the same year Israel married his childhood sweetheart, Marlene Ku‘upua Ah Lo. They gave birth to a daughter, Ceslieanne Wehekealake‘alekupuna “Wehi” Kamakawiwo‘ole. Israel’s uncle, Moe Keale (1939-2002), was a well-known Hawaiian musician and actor.

Iz began his solo career in 1993 with the album Facing Future, and quickly became the most popular entertainer and singer in the Hawaiian Islands. The album N DIS LIFE was released in 1997 and won four Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards: Male Vocalist; Island Contemporary; Album Graphics; and Favorite Entertainer of the Year.

The renowned Hawaiian musician was memorialized by thousands of people at the State Capitol Rotunda, and his ashes were scattered off Mākua Beach.

Though he was famous worldwide, Israel was said to be the ali‘i (royalty) of the common people of the Hawaiian Islands. In 2001 a new CD, Alone in IZ World, was released and immediately became a top seller. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

1997, August 9—An article titled “Broken Trust,” written by prominent community members including a former Kamehameha Schools principal, calls for Bishop Estate reforms.

Three days later, the governor asks State Attorney General Margery Bronster to investigate the matter, eventually leading to the removal of trustees. (See Sept. 10, 1998.)

Note: Today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum, Chapter 12; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

1997, December 12—Opening ceremonies are held for the H-3 “Trans-Ko‘olau” freeway connecting Honolulu to Kailua and Kāne‘ohe on O‘ahu’s Windward side.

The 16.1-mile (25.9-km) long freeway took 30 years to complete due to legal battles, design changes, and controversy about intruding on the culturally significant Hālawa and Ha‘ikū valleys.

Construction of the H-3 freeway was repeatedly delayed by extensive environmental and engineering challenges as well as protests by native Hawaiian groups seeking to protect archaeological and cultural sites. The original planned route was changed several times.

The $1.3 billion cost of the freeway made it the most expensive public works project in the state’s history, with 26 bridges, two long viaducts, and two sets of tunnels—4,890-feet (1,490-m) long in the Kāne‘ohe-bound direction and 5,165-feet (1,574-m) long in the Hālawa-bound direction.

1997—Amidst a swarm of earthquakes on Hawai‘i Island’s Kīlauea Volcano, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater erupts and collapses, sending abrasive red cinder dust (fine-grained lithic tephra) over dozens of square miles of the volcano’s eastern flank. Iron in the volcanic rock oxidizes as it is ejected, creating red dust-sized particles (a sort of volcanic rust).

About 3 miles (5 km) up the East Rift Zone from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater, and 9 miles (14.5 km) east of Kīlauea’s summit, curtains of fiery lava up to 100 feet (30 m) tall shoot up from fissures in the Earth. (See Kīlauea Volcano in Hawai‘i Island, Chapter 4.)

1998, January 2—Rell Kapolioka‘ehukai Sunn (1950—1998), known as the “Queen of Mākaha,” passes away due to cancer. Three thousand people attend her funeral at the O‘ahu beach called Mākaha.

Truly an all around waterwoman, Rell Sunn was an expert diver and was the first female lifeguard the Hawaiian Islands. She was also an international surfing champion who excelled not only at surfing, but also at bodysurfing, outrigger canoe paddling, and spearfishing. She was also a kumu hula, and a black belt in martial arts.

As a youth, Rell won the Hawaiian Junior Championships and in 1966 she competed in the Word Contest (the world championship at the time) in San Diego. Seven times during the following years Rell was in the top eight in the world, twice placing third. Her home was just two minutes from Mākaha.

Rell Sunn was a founder of the Women’s Professional Surfing Association and was involved in the development of the first women’s pro surfing tour in the 1970s. In 1982 she was the top ranked longboard champion.

Rell Sunn was also a tireless advocate for children, and founded the Rell Sunn Menehune Championships in 1976. The event recently marked its 30th year.

Rell was diagnosed with cancer in 1983 and battled it for the next 15 years. In 1988 she went into a coma but came out of it, and then in 1991 she was told she only had six months to live, but she lived seven more years. Rell Kapolioka‘ehukai Sunn passed away on January 2, 1998 at the age of 47.

Rell’s middle name, Kapolioka‘ehukai, was given to her by her grandmother, and means “Heart of the sea.” (See Rell Kapolioka‘ehukai SunnQueen of Mākaha, Chapter 12.)

1998, July 1—The Hawai‘i Convention Center opens at 1801 Kalākaua Avenue in Honolulu. The four-story, 1.4-million-square-foot building hosts major conventions and international events.

The Hawai‘i Convention Center features a roof-top tropical garden, glass-encased meeting rooms, and outdoor areas lined with palms. On permanent display at the Convention Center is a $2 million Hawaiian art collection.

1998—June Jones becomes coach of the University of Hawai‘i Warriors football team, improving the team’s record from 0-12 to 9-4, the biggest one year turnaround in NCAA football history, including a victory at the O‘ahu Bowl. Jones is named college coach of the year by three national organizations. (See June Jones, Colt Brennan, and the University of Hawai‘i Warriors, Chapter 12.)

1998—University of Hawai‘i postdoctoral student Teruhiko Wakayama develops a new cloning technique that produces, from adult cells, three generations of genetically identical cloned mice (e.g., a clone of a clone of a clone), totalling 50 mice in all, in less than nine months.

The research team was led by Ryozu Yanagimachi and Teruhiko Wakayama, whose research had earlier helped in the cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1997 in Scotland.

1998, September 10—State Attorney General Margery Bronster issues a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust (see 1997, Aug. 9). Bronster calls for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters. (See 1999, May 6; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

1999, January 29—The 58,000-ton U.S.S. Missouri battleship opens as a tourist attraction at Pearl Harbor. (See U.S.S. Missouri Battleship and U.S.S. Bowfin Submarine, Chapter 12.)

1999, May 6—Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removes Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment,” “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” (see 1998, Sept. 10).

The decision is a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis. (See 1999, May 7; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

1999, May 7—Judge Kevin Chang removes four of the five Bishop Estate trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry).

Lokelani Lindsey (who one day earlier, in a separate case, had been removed from her Trustee position) is later sentenced to six months in prison for bankruptcy fraud and money laundering, charges unrelated to her Bishop Estate position. (See 2003, Oct. 3; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

1999, May 9—A landslide at a popular O‘ahu waterfall and swimming hole in Sacred Falls State Park kills eight people, including three men, four women, and a seven-year-old girl. Falling debris and boulders injure at least 42 others.

1999—About 370,000 people go on whale-watching trips in Hawaiian waters, up 25% from a decade earlier, generating an estimated $19 to $27 million in business.

The ocean surrounding the Hawaiian Islands are the breeding and birthing waters of more than 4,000 humpback whales that arrive around October and stay as late as May. (See Humpback Whales, Chapter 12.)

1999, November 2—The worst mass murder in the history of the Hawaiian Islands occurs when O‘ahu Xerox worker Bryan Uyesugi shoots seven co-workers. Uyesugi surrenders to police after a manhunt ends in a five hour standoff.

2000—President Clinton proclaims a Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve that covers more than 1,200 miles (1,931 km) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

2000, February—In the legal case Rice vs. Cayetano, the United States Supreme Court rules 7 to 2 that Hawaiians-only voting in elections for trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) violates the United States Constitution’s 15th Amendment that bans race-based voting restrictions.

The court ruling is the result of a lawsuit against the state by Hawai‘i Island rancher Harold “Freddy” Rice, a fifth-generation kama‘āina (Hawai‘i-born) who was barred from voting in an OHA election.

2000, July—United States Senator Daniel Akaka introduces the Native Hawaiian Reorganization Act, known as the Akaka Bill, to provide federal recognition to native Hawaiians and protect federal funding of Hawaiian entitlements jeopardized by the recent United States Supreme Court decision in Rice v. Cayetano. Note: The Akaka Bill failed to be approved by Congress in 2006.

2000—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 1,211,537 people, including 239,655 people of native Hawaiian ancestry. Twenty-one percent of the 1.21 million residents of the Hawaiian Islands identify their ancestry as Japanese; 17.7% Filipino; 16.3% Hawaiian; 8.3% Chinese; 5.8% German.

Visitors to the Hawaiian Islands total 6,983,394, including 6,948,594 by air and 34,800 by ship. Visitor expenditures in 2000 total $10.9 billion. This visitor expenditure total is the second highest recorded to date (the 1995 total was $11.1 billion).

2000—Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) naval exercises take place offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, including 22,000 sailors, 200 aircraft, and 50 ships.

2001Visitors to the Hawaiian Islands total 6,350,361, including 6,303,790 by air and 46,571 by ship.

2001—1,744 ships arrive at docks in the Hawaiian Islands carrying 7.8 million tons (7.1 mtons) of freight.

2001—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 1,224,398 people.

2001, February 9—The fast-attack submarine USS Greeneville is engaged in a rapid-ascent surfacing drill about nine miles (14.5 km) off Pearl Harbor when it crashes into the Ehime Maru, a fishing boat on a training expedition with southwestern Japan’s Uwajima Fisheries High School.

The submarine rips open the trawler’s bulkheads and fuel tanks, killing nine of the Ehime Maru’s crew members and sinking the ship.

Aboard the USS Greeneville when the crash occurs are sixteen “distinguished guest” civilians, two of whom are at key controls during the surfacing drill. In 2003, the Navy pays $13 million to the families of the victims.

 

2001, March—Engineers and scientists at the Keck telescopes atop Mauna Kea succeed in combining the light-gathering powers of the two 10-meter Keck telescopes, forming the world’s largest optical interferometer.

In 2002, the researchers break the record for sighting the most distant objects ever seen when they view a galaxy estimated to be 15.5 billion light years away (one light year is the distance light travels in one year, which is about 5.9 trillion miles). (See Mauna Kea Astronomy, Chapter 12.)

2001, April 5—Public education in the state is shut down by two major strikes involving 3,000 University of Hawai‘i faculty and 10,000 public school teachers, the state’s first combined upper and lower education strike. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

2001—In a test flight from the Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kaua‘i, Nasa’s solar-powered plane Helios soars to a height of 96,500 feet (29,413 m), setting a new record for solar-powered flight for a winged aircraft.

The plane crashes during a flight on June 26, 2003 when the plane’s 247-foot (75.3-m) wingspan suddenly begins bending and flapping, tearing the skin of the fragile craft and sending it plunging into the sea about ten miles (16 km) offshore.

2001, September 11—Terrorists hijack four passenger jets airplanes, flying two into the World Trade Center towers in New York, crashing one into the Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia, and crashing one jet in a Pennsylvania field.

The attacks kill nearly 3,000 Americans, including Hawaiian resident Christine Snyder, who was aboard the jet that crashed in Pennsylvania. Immediately after the attack, tourism in the Hawaiian Islands drops more than 30%. (See The Eternal Flame, Chapter 12.)

2002, June 25—Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) naval exercises begin offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, lasting until July 22, 2002. The exercises are participated in by 11,000 sailors from eight nations, including 26 aircraft and 36 ships.

2002, July 1—According to the Census Bureau, the July 1, 2002 population of the Hawaiian Islands is 1,244,898 people, including: Maui County-134,007; Island of Hawai‘i—154,794; Kaua‘i—59,946; City and County of Honolulu—896,019; and Metropolitan Honolulu (Red Hill to Hawai‘i Kai)—378,155.

2002Visitors to the State of Hawai‘i total 6,452,834, including 6,389,058 by air and 63,776 by ship.

2002, September 28—Representative Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink (1927—2002), who in 1964 became the first Asian-American woman elected to the U.S. Congress, passes away due to viral pneumonia.

Patsy Mink was born in Pā‘ia, Maui on Dec. 6, 1927. She was elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1956, serving until 1958 as the first Asian-American woman elected to the Legislature.

Patsy Mink was a member of the State Senate in 1963 and 1964. She then became the first Asian-American woman elected to the U.S. Congress, serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1964 to 1976.

In 1972, Patsy Mink was instrumental in the passage of Title IX legislation prohibiting gender discrimination in athletics or academics by all institutions receiving federal funds. The Women’s Educational Equity Act (Title IX) goes into effect in 1975.

Patsy Mink was again elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1990, serving until 2002 when she passed away. (See Representative Patsy Mink, Chapter 12.)

2002, November 5—Linda Lingle is elected Governor of Hawai‘i, with James “Duke” Aiona Jr. as lieutenant governor. Lingle had been elected as the mayor of Maui County in 1990, then re-elected as mayor in 1994.

In 1999 she was elected as the chairwoman of the State of Hawai‘i’s Republican Party. Lingle is the first Republican governor of the State of Hawai‘i since William Quinn who served from 1959-1962 (see 1959).

2003, March 9—The Pearl Harbor-based submarine U.S.S. Cheyenne launches the first Tomahawk missile to begin the Iraq War. The target is a bunker believed to be the location of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

2003, September 5—The University of Hawai‘i’s men’s volleyball team is stripped of its 2002 national championship by the NCAA because the team used a player who had professional experience.

2003, October 3—Federal Judge David Ezra orders former Bishop Estate trustee Lokelani Lindsey (see 1999, May 7) to immediately start serving her six-month prison term for bankruptcy fraud (she was scheduled to begin serving the sentence on November 3) because she was spotted in Las Vegas in September after claiming she was caring for her sick husband in Hawai‘i. Lindsey admits that she had made two trips to Las Vegas in 2003. (See The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

2003, November 11—The Navy transfers control of access to the island of Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i.

By the end of 2003, the cleanup efforts succeed in clearing more than 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) of the island’s surface to 4 feet (1.2 m) deep.

More than 90,000 pieces of ordnance are disposed of, including 2000-pound (907 kg) bombs. More than 8.5 million pounds (3.9 million kg) of weapon fragments are gathered.

In addition, more than 12,000 tires (commonly used to mark targets) are removed from Kaho‘olawe. The Navy also identifies 2,550 historic sites on Kaho‘olawe, including 630 discovered during the cleanup effort.

Seventeen of the 27 cultural sites that had been identified in a 1995 Land Use Plan are cleared. A $3 million rain catchment tank is installed at the island’s summit to provide water for the native plants and trees including more than 20,000 plants in Lua-makika crater. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

2003—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 1,257,608, including about 7,000 Hawaiians, and 401,000 part (mixed-blood) Hawaiians.

The population of the Hawaiian Islands ranks 42nd in the United States, which has a total population of about 290 million. The Hawaiian Islands gained 16,945 new residents during the previous year, which is a total population increase of about 1%.

Visitors to the State of Hawai‘i in 2003 total 6,442,020, including 6,380,439 by air and 61,581 by ship.

2003—Federal spending in the State of Hawai‘i totals $11.27 billion, including $4.84 billion in defense spending. Compared to other states, Hawai‘i ranks 6th in federal spending, and second among all states in per-capita defense spending ($3,566).

Military spending as a percentage of the State of Hawai‘i’s gross product peaked in the 1950s, when it was 23% compared to about 9% in 2003. Active-duty, shore-based personnel declined from 60,621 people in 1988 to 34,203 in 2003.

2003, November 17—In a Summary Judgment in the case of John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools (a case initiated by “John Doe” in June, 2003), the Court rules in favor of Kamehameha Schools, stating that their “race-conscious remedial action plan has a legitimate justification.”[lxxxv]

The opinion states that the case “involves exceptionally unique circumstances involving a private school with remedial race-conscious admissions policy to rectify socioeconomic and educational disadvantages of indigenous Native Hawaiians...”[lxxxvi]

The Court notes that “Kamehameha Schools is a private school and receives no federal funding. No taxpayer money is involved,”[lxxxvii] and cites letters from Charles Reed Bishop (1822—1915), the husband of the school’s founder, Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop], who passed away in 1884. The Kamehameha School for Boys opened in Honolulu on October 4, 1887, and the Kamehameha School for Girls opened on December 19, 1894.

On February 11, 1897, Bishop stated that: “there is nothing in the Will of Mrs. Bishop excluding white boys or girls from the schools, but it is understood by the Trustees that only those having Native blood are to be admitted at present,”[lxxxviii] and on February 20, 1901, “the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood applies only to education of orphans and others in indigent circumstances; but it was intended and expected that Hawaiians having aboriginal blood would have a preference...Education of the Natives was the first, but not the exclusive and perpetual purpose of the Founder of the School.”[lxxxix]

Bishop wrote that “those of other races were not barred or excluded,” but also that “it was wise to prepare for and admit Natives only and I do not think that time has yet come when it is better to depart from that rule.”[xc]

The Court, in their ruling in John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, relies in part on the comments of Charles Reed Bishop to determine the intent of Princess Pauahi regarding Kamehameha Schools’ admissions policy, and the Court infers that her wishes were that “preference be given to Native Hawaiians for admittance to the Kamehameha Schools,”[xci] but that “this preference was not perpetual nor an absolute bar to admittance of other races to the Kamehameha Schools, but only for so long as it took the schools to fulfill its responsibility in attaining the goal of educating Native Hawaiians to overcome the manifest imbalance in socioeconomic and educational disadvantages, and non-Native Hawaiians would be admitted when the goal was attained or at such earlier date when [Kamehameha Schools] has the capacity to also admit non-Native Hawaiians.”[xcii] (See 2005, Aug. 2.)

2004—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 1,262,840, an increase of about 1.1% from 2003, and including about 200,000 people of native Hawaiian ancestry.

Visitors to the State of Hawai‘i in 2004 total 6,991,927, including 6,912,094 by air and 79,833 by ship.

2004, January—The Vatican’s Congregation for the Causes of Saints affirms the “heroic virtue” of Mother Marianne Cope, who ministered to the leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients of Kalaupapa on Moloka‘i from 1888 to 1918.

The affirming is a step toward canonization and sainthood. In October of 2003, Rome theologians had given their approval of the accuracy of the story of Mother Marianne Cope.

The next step toward sainthood for Mother Marianne is for Pope John Paul II to declare her “venerable.” A possible miracle attributed to Mother Marianne involved the unexpected recovery of an extremely ill teen-age girl.

(See 1888; 1996; and Kalaupapa in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Heroes of Kalaupapa—Father Damien and Mother Marianne, Chapter 12.)

2004, June 15—The University of Hawai‘i Board of Regents fires University of Hawai‘i President Evan Dobelle “for cause,” which the contract defines as corruption, mental illness, or criminal behavior.

On July 29, 2004, after arbitration, the Regents rescind their decision. Dobelle is given a resignation severance worth $3.2 million and absolved of any wrongdoing.

2004, June 29—The biennial Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) naval exercises take place in Hawaiian waters, lasting until July 27. The exercises include more than 35 ships, 90 aircraft, 7 submarines and 11,000 soldiers, airmen, sailors, Marines, and Coast Guard. (See The U.S. Military, Chapter 12.)

2004—Mufi Hannemann is elected mayor of Honolulu.

2004, August 15—The Honolulu Advertiser begins using a new $82 million printing press in Kapolei.

2004, August 18—Hiram Fong (Yau Leong Fong) passes away at the age of 97. In 1959, Fong became the first elected Asian-American United States Senator.

Fong graduated from McKinley High School in 1924, the University of Hawai‘i in 1930, and Harvard Law School in 1935, then worked as a Honolulu deputy attorney. Beginning in 1938, Fong served 14 years in the legislature of the Territory of Hawai‘i including four years as vice speaker (1944—1948) and six years as speaker (1948—1954).

After serving in World War II, Fong founded a law firm, and then became a founding member of Finance Factors Ltd. in 1952. Fong was elected to the United States Senate on July 28, 1959 and then was re-elected in 1964 and 1970. (See Senator Hiram Fong, Chapter 12.)

2004—The annual visitor count for the Hawaiian Islands is 6,908,173, an 8.3% increase over 2003, and just shy of the record 6.95 million who visited in 2000. Visitor expenditures total $10.3 billion, an all-time high along with total visitor days (62.8 million).

2005—The population of the State of Hawai‘i is 1,275,194.

2005—A new Grammy Award category of Best Hawaiian Music Album is instituted by the Recording Academy. The award is given to the slack key album Slack Key Guitar, Volume 2. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

2005, April 8—The 521-room Sheraton Keauhou Bay Resort opens on 22 oceanfront acres on Hawai‘i Island’s Kona coast after a two-year, $70 million renovation. The luxury hotel offers manta ray viewing, a new Convention Center, and a 200-foot (61-m) long lava tube and water slide. Keauhou means “The New Era.”

2005, August 2—A three-member panel of the 9th United States Circuit Court of Appeals, in the case of John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, rules (2-1) that the 120-year-old admissions policy of Kamehameha Schools violates federal civil rights law, constitutes unlawful racial discrimination, and is unconstitutional.

Four days later, on August 6, 2005, about 20,000 students, alumni, and supporters of Kamehameha Schools hold rallies on the United States Mainland and in the Hawaiian Islands. In Honolulu, thousands of protesters march to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[xciii]) where Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] was laid to rest in 1884. (See 2006, Feb. 22.)

2005, Sept. 2—The Hawaiian group Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna ‘O Hawai‘i Nei is ordered by United States District Judge David Ezra to return 83 lots of a sacred burial objects to the Bishop Museum. The group had placed the objects in a sealed cave on Hawai‘i Island.

2005, December 8—Shark tour operator Jimmy Hall, who runs a company that allows people to get close to sharks (the people are in an aluminum cage), gets out of the protective cage when an estimated 19-foot (5.8-m) -long great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) appears during an outing off Hale‘iwa, O‘ahu. The shark is so large that Hall initially mistakes it for a humpback whale.

The encounter is captured on video, and is said to be the first footage of a great white shark in Hawaiian waters. Hall gets in the water with the shark and repeatedly touches its fins and tail. The footage also shows the shark brushing up against the boat. Hall’s great white shark encounter is shown on local and national news networks, and reported in various other news media.

2006, February 22The court decision in John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools (see 2005, Aug. 2) is essentially nullified when the 9th Circuit Court grants a request by Kamehameha Schools for an “en banc” rehearing of the case. (See 2006, Dec. 5)

2006, March 14In the early morning hours, a dam breaks on Kaua‘i’s Kaloko Reservoir, releasing an estimated 400-million-gallons (1.6-billion-liters) of water. The massive wall of water, mud, rocks and debris roars down Wailapa Stream and through Wailapa Valley.

The raging floodwaters sweep several homes off their foundations and kill seven people who are likely asleep at the time: Daniel Arroyo, Alan Dingwall, Aurora Fehring, Rowan Fehring-Dingwall, Christina Macnees, Timothy Noonan, and Wayne Rotstein.

The floodwaters also damage the island’s main highway, which remains completely closed for three days and then is open only as a one-lane road during the weeks that are required to complete major repairs to the damaged highway.

An investigation is later begun to determine whether a dam spillway had previously existed, as local farmers and others claimed, and if such a spillway had been covered with dirt or altered, possibly leading to the failure of the dam during weeks of heavy rain. Also at issue is the lack of required dam inspections by the state, as well as the ignoring of reported grading violations on the land by the county.

A wrongful-death lawsuit is later brought by the victims’ families against landowner James Pflueger and others, and a property damage claim against Pflueger is filed by entertainer Bette Midler. The lawsuits are set to go to trial in February of 2009.

Kaloko Reservoir was originally constructed for the Kilauea [Kīlauea] Sugar Company in 1890.

2006—A Grammy Award in the category of Best Hawaiian Music Album is given to the slack key album Masters of Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar, Volume 1. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

2006, June 15With the signing of Presidential Proclamation 8031 by President George W. Bush, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are designated a National Monument, later named Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

The name Papahānaumokuākea derives from four separate Hawaiian words: papa, hānau, moku, and ākea. Papa refers to a feminine ancestor and kupuna, or elder, and is said to represent the “broad expanse of the earth, or reef”[xciv]; hānau means “to give birth”[xcv]; moku means “islands”[xcvi]; and ‘ākea means “broad, wide,”[xcvii] referring to the broad expanse of the region.

Together the words form the name Papahānaumokuākea, said to refer to the deity of our ancestors who extends to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the great expanse she gave birth to.”[xcviii]

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument boundary begins about 150 miles (241 km) northwest of Kaua‘i and extends about 1,400 miles (2,253 km) in length and 100 miles (161 km) in width, making it larger than all of the United States’ National Parks combined and larger than 46 of 50 of the United States. The Monument is the country’s largest conservation area ever, and the largest protected marine area on Earth.

The emergent and submerged lands and water of the Monument total about 139,793 square miles (362,062 sq. km.), and within the region are a diversity of ocean habitats, including beds of seagrass and benthic algae, as well as about 70% of the United States’ coral reefs and more than 7,000 native marine and terrestrial species.

The scattered islands, islets, reefs, shoals, atolls, shelves, shallow banks, and seamounts of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands provide the main nesting area for more than 90% of Hawai‘i’s honu (Chelonia mydas, Hawaiian green sea turtles) and the breeding and birthing areas of more than 90% of Hawai‘i’s ‘ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua (Monachus schauinslandi, Hawaiian monk seals).

More than 4,500 square miles (11,655 sq. km.) of coral reef are located within the Monument boundaries, and these reefs are inhabited by a multitude of reef fish species, some of which are endemic (unique) to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

The Monument region also supports at least 18 species of seabirds, totalling more than 14 million seabirds (many of them migratory), as well as four species of endangered land birds. More than one-fourth of the native species in the Monument region are endemic (unique) to the Hawaiian Islands.

The Monument designation includes the phasing out of commercial fishing in the region over a five year period. Regulated public access may be allowed on Midway Atoll. The newly designated Monument will be operated by the United States Department of Commerce.

(For more information about Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, see Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

2006, June 23—The Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) trustees approve a plan of action called Ho‘oulu Lāhui Aloha (“To Raise a Beloved Nation”) to develop a Native Hawaiian registry known as Kau Inoa (kau means “to place”; inoa means “name”).

Kau Inoa will serve as the voting base in forming a new entity that will seek self-government rights, including the right to form a “nation-within-a-nation,” Hawaiians-only government, that will then attempt to negotiate with the state and federal governments over money, land, and other assets. As of April, 2007, more than 61,000 were registered.

2006, October 15—A 6.7 magnitude earthquake shakes the Hawaiian Islands, causing an estimated $200 million in damage. The damage occurs primarily on Hawai‘i Island, although the earthquake causes significant earth movement on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, including Kaua‘i, the northernmost of the main Islands.

The earthquake’s epicenter is located west of Hawai‘i Island, and about 24.2 miles (38.9 km) deep beneath the Earth’s surface. Just minutes after the earthquake shakes all of the Hawaiian Islands, a second earthquake registers 6.0 and is also felt throughout the Island chain.

The epicenter of the second earthquake is located not far south of the first earthquake. During the following days, many dozens of aftershocks shake the Islands.

The October 15 earthquakes occur in Earth’s mantle and not within the structure of an existing volcano (like most of the 1,000 or so earthquakes that occur annually around Hawai‘i Island).

The 6.7 magnitude earthquake is likely due to what is known as “loading” or “flexure” occurring as a result of the tremendous amount of weight the volcano above puts on the submerged oceanic crust of Earth’s lithosphere.

The 6.7 magnitude earthquake (which is the largest earthquake in the United States in 2006) does not generate a dangerous tsunami, although it does generate a tiny tsunami measuring only about 4 inches (10.2 cm) in height when it arrives at Kawaihae Harbor about 10 minutes after the earthquake.

2006, December 5A narrow majority (8-7) of the 15-member en banc panel of the 9th United States Circuit Court of Appeals affirms the 2003 District Court ruling in John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools (see 2005, Aug. 2), upholding the 120-year-old Hawaiian-preference admissions policy of Kamehameha Schools, and finding that it is not in violation of federal civil rights law.

The opinion for the majority is written by Judge Susan Graber, who states, “We took this case en banc to reconsider whether a Hawaiian private, non-profit K-12 school that receives no federal funds violates Section 1981 by preferring Native Hawaiians in its admissions policy. We now answer ‘no’ to that question and, accordingly, affirm the district court.”[xcix] A settlement in the case is announced on May 14, 2007 (see 2007, May 14).

Today Kamehameha Schools include the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006.

In that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands.

The trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children.

(See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum: Princess Pauahi and Charles Reed Bishop; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

2007—The 49th Annual Grammy Award for Best Hawaiian Music Album is awarded to Legends of Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar—Live from Maui. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

2007, April 14—Singer and entertainer Don Ho passes away due to a heart attack. Ho was a graduate of Kamehameha Schools, a first lieutenant in the United States Air Force, a graduate of the University of Hawai‘i, and had ten children.

Don Ho released his now-famous song Tiny Bubbles in 1966, and in the following years he performed in many major cities on the United States Mainland. He also had his own television show and also appeared on numerous other television shows, including Batman (1966); I Dream of Jeanie (1967); Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In (1970); the Tonight Show (his first appearance was in 1971); the Bob Hope Show (1972); The Brady Bunch (1972); Sanford and Son (1976); Charlie’s Angels (1977); Fantasy Island (1979); the Conan O‘Brien Show (1995); Live! With Regis and Kathy (1995), and many others.

Don Ho was a staple of the Waikīkī music scene for more than four decades. His biggest hits were Tiny Bubbles (by Leon Pober), I’ll Remember You (by Kui Lee); One Paddle, Two Paddle, Lahainaluna, Pearly Shells, She’s Gone Again, and The Days of My Youth. (See Don Ho, Chapter 12.)

2007, May 14—A settlement is announced in John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools (see 2006, Dec. 5), thus letting stand the 9th United States Circuit Court of Appeals affirmation of the 2003 District Court ruling upholding the 120-year-old Hawaiian-preference admissions policy of Kamehameha Schools, and finding that it is not in violation of federal civil rights law. Terms of the settlement are not disclosed. (See John Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, Chapter 12.)



[i] These dates are based on DNA studies. Sources include: DNA tests trace Polynesians to China origins. The Honolulu Advertiser, 8/11/1998.

Borg, Jim. Genetic research offers intriguing new view of Polynesian migrations. Hawaii Magazine, February, 1997.

Human DNA analysis points to African origin: Study performed on complete genome. The Honolulu Advertiser, 12/7/2000.

Krauss, Bob. Pacific migration theory disputed: Polynesians may be from Indonesia. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/18/2000.

Matisoo-Smith, E., Roberts, R.M., Irwin, G.J., Allen, J.S., Penny, D. and Lambert, D.M. Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat. Anthropology, Vol. 95, pp. 15145-15150, December, 1998.

Matsunaga, Mark. Scientists still fish for migration answer: Canoes ready to test theory of the fishhooks. The Honolulu Advertiser, 4/16/1995.

[ii] Kirch, P. V. The Lapita Peoples: Ancestors of the Oceanic World. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

[iii] Kirch, P. V. and R. C. Green. Hawaiki, Ancestral Polynesia: An Essay in Historical Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

[iv] These dates are based on DNA studies. Sources include: DNA tests trace Polynesians to China origins. The Honolulu Advertiser, 8/11/1998.

Borg, Jim. Genetic research offers intriguing new view of Polynesian migrations. Hawaii Magazine, February, 1997.

Human DNA analysis points to African origin: Study performed on complete genome. The Honolulu Advertiser, 12/7/2000.

Krauss, Bob. Pacific migration theory disputed: Polynesians may be from Indonesia. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/18/2000.

Matisoo-Smith, E., Roberts, R.M., Irwin, G.J., Allen, J.S., Penny, D. and Lambert, D.M. Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat. Anthropology, Vol. 95, pp. 15145-15150, December, 1998.

Matsunaga, Mark. Scientists still fish for migration answer: Canoes ready to test theory of the fishhooks. The Honolulu Advertiser, 4/16/1995.

[v] Krauss, Bob. First footsteps of Polynesians’ ancestors tracked. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/23/2006.

[vi] p. 41, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[vii] p. 191, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1781.

[viii] Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[ix] p. 200, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1860.

[x] p. 32, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 257.

[xi] Spelling Clarification—Keaweamauhili / Keawemauhili / Keaweama‘uhili: The spelling “Keaweama‘uhili” is used by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i in ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings, (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983) and in other publications.

In Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o [p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.], however, Frazier (Pūku‘i’s former assistant) notes that the spelling “Keawemauhili” more properly reflects the originally intended meaning and symbolism of the name.

The Hawaiian Dictionary defines the word mauhili as: “entangled, snarled, interwoven,” and gives the example: “Keawe-a-mauhili (name), Keawe entangled [in taboo] or interwoven [as chiefly blood].” [p. 242, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

For these reasons the spelling Keawemauhili is used in this text and throughout the Hawaiian Encyclopedia.

Keawemauhili was the grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his father’s side, and great grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his mother’s side. His name reflects this lineage, and means “Keawe of the double twist,” a reference to the genealogical connection to Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on both sides of the family.

[xii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xiii] p. 309, p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xiv] p. 27, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 227.

[xv] p. 46, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 381.

[xvi] p. 40, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xvii] p. 59, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xviii] p. 44, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xix] p. 227, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2541.

[xx] p. 161, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxi] Spelling Clarification—Keaweamauhili / Keawemauhili / Keaweama‘uhili: The spelling “Keaweama‘uhili” is used by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i in ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings, (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983) and in other publications.

In Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o [p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.], however, Frazier (Pūku‘i’s former assistant) notes that the spelling “Keawemauhili” more properly reflects the originally intended meaning and symbolism of the name.

The Hawaiian Dictionary defines the word mauhili as: “entangled, snarled, interwoven,” and gives the example: “Keawe-a-mauhili (name), Keawe entangled [in taboo] or interwoven [as chiefly blood].” [p. 242, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

For these reasons the spelling Keawemauhili is used in this text and throughout the Hawaiian Encyclopedia.

Keawemauhili was the grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his father’s side, and great grandson of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on his mother’s side. His name reflects this lineage, and means “Keawe of the double twist,” a reference to the genealogical connection to Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] on both sides of the family.

[xxii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxiii] p. 267, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2451.

[xxiv] p. 134, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1237.

[xxv] p. 191, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1781.

[xxvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxvii] p. 282, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2565.

[xxviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxix]See pp. 330-338, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxx] ‘Alā are “dense waterworn volcanic” stones. [Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

[xxxi] p. 81, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 732.

[xxxii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxxiii] p. 309, p. xxiv, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxxiv] p. 43, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 357.

[xxxv] p. 161, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxxvi] p. 64, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 552.

[xxxvii] Ii, John Papa. Fragments of Hawaiian History. Translated by Mary Kawena Pukui; Edited by Dorothy B. Barrère. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1959.

[xxxviii] p. 76, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxxix] p. 76, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xl] p. 179, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xli] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xlii] p. 43, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 353.

[xliii] p. 227, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2541.

[xliv] p. 320, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2924.

[xlv] p. 112, 113, Wichman, Frederick B. Nā Pua Ali‘i O Kaua‘i: Ruling Chiefs of Kaua‘i. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003.

[xlvi] p. 64, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 553.

[xlvii] p. 313, 255, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2869.

[xlviii] p. 190-191, 193, and 201, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xlix] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[l] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[li] p. 254, 255, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2342.

[lii] p. 255, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2345.

[liii] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[liv] p. AA-6, Monarchy to Annexation: Queen Lili‘uokalani. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/02/2006.

[lv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lvi] p. 80, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lvii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lix] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lx] Soboleski, Hank. History makers of Kaua‘i: Queen Emma. The Garden Island, 3/17/2002.

[lxi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxii] Soboleski, Hank. History makers of Kaua‘i: Queen Emma. The Garden Island, 3/17/2002.

[lxiii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxiv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxvii] p. 182. Seiden, Allan. Hawai‘i: The Royal Legacy. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1992.

[lxviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxix] p. 143, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1311.

[lxx] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[lxxi] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[lxxii] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[lxxiii] p. 126, Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxxiv] p. 126, Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxxv]p. 182, Seiden, Allan. Hawai‘i: The Royal Legacy. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1992.

[lxxvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxxvii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Mookini. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxxviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[lxxix] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lxxx] Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983.

[lxxxi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[lxxxii] Aloha Flight 243: Air Disaster. Internet site: http://www.disastercity.com/flt243/index.htm, 9/01/2001.

[lxxxiii] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[lxxxiv] Hoover, Will. Slain elephant left tenuous legacy in animal rights: Deadly rampage by Tyke 10 years ago remembered vividly. The Honolulu Advertiser, 8/20/2004.

[lxxxv] Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[lxxxvi] Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[lxxxvii] Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[lxxxviii] Letter of Charles Reed Bishop, Feb. 11, 1897, cited in: Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[lxxxix] Letter of Charles Reed Bishop, February 20, 1901, cited in: Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[xc] Letter of Charles Reed Bishop, February 20, 1901, cited in: Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[xci] Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[xcii] Text of the Court Ruling in Doe vs. Kamehameha Schools, November 17, 2003. Internet site: http: http://gohawaii.about.com/library/weekly/bl_doe_vs_kamehameha.htm, 4/19/2007.

[xciii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xciv] Name comes from four separate words. The Honolulu Advertiser, 3/03/2007.

[xcv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[xcvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[xcvii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[xcviii] Name comes from four separate words. The Honolulu Advertiser, 3/03/2007.

[xcix] Yoshida, Thomas. Appeals Court: Kamehameha Schools Admissions Policy Legally Justified. http://www.ksbe.edu/article.php?story=20061205113215671.