Part 2 Glossary (M-S)

MacFarlane, HenryIntroduced gas lighting in his billiard saloon at Honolulu’s Commercial Hotel in November of 1858; this was the first introduction of gas lighting in the Hawaiian Islands; soon gas lighting was widely used in Honolulu.

Machado, LenaBorn in 1903; known as “Auntie Lena”; renowned Hawaiian composer and falsetto; wrote and preformed traditional Hawaiian music; prominent during 1930s and 1940s in both Hawaiian and hapa-haole; her well-known compositions include: E Ku‘u Baby, Kauohamai; and Ei Nei; known for her introduction of Latin beats; her music remains popular today for hula performers.

MacIntosh, S. D.Began publication, on July 30, 1836 with Nelson Hall, of the four-page weekly Sandwich Island Gazette and Journal of Commerce, the first English-language newspaper in the Hawaiian Islands and the first weekly English-language newspaper published west of the Rockies; the weekly continued publication until July of 1839.

MacIntyre, DonaldLandscape architect; along with Samuel Mills Damon (1845—1924) and A. Garvie, built the first golf course in the Hawaiian Islands in Moanalua Valley, O‘ahu in 1898.

MacKay, JohnArrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 20, 1787 on the fur-trading British ship Imperial Eagle, which was under the command of Charles William Barkley; Irish; former surgeon’s mate; lived for one year among the Native Americans of the Nootka Sound (the first European to live there); thought to have been the first white resident of the Hawaiian Islands; settled on the Kona Coast on or before 1790 (he was there when the schooner Fair American was attacked by Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]). (See the Olowalu Massacre, Chapter 12.)

MacKenzie, Albert J.Forest ranger; named after him is MacKenzie State Park in Hawai‘i Island’s Puna district.

MacNeil, WilburPunahou School science teacher; named after him is the MacNeil Hall Observatory and Science Center, built at Honolulu’s Punahou School in 1956.

Maertens, WilliamCousin of Conrad Carl Von Hamm (1870—1965); senior partner in the importing firm of Hoffschlaeger & Company.

Maigret, Louis Desire (1804—1882)—Attended school in France; ordained in Rouen (1828); after serving in the South Pacific and Chile; became Hawai‘i’s first Catholic bishop; the events leading up to Maigret’s arrival in the Hawaiian Islands began when Jean-Baptiste Jassont Lafayette (John) Rives (1793—1833), during an 1823 voyage to England (he had lived in the Hawaiian Islands since 1910), became the initial proponent of the French colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and for establishing the Catholic religion there; his efforts led to later arrivals of French warships; the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu; Legoarant De Tromelin, a Rear Admiral in the French Navy; arrived in Honolulu in April of 1848 in command of two French ships: the Gassendi (a steam corvette) and La Poursuivante; demanded equality of worship and an end to duties on French imports, claiming these acts violated an earlier treaty; his ten demands were sent to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and included equality of worship; engaged in reprisals that included taking over government buildings and ransacking Fort Kekuanohu in Honolulu and seizing the yacht of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); departed ten days later, taking with him Guillaume Patrice Dillon, the French Consul, whose complaints had initiated the conflict. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Maipinepine, Abigail KuaihelaniWife of James Campbell (1826—1900); mother of Abigail Wahiikaakuula (Campbell) Kawānakoa (1882—1945).

Maitland, LesterLieutenant in the United States Army; with Lieutenant Albert Hegenberger, completed the first non-stop flight to the Hawaiian Islands (Wheeler Field at Schofield Barracks, O‘ahu) from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California) in the Fokker C-2-3 Wright 220 tri-motor plane Bird of Paradise on June 28-29, 1927; the flight took 25 hours and 50 minutes; at the time, this was the longest all-water flight. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

MakanaInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Makino, Frederick K. (1877—1953)—Born in Yokohama; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1899; employed in the Nā‘ālehu, Maui general store owned by his brother Jo Makino; after working for Kona Sugar Company and Honokaa [Honoka‘a] Sugar Company, founded Makino Drug Company in Honolulu in 1903; also in 1903, married Michiye Okamura; on December 7, 1912, founded the Japanese language newspaper Hawaii Hochi (an English language section was added to the paper in 1925); leader on the side of labor during the 1909 O‘ahu sugar workers’ strike, which resulted in pay raises for workers but landed him in jail for more than four months (March, 1911—July, 1911); fought to have Japanese schoolteachers allowed into the Hawaiian Islands, eventually winning his case in the Supreme Court; won another case before the Supreme Court in 1927 regarding 87 Japanese language schools. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

Makino, Michiye OkamuraFrom Kaua‘i; married Frederick K. Makino (1877—1953) in 1903.

Makino, JoBrother of Frederick K. Makino (1877—1953).

Malapit, Eduardo E.Served as Mayor of Kaua‘i County (19741982).

Mallet, S.Sent from Tahiti to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; [on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines]; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

ManikiFather of John Makini Kapena (1843—1887).

Manlapit, Pablo (1890—1969)—Born in Philippines; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in 1910 as a plantation laborer; participated in disputes between the plantation laborers and Honolulu stevedores; became an influential Filipino (Tagalog) labor leader; in the following decades, living conditions on plantations became exceedingly harsh for many plantation workers who had little recourse against extremely powerful plantation owners; significant labor unrest on sugarcane plantations in the Hawaiian Islands led to many strikes and protests; by 1916, more than 18,000 Filipino workers had arrived in the Hawaiian Islands, rising to 120,000 by 1931 as Filipinos replaced Japanese as the majority of plantation workers; many more Filipinos arrived in the Hawaiian Islands after the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act allowed reunification of family members as well as professionals and skilled workers; Manlapit established the Filipino Labor Union in 1919 to improve working conditions and demand higher wages for Filipino laborers; the Filipino leader Manlapit along with Japanese labor leaders led the Higher Wages Movement, but the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association continued to reject their demands; separate strikes by Japanese and Filipino workers in 1920 were unsuccessful, and more than 12,000 workers were evicted; Manlapit called for a strike on April 1, 1924; that led to what became known as the “Hanapēpē Massacre” on September 9, 1924, on Kaua‘i when sixteen Filipino sugarcane plantation workers and four Hanapēpē police officers died during a brutal suppression of an eight-month strike; the Filipinos were protesting the fact that they earned only about $10 per day, which was only about half as much as Chinese and Japanese plantation workers; the striking Filipino plantation workers were primarily Visayans (from the northern Philippines); they sometimes had disagreements with other Filipino sugar plantation workers, including the Ilocanos (from the south-central Philippines); when two Ilocano boys rode their bikes from their camp at Makaweli to Hanapēpē on September 8, 1924 to buy shoes, they were confronted by about 100 Visayans who wanted them to join their strike; the two Ilocano workers resisted and were held by the Visayans in a former Japanese schoolhouse; the next day police arrived to rescue the two workers being held by the strikers; the police retrieved the two workers and were leaving the Japanese schoolhouse without any problems when the first shots were suddenly fired, which quickly led to a pitched battle lasting several hours, with police hunting down the fleeing workers including some who hid in the sugarcane fields; more than 100 workers were arrested and more than 50 were imprisoned up to four years for “rioting”; news reports of the incident reported that the first shots were fired by workers, but later accounts and interviews determined it was unclear who began the shooting; some blamed the incident on the lack of training among the sheriffs and armed police officers who were sent to retrieve the workers; these “special service” police officers were said to be predominantly local farmers and hunters (mostly Chinese, Portuguese, and Hawaiians) who were deputized as police officers, and were not prepared for such a tense and volatile situation; more than 200 National Guard soldiers arrived in the days after the incident to keep order; a “mass funeral” was held for 15 of the 16 workers, who were buried in rough wooden caskets in one large trench dug above Hanapēpē Bay, near a Chinese graveyard where one of the sheriff deputies was buried; Manlapit served four years in Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison before being released; he was pardoned by Governor Oren Ethelbert Long (1889—1965); moved to California, where he was accused of helping Communists in fomenting strikes by Filipino agricultural workers; by 1930, Filipinos comprised 70% of the plantation work force in the Hawaiian Islands, up from 19% in 1917; the Filipino Labor Federation was revitalized in 1932 by Pablo Manlapit and renamed Vibora Luviminda; in 1933, Manlapit returned to the Hawaiian Islands and formed the Hawaii [Hawai‘i] Labor Association; expelled from Hawaiian Islands in 1934 and returned to the Philippines where he served as president of the American-Hawaiian-Philippines Labor Federation; a 1937 strike in Pu‘unēnē, Maui won Filipino workers significant benefits, but those responsible for organizing the strike were arrested; Manlapit was permanently deported; an effort by Manlapit to return to the Hawaiian Islands in 1949 was unsuccessful due to his conviction in 1924. (See Immigrant Laborers; and Unions, Chapter 12.)

Marchand, Etienne (1755—1793)—Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1791 in command of the Solide; this was the first French trading ship to come to the Hawaiian Islands, and the first French ship to arrive after French navigator Count de la Pérouse (who arrived at Maui on May 29, 1786 in command of two French naval frigates, the Boussole and the Astrolabe; Marchand was coming from America’s Northwest Coast and heading to China; later served in French National Guard.

Marcos, Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín (1917—1989)—Ousted Philippines dictator; arrived in exile in the Hawaiian Islands on February 25, 1986, aboard a United States Air Force transport plane with his wife Imelda, 89 relatives, friends and assistants, and $8 million in cash and jewels; Marcos was personally welcomed by Hawai‘i’s Governor George Ariyoshi; two months later Ariyoshi told Marcos it would be better if he lived somewhere else due to division in the Filipino community over Marcos’ presence in the Islands; remained in the Islands and lived lavishly for about 3½ years before suffering from heart and kidney problems; passed away on September 28, 1989 at the age of 72 at St. Francis Medical Center; on September 5, 1993, the body of the former Philippines President was put aboard a plane for the first leg of the trip back to his native town to be buried; a class-action suit against Marcos’ estate was filed by 9,539 Filipinos in a Hawai‘i federal court alleging past human rights abuses; in 1999, a Hawai‘i federal court judge rendered a $150 million judgment against Marcos’ estate.

Marianne [Mother Marianne Cope]—See Koob, Barbara.

 

Marín, Francisco de Paula (1774—1837)—Spaniard; served King Kamehameha I in various capacities, including as a physician, adviser, accountant and supplier of rum; planted the first pineapples in the Islands in 1813; manufactured sugar in 1819; on November 30, 1827, Marín’s child received the first baptism of the child of a foreigner in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

 

Mark TwainSee Clemens, Samuel Langhorne.

Marshall, James—In 1856, sold Kaua‘i land in the valleys of Hulē‘ia and Halekaha to Judge Herman A. Widemann (1802—1899) for $8,000, and Widemann used the land to start Grove Farm Sugar Plantation; Marshall had tried to plant sugarcane on the land but was unsuccessful to the lack of a consistent source of water.

Mars, J. C. “Bud”Completed the first airplane flight in the Hawaiian Islands on December 31, 1910, when he flew his Curtiss P18 biplane, the Honolulu Skylark, to an altitude of 500 feet (152 m); the flight took place at O‘ahu’s Moanalua Polo Field; thousands of onlookers paid $1 each to watch the event, and on a subsequent flight, Mars reaches 1,500 feet (457 m); Mars was with a group from New York’s Glenn Curtiss Aircraft Company who had brought two Curtiss P18 biplanes to the Hawaiian Islands; Mars’ flight took place about seven years after the Wright brothers made their famous first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Massie, Thalia (c.19101963)20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Massie, Thomas H.Lieutenent in the United States Navy; husband of Thalia Massie (c.19101963); indicted for second degree murder of Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was awaiting a retrial for the criminal assault of 20-year-old Thalia Massie; the events of the Massie case began after Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center); Thalia Massie was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; Thalia Massie told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Matayoshi, Herbert TatsuoServed as Mayor of Hawai‘i County; term began in 1974.

 

Matson, William (18491917)Born in Lysekil, Sweden; began sailing at age ten; captained a schooner in San Francisco at age 21; ran a fleet between San Francisco and Puget Sound; led an effort to establish a shipping line between California and the Hawaiian Islands (then called the Sandwich Islands); Matson’s first major vessel to operate, in 1882, was the 200-ton schooner Emma Claudine (this was considered the beginning of Hawai‘i’s tourism industry); soon other sailing ships were added to the fleet of Matson Navigation Ltd., including the Harvester, Lurline, and Falls of Clyde [the Falls of Clyde is now docked alongside Pier 7 in Honolulu Harbor, next to the King Kalākaua Boathouse Museum and Hawai‘i Maritime Center; the Falls of Clyde is the world’s last remaining full-rigged, four-masted ship; it was constructed in 1878 by Russell & Company of Port Glasgow, Scotland, the wrought iron Falls of Clyde has a length of 266 feet (81 m) on its deck, and a breadth of 40 feet (12 m); the ship has a mast height of 138 feet (42 m), and a net tonnage of 1,740 tons (1,579 mtons); named after the waterfalls on the river Clyde, the Falls of Clyde was the first of nine vessels of the Falls Line built by Russell & Company (see Falls of Clyde in Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum section, O‘ahu, Chapter 2); Matson Navigation purchased the Falls of Clyde for $25,000 in 1899 after the ship had already completed 20 years of service in ports around the world; a deck house, chart house, and after quarters for paying customers were added to the ship, and then from 1899 to 1907 the Falls of Clyde was used to transport sugar and people between the ports of San Francisco and Hilo on Hawai‘i Island, a trip that took about 17 days; the Falls of Clyde was the first four-masted ship to fly the Hawaiian flag]; in the Hawaiian Islands, Matson befriended Claus Spreckels, who later financed new ships for Matson’s growing shipping enterprise; in 1901, Matson Navigation Company built the 75-room Moana Hotel, designed by architect Oliver Green Traphagen for Matson Navigation Company and known as the “First Lady of Waikīkī”; opening on March 11, 1901, the Moana Hotel was the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands at the time [fifteen years later, the Moana Hotel added 100 more rooms as well as a seaside courtyard; King George V of the United Kingdom and Edward, Prince of Wales stayed at the hotel in 1920, garnering national attention]; in 1902, Matson purchased the Enterprise and converted it to burn fuel oil; in 1908, the steamer Lurline (named after Matson’s daughter) went into service, and soon after, four more steamers were added to the fleet: Matsonia, Maui, Manoa, and Wilhelmina; Matson also ran four oil tankers between Pacific ports beginning in 1903 (these petroleum interests were named Honolulu Consolidated Oil Company in 1910); in 1908, Matson Navigation Company purchased the luxurious 51-passenger steamship Lurline to carry tourists to the Hawaiian Islands; the 146-passenger Wilhelmina joined the fleet in 1910; the Matsonia began service between Honolulu and San Francisco in 1914; by the time of Captain William Matson’s death in 1917 at the age of 67, he ran a fleet of 14 large, modern ships, providing the fastest freight service in the Pacific; when World War I began in 1917, Matson’s entire fleet was offered to help support the war effort, including the transport of troops; in 1923, the Matson Building, one of the largest buildings in San Francisco, became the company’s headquarters; in 1927, Matson’s company built the $4 million Royal Hawaiian, affectionately known as the “Pink Palace”; also in 1927, the Matson Navigation Company purchased the $7.5-million premier cruise ship, the Malolo, which held up to 650 passengers and provided luxurious transportation to the fine new hotel (the Royal Hawaiian); the lavish passenger steamship Malolo was the fastest ship in the Pacific at the time, and brought many visitors to Hawai‘i from the West Coast; the success of the route led to the construction of three new, larger ships—the Mariposa, Monterey, and Lurline—between 1930 and 1932; on August 31, 1958, the cargo ship Hawaiian Merchant, owned by Matson Navigation Company, left San Francisco, California for the Hawaiian Islands carrying 20 large aluminum deck-top containers that were each 24 feet (7.3 m) long; this began a new era of shipping using stacked containers that allowed mechanization of the loading and unloading processes; in 1960, Matson’s Hawaiian Citizen went into service as the company’s first all-container ship.

Matsuda, FujioServed as President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1974—1984); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Matsunaga, Spark [Sparky] Masayuki (1916—1990)—Born on Kaua‘i’ wounded twice in battle with the 100th Battalion; awarded Bronze Star; changed his name to Spark Masayuki Matsunaga (Spark was a childhood nickname); earned a law degree from Harvard University; served in the Hawai‘i Territorial Legislature (19541959); ran a private law practice (19541963); served for Hawai‘i in the United States House of Representatives (19621976); elected to United States Senate in 1976 and served for the next 14 years; wrote The Mars Project: Journeys Beyond the Cold War (1986); after he passed away, his unexpired four-year term was completed by Daniel Akaka; after his death, the Institute for Peace at the University of Hawai‘i—Mānoa was renamed Matsunaga Institute for Peace.

 

Mavrothalassitis, GeorgeOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

 

McBryde, DuncanFrom Scotland; district court judge; leased the Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], which was called Mauna Kilohana; husband of Elizabeth McBryde, and they were the parents of Alexander McBryde.

McBryde, ElizabethWife of Duncan McBryde; purchased the ahupua‘a (natural watershed land division) of Lāwa‘i on Kaua‘i for $5,000 in 1886, after the former owner, Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], passed away in 1885; Queen Emma had visited her 4,200-acre (1,700-ha) Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate in 18701871 with an entourage of about 100 retainers and servants; they stayed at the estate, which had been deeded to Queen Emma by her aunt, Hikoni; the estate encompassed the entire ahupua‘a of Lāwa‘i; during Queen Emma’s 1870 visit to Kaua‘i, she journeyed up to the highlands forests of Kōke‘e and the Alaka‘i Swamp with her sizable retinue including hula dancers and musicians, venturing as far as the Kilohana Lookout (see Kōke‘e State Park section); in honor of her journey, the Queen renamed her Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate Mauna Kilohana; Queen Emma’s large frame house had a thatched roof, and was situated on a hill on the Kōloa side of the valley overlooking Lāwa‘i Bay; the estate also included several outbuildings, and stone walls enclosed the entire area; during Queen Emma’s visit, George Norton Wilcox (son of Wai‘oli missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox) and William O. Smith (son of Dr. James Smith, also a missionary) consulted with Queen Emma to plan an irrigation ditch to provide water to the her Lāwa‘i estate; two men were hired to construct the ditch about 1 foot (30 cm) deep and wide, and about 2 miles (3.2 km) long; the ditch to Mauna Kilohana began functioning on March 11, 1871; once water was available, Queen Emma personally assisted in the planting; after Queen Emma passed away the Lāwa‘i land was used for the production of sugarcane; the Lāwa‘i estate, known as Mauna Kilohana, had earlier been leased by Queen Emma to Duncan McBryde, a Scot, who was also the district court judge; Alexander McBryde (the son of Duncan and Elizabeth McBryde) lowered cut-up portions of the Mauna Kilohana house, originally built in 1869, down the pali (cliff) into Lāwa‘i Valley (Lāwai‘i Kai) where it became known as Queen Emma’s Cottage; in 1937, Robert Allerton paid $50,000 for the 125-acre (51-acre) McBryde Estate, and built a new house designed by architect John Gregg and furnished with antiques and expensive art. Allerton also expanded the estate’s gardens; Allerton and Gregg moved to Kaua‘i permanently in 1938 and began the detailed planning and designing of the property’s landscape, including planting many tropical, exotic and rare plants and trees; the 100-acre (40-ha) Allerton Garden includes sculptures, fountains, and pools as well as prodigious landscaping and many notable plant specimens; the National Tropical Botanical Garden acquired the site in 1971; the 252-acre (102-ha) McBryde Garden includes perhaps the largest collection of federally listed endangered plant species found anywhere; research is ongoing, and the Garden’s expert botanists and researchers have developed propagation techniques that are helping to preserve these many unique plants; the herbarium at the site includes more than 27,000 dried plant specimens, while the research library houses about 8,000 volumes and serials. (See National Tropical Botanical Garden—McBryde Garden / Allerton Garden in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.) 

 

McCandless, Elizabeth Jane (Cartright)From New York; married McCandless, Lincoln Loy (1859—1940) and they had one daughter.

McCandless, James S. (1855—?)—Originally came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1880; was soon joined by his brothers John A. McCandless (1853—?) in 1881) and Lincoln Loy McCandless (1859—1940) (in 1882); had drilled for oil in West Virginia; was informed by Samuel Gardner Wilder that the Hawaiian Islands were in need of artesian wells; in 1882, the three brothers formed a firm called McCandless Brothers, eventually drilling more than 600 wells throughout the Hawaiian Islands; drilling for water in ‘Ewa, west of Honolulu and discovering subterranean water there, which allowed Benjamin Franklin Dillingham to start a sugarcane plantation on the ‘Ewa plain; the McCandless brothers also had investments in ranching, construction projects and mines in California; the three brothers were part of the “Committee of Safety,” a small group of American and European sugar planters and financiers, including descendents of the missionaries, who were instrumental in overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893.

McCandless, John A. (1853—?)—Came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1881; his brother James S. McCandless (1855—?) had arrived in 1880, and his brother Lincoln Loy McCandless (1859—1940) arrived in 1882, and that same year the three brothers formed a firm called McCandless Brothers, eventually drilling more than 600 wells throughout the Hawaiian Islands; drilling for water in ‘Ewa, west of Honolulu and discovering subterranean water there, which allowed Benjamin Franklin Dillingham to start a sugarcane plantation on the ‘Ewa plain; the McCandless brothers also had investments in ranching, construction projects and mines in California; the three brothers were part of the “Committee of Safety,” a small group of American and European sugar planters and financiers, including descendents of the missionaries, who were instrumental in overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893.

McCandless, Lincoln Loy (18591940)Born in Pennsylvania; came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1882; his brother James S. McCandless (1855?) had arrived in 1880, and his brother John A. McCandless (1853?) had arrived in 1881; married Elizabeth Jane Cartright and they had one daughter; in 1882, the three brothers formed a firm called McCandless Brothers, eventually drilling more than 600 wells throughout the Hawaiian Islands; drilling for water in ‘Ewa, west of Honolulu and discovering subterranean water there, which allowed Benjamin Franklin Dillingham to start a sugarcane plantation on the ‘Ewa plain; Lincoln was influential in promoting the idea of a tunnel thorugh O‘ahu’s Ko‘olau range to bring water from the windward sideKahana, Waikāne, and Waiāholeto central O‘ahu; the McCandless brothers also had investments in ranching, construction projects and mines in California; the three brothers were part of the “Committee of Safety,” a small group of American and European sugar planters and financiers, including descendents of the missionaries, who were instrumental in overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893; served as a Representative (Democrat) (18891900); Senator (19021906); Territorial Delegate to Congress (Democrat) from 1933 to 1935; Lincoln owned the L.L. McCandless Building and the Armstrong Building, and was one-third owner of the McCandless Building; the Armstrong Building, which housed Japanese drygoods merchant Musashiya, was constructed in 1905 at the North King and River Streets at the entrance to Honolulu’s Chinatown district after the 1900 Chinatown fire ravaged the area; [the fire had been intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days]; the McCandless Building was constructed in 1906 and opened in 1907 in downtown Honolulu at 925 Bethel Street using blue stone; the architect was Harry Livingston Kerr; the McCandless Building, one of Honolulu’s first modern office buildings, features a wide arcade overhang on the first story, and an entryway adorned with tile and marble; the style of the McCandless Building is Beaux Arts, and it is one of the few Honolulu buildings with a functioning basement; the McCandless Building was originally planned to be a two-story building, but the plans changed in the middle of construction when it was decided that it would instead be a four-story building; a fifth story (built in a different architectural style) was added to the McCandless Building in 1914, and occupied by the Commercial Club, which later became the Chamber of Commerce.

McCarthy, Charles J. (1861—1929)—Appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in 1918 by United States President Wilson; served as governor until July 5, 1921.

McDonald, CharlesAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

McGarrett, SteveCharacter played by Jack Lord in the television series Hawaii Five-O, which ran from 1968 to 1980 on CBS; McGarrett was the head of Five-O, a special law enforcement unit; the show was the first network series to be filmed only in the Hawaiian Islands, and also the longest-running crime drama and longest running police show; there were 284 Hawaii Five-O episodes in all during the twelve-year run; at one point, the weekly show had more than 300 million viewers in 80 countries; the show is credited with significantly boosting the tourism industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

McInerny, James D.—Brother (twin) of William H. McInerny (1867—1947).

 

McInerny, William H. (1867—1947)—Brother (twin) of James D. McInerny; four-term Republican senator, serving until 1934; one of the founders of Carlos Milling Company in 1912; elected as its president in 1945.

McKay, David O.Mormon president; in 1958, dedicated the Latter Day Saints Church College of Hawai‘i in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu (the College had been established by the Mormons in 1955);.by 1971, Church College had about 1,300 students, many of whom came from various Pacific Islands; in 1974 the school became a branch campus of Provo, Utah’s Brigham Young University, a four-year college with an enrollment of about 2,000 undergraduates; the Mormon temple is considered the “cornerstone” of the college; the success of Polynesian shows put on by the college in the 1950s led to the construction of the Polynesian Cultural Center, which opened on October 12, 1963; founded by the Mormon Church, the Polynesian Cultural Center is run by the college and staffed by students; a significant expansion in 1975 made the Lā‘ie site a major O‘ahu attraction. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Mormons in the Hawaiian IslandsThe Polynesian Cultural Center, Chapter 12.)

McKinley, WilliamPresident of the United States; passage of the McKinley Tariff in 1890 by the United States eliminated advantages that Hawai‘i’s sugar producers have over foreign producers. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12); in 1897, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] visited Washington D.C. and petitioned President McKinley to restore the rights of the Hawaiian people that were lost when the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893; Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition was not acted upon by President McKinley (who favored annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States); the Provisional Government also sent a petition to Washington D.C., and that petition (unlike Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition) was acted upon; at this time, the revolutionists of the missionary party consisted of about 637 voters; President McKinley sent the annexation treaty to the Senate on June 16, 1897; Queen Lili‘uokalani submitted a formal protest, but it was ineffective; the United States Senate later claimed that President McKinley’s act of sending the bill to the United States Senate amounted to a recognition of Hawai‘i’s Provisional Government; while acknowledging that the native monarchy was overthrown, they claimed that McKinley’s recognition of the Provisional Government meant the facts would not be reviewed further by the United States; on April 24, 1898, Spain declared war on the United States with the goal of freeing Cuba from Spanish rule; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Philippines and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important coaling base for the United States fleet; this gave renewed impetus toward annexation of Hawai‘i to the United States, which was passed by a Joint Resolution of the United States Congress on July 6, 1898; the resolution passed by a vote of 42 to 21; known as the Newlands Resolution (after Congressman Frances Newlands), it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; [The Newlands Resolution Annexing Hawai‘i to the United States: “Whereas, the Government of the Republic of Hawai‘i having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitution, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands.”; “Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.”; “The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations.” Approved July 7th, 1898, William McKinley]; annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States occurred despite strong opposition by native Hawaiians, and was due in part to Hawai‘i’s strategically advantageous location during the Spanish-American War; with annexation, about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; at ‘Iolani Palace the Hawaiian flag was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i; Sanford Ballard Dole (1844—1926) became the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i (see AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, and The Newlands Resolution, Chapter 12); Camp McKinley, a tent encampment of United States infantry and engineers, was set up at Waikīkī’s Kapi‘olani Park in 1898; President William McKinley was assassinated by Leon Czolgosz in 1901, and Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States; on April 30, 1900, McKinley signed the Organic Act, establishing a Territorial government in the Hawaiian Islands, and thus Hawaiian citizens of the Republic became American citizens of the Territory of Hawai‘i; on June 14, 1900 the incorporated Territory of Hawai‘i was officially established; though Hawaiian residents became United States citizens, they were still not allowed to vote in presidential elections; the Hawaiian Islands could send one representative to Congress, and this delegate could debate and introduce bills, but could no vote; Hawaiian voters elected a House of Representatives and a Territorial Senate; any bill passed by the Hawai‘i Legislature could be vetoed by the United States Congress.

 

Meares, JohnBritish Navy lieutenant and a pioneer fur trader on America’s Northwest Coast; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the Nootka on August 2, 1787; his stop in the Hawaiian Islands was en route to China; when Meares left the Hawaiian Islands on the Nootka, he took with him Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (c.1756-1795), the half-brother of the high chief Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]; Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula thus became the first Hawaiian chief to travel to a foreign country (Canton, China); Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula went to Canton in 1787, and then returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1788 on the Iphigenia with Captain William Douglas; Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula later fought as an ally of King Kamehamaha I before being killed fighting against Kamehameha in the 1795 Battle of Nu‘uanu; Meares returned to the Hawaiian Islands again in 1788 in command of the Felice Adventurer.

 

MeijiJapanese Emperor visited by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] in Japan in March of 1881 when Kalākaua asked him to allow workers to come to the Hawaiian Islands where there was a shortage of laborers to work on the sugar plantations; the two leaders signed a treaty in 1885 permitting the large-scale immigration of sugar plantation laborers; the first official (government sponsored) Japanese contract workers to come to the Hawaiian Islands were 676 Japanese men and 158 Japanese women who arrived in Honolulu on the City of Tokio on February 8, 1885, resulting in approximately 70,000 Japanese coming to the Hawaiian Islands; [the first mass emigration of Japanese workers coming to the Hawaiian Islands to work on sugar plantations included 142 men and six women who arrived aboard the Scioto in 1868; these initial migrants, mostly tradesmen and craftsmen, did not have contracts or government permission, and were called gannenmono (“first year men”), referring to the first year of Japan’s Meiji era.] (See Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12.)

 

Melchers and ReinerRetail firm; in 1854, constructed the two-story Melchers Building of coral blocks at 51 Merchant Street in Honolulu; the style of the building is 19th Century Commercial; the Melchers Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; now covered with plaster and stucco, the building remains standing as Honolulu’s oldest commercial structure.

 

Melville, HermanOn May 2, 1843, became a pinsetter in a Honolulu bowling alley after abandoning his job on the whale ship Charles and Henry in the Marquesas, being caught and tried for mutiny, and then escaping and making his way to Lahaina and then Honolulu; in 1843, Melville left the Hawaiian Islands as an enlisted seaman aboard the U.S. warship United States; later wrote the American classic, Moby Dick.

Merriman, PeterOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Metcalfe, SimonPioneer trader on America’s Northwest Coast; in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands in 1790 when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured many natives in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this later came to be known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas, who was killed with all of the Fair American’s crew, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake) (17581810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe left his boatswain, John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.17491835), onshore and sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands without knowing if his son has been killed; the Fair American was then taken over by King Kamehameha I.

Metcalfe, Thomas18-year-old son of Simon Metcalfe, a pioneer trader on America’s Northwest Coast who was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands in 1790 when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Simon Metcalfe lured many natives in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this later came to be known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Thomas Metcalfe, who was killed with all of the Fair American’s crew, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake) (17581810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe left his boatswain, John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.17491835), onshore and sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands without knowing if his son has been killed; the Fair American was then taken over by King Kamehameha I.

Metcalf, TheophilusFirst commercial photographer in the Hawaiian Islands; took Daguerreotype photographs in 1845 that were considered to be the first photographs taken in the Islands.

Meyers, Murray & PhillipsArchitects (from New York) of the C. Brewer Building, constructed in 1930 at 827 Fort Street in Honolulu; the building’s style is Mediterranean.

 

Michener, JamesPublished the novel Hawaii in 1959; he finished the best-selling book on the day the United States Congress approved Hawaiian statehood; took up residence in the Islands in 1949 and was active in civic affairs.

Miles, EllenOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Miller, William (17951861)English soldier; participated in a revolution in Peru; became Hawai‘i’s British consul general in 1844, arriving in the Hawaiian Islands after the restoration of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), and just before the departure of Admiral Richard Thomas (17771851); [after Thomas had received complaints about activities of the Hawaiian government from Richard Charlton in Mexico, and he sent Lord George Paulet (1803—1879) of Britain to the Hawaiian Islands; Paulet arrived on the frigate Carysfort on February 10, 1843, and after hearing the angry complaints of Alexander Simpson, Paulet threatened to use his military might (the ship’s cannons, which could bombard Honolulu), and demanded a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain; Paulet also took over three schooners belonging to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); and demanded $100,000; King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) was summoned from Lahaina and acquiesced to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag was raised in Honolulu; a confrontation over Hawai‘i’s independence was avoided when Judd’s appeals resulted in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Lord George Paulet’s superior, Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas (1777—1851) on July 26, 1843, on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin; Thomas rescinded the cession on July 31, 1843 and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli)]; Miller brought with him a treaty similar to the treaty King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had been forced to sign in 1839 under the threat of British military force; the treaty brought by Miller was signed on February 12, 1844.

Mink, Patsy Matsu TakemotoBorn in Pā‘ia, Maui on Dec. 6, 1927; elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1956, serving until 1958 as the first Asian-American woman elected to the Legislature; member of the State Senate (19631964); became the first Asian-American woman elected to the United States Congress, serving as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1964 to 1976; instrumental in the 1972 passage of Title IX legislation prohibiting gender discrimination in athletics or academics by all institutions receiving federal funds; the Women’s Educational Equity Act (Title IX) went into effect in 1975; again elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1990, serving until she passed away on September 28, 2002 due to viral pneumonia.

Mitchell, James “Kimo”Disappeared with George Jarrett Helm Jr. in 1977 during their attempt to reclaim Kaho‘olawe for native Hawaiians. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Moir, Alexandra “Sandie” (Knudsen)Wife of Hector Moir; their home was the plantation manor house at Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation on Kaua‘i, and their personal gardens around the home are now known as Moir Gardens, encompassing 35 acres (14 ha) across Po‘ipū Road (Hwy. 520) from the Po‘ipū Village Shopping Center; the expansive gardens, including many exotic cacti and succulents, have grown larger over the years, and are now surrounded by the Kiahuna Plantation Resort and Plantation Gardens Restaurant, located in the former Moir residence, the plantation manor house, built in the early 1930s and now refurbished with cherry wood floors and trimmed with native koa (Acacia koa); Sandie Moir’s father gave the newlyweds the house as a wedding gift; the Moir’s hosted many social events in the home, which became a center of plantation society [Plantation Garden Restaurant, 808-742-2216, 2253 Po‘ipū Road, Kōloa].

Moir, HectorSugar plantation manager for Koloa [Kōloa] Sugar Company on Kaua‘i beginning in 1933; his wife was Alexandra “Sandie” Knudsen Moir and their home was the plantation manor house at Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation on Kaua‘i; their personal gardens around the home are now known as Moir Gardens, encompassing 35 acres (14 ha) across Po‘ipū Road (Hwy. 520) from the Po‘ipū Village Shopping Center; the expansive gardens, including many exotic cacti and succulents, have grown larger over the years, and are now surrounded by the Kiahuna Plantation Resort and Plantation Gardens Restaurant, located in the former Moir residence, the plantation manor house, built in the early 1930s and now refurbished with cherry wood floors and trimmed with native koa (Acacia koa); Sandie Moir’s father gave the newlyweds the house as a wedding gift; the Moir’s hosted many social events in the home, which became a center of plantation society [Plantation Garden Restaurant, 808-742-2216, 2253 Po‘ipū Road, Kōloa].

Moir, John Troup (18591933)Born in Cookney, Kincardineshire, Scotland; arrived in Honolulu in 1848 and worked as a field foreman on Hawai‘i Island at the Waiakea Plantation; later managed Onomea Sugar Plantation at Pāpa‘ikou; served as president of Hilo Electric Light Company; in 1889, married Louisa Silver and they would have five sons.

Moir, Louisa (Silver)Wife of John Troup Moir (18591933); they married in 1889, and had five sons.

Monsarrat, James Melville (1854—1943)—Born in Honolulu to Elizabeth Jane Dowsett and a father who had been deputy collector of customs (father arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1850s from Canada); educated at O‘ahu’s Punahou School; then Kilkenny College in Ireland for two years; earned a law degree from Harvard University (1878).

Moon, PeterInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Moreno, Celso Caeser (1830—1901)—Graduate of naval academy in Genoa, Italy; served in Crimean War; attended University of Genoa where he earned a degree in civil engineering; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in November of 1879; advocated various projects to King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], including a trans-Pacific cable, a steamship line, and opium importation; King Kalākaua’s Cabinet opposed the proposals, and because of this the Cabinet was dissolved by the monarch on August 14, 1880; Kalākaua then appointed Moreno as the Minister of Foreign Affairs; five days later Moreno resigned under pressure and soon was sent by King Kalākaua to Italy as a guardian over the education of three young Hawaiians, including Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903).

Morgan, JuliaArchitect of the YWCA Building, which opened in 1927 at 1040 Richards Street in downtown Honolulu; built in the Mediterranean style, the YWCA Building consists of two structures linked by a two-story loggia, and includes an outdoor court area and 61-foot (18.6-m) swimming pool; the entrance structure, which includes a stage and auditorium, was named Elizabeth Fuller Memorial Hall after a Hawaiian girl who died while touring with Hawaiian performers in India; Morgan, also designed Hearst’s San Simeon in California; the YWCA Building was the first major structure in the Hawaiian Islands designed completely by women (Morgan and landscape architect Catherine Jones Richards); the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

Morse, StephenOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Mother Marianne CopeSee Koob, Barbara.

Munn, BethuelAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Moloka‘i’s Kalua‘aha mission station (which was established in 1832).

Murdock, David H.Businessman; chief executive of the “Big Five” company Castle & Cooke; in 1985, purchased ninety-eight percent of the island of Lāna‘i; eventually ended pineapple production on Lāna‘i (see The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12) and initiated the construction of two new luxury resorts: the Mānele Bay Hotel on the beach, and the Lodge at Kō‘ele in the mountains, as well as expensive townhouses; [James Drummond Dole (1877—1958) formed the Hawaiian Pineapple Company on December 4, 1901; Dole purchased 98% of the island of Lāna‘i in 1922 for $1,100,000, and soon had 19,000 acres (7,689 ha) of pineapples planted, producing almost one-third of the world’s pineapple crop; pineapple production peaked in 1955, with 76,700 acres (31,039 ha) planted]; after Castle & Cooke obtained an interest in the Hawaiian Pineapple Company, which was renamed Dole Company and became part of the food division of Castle & Cooke, billionaire David Murdock (the owner), separated the companies again in the 1990s; under Murdock, Castle & Cooke currently owns much of Lāna‘i (see Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2), which was developed as a resort destination; the company also owns a significant amount of land on O‘ahu.

Murphy, Columba (Brother)British subject; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1835 as part of a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Islands; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; [the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California]; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived; following Murphy’s arrival was the arrival of Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

MusashiyaJapanese drygoods merchant; in 1905, ran business in the newly constructed Armstrong Building at the corner of North King and River Streets at the entrance to Honolulu’s Chinatown district, which had been devastated by the 1900 Chinatown fire; the fire had been intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days.

Musick, EdwinCaptain of the 19-ton (17-mton), 32-passenger amphibian Pan American Clipper Ship on April 17, 1935 when it made its pioneer flight from Alameda, California to the Hawaiian Islands with no passengers, landing at Pearl Harbor after a 19 hour and 48 minute flight (an average flight speed of about 140 miles per hour (225 kilometers per hour); the pilot, Captain Musick, and his crew of five, were greeted by about 2,500 people including Governor Joseph B. Poindexter (1869—1951).

Nakuina, MosesReverend; second husband of Emma K. (Metcalf) Beckley (1847—1929) (formerly the wife of Frederick William K. Beckley); deputy registrar of conveyances.

Nelson, CarlyleHusband of Clarissa Haili (Hilo Hattie); from North Dakota; violinist.

Newell, Ursula SophiaMarried John S. Emerson (1800—1867) in October of 1831; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; the couple served at the missionary station they opened in Waialua, O‘ahu, from 1832 to1842; John and Ursula Emerson had eight children, including Nathaniel Bright Emerson, who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War and published several translations of Hawaiian literature.

Newlands, FrancesUnited States Congressman; authored the Newlands Resolution, which was passed by a Joint Resolution of the United States Congress on July 6, 1898; [on April 24, 1898, Spain declared war on the United States with the goal of freeing Cuba from Spanish rule; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Philippines and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important coaling base for the United States fleet; this gave renewed impetus toward annexation of Hawai‘i to the United States]; the Newlands Resolution passed by a vote of 42 to 21; it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; [The Newlands Resolution Annexing Hawai‘i to the United States: “Whereas, the Government of the Republic of Hawai‘i having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitution, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands.”; “Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.”; “The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations.” Approved July 7th, 1898, William McKinley]; annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States occurred despite strong opposition by native Hawaiians, and was due in part to Hawai‘i’s strategically advantageous location during the Spanish-American War; with annexation, about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; at ‘Iolani Palace the Hawaiian flag was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i; Sanford Ballard Dole (1844—1926) became the first Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i (see AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, and The Newlands Resolution, Chapter 12);

Newman, PaulArrived in the Hawaiian Islands from San Francisco in 1884; King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] made him a noble, and later he became a member of the Cabinet of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; he then defended her when she was tried for treason as a result of the events that occurred on January 6, 1895, when a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; on January 16, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for misprision of treason (knowing of treason, the attempted counter-revolution, but not disclosing it); on February 5, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was arraigned before a military commission for treason, a charge that was later changed to misprision of treason, which involved knowing of treason (the attempted counter-revolution) but not disclosing it; on February 27, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was found guilty of misprision of treason and sentenced to a fine of $5,000 and imprisonment with hard labor for five years; this sentence was not carried out, though Lili‘uokalani remained imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for seven months; she was released from confinement on September 6, 1895; then confined to Washington Place until February 6, 1896; and then island-restricted until October 6, 1896. (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

Nicol, John—Served as the cooper on Nathaniel Portlock’s flagship King George.

 

Nimitz, Chester William (1885—1966)—Born in Fredericksburg, Texas; attended United States Naval Academy, graduating in 1905; during World War I, served as the chief of staff to the submarine force commander; became Commander of the Pacific fleet (succeeding Admiral Husband Edward Kimmel) on December 17, 1941; Japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, entering the United States into World War II. (See Pearl Harbor, Chapter 12); Japan’s naval fleet later attempted to secure Midway Atoll, which is about 1,309 miles (2,107 km) northwest of Honolulu; on June 4, 1942, American fighter pilots and dive bombers sank four carriers of the Japanese naval fleet along with three Japanese destroyers and two cruisers near Midway Atoll in the Battle of Midway, securing the strategic Navy base location for the duration of the war and also providing a strategic port location for submarines and ships; United States forces also lost an aircraft carrier, the Yorktown, in the Battle of Midway, as well as one destroyer; Japanese ships that were sunk to the north of Midway Atoll included the Hiryu, Akagi, Soryu, and Kaga; on June 5, 1942, United States Admiral Nimitz, the commander of the Pacific Fleet, announced the United States victory over the Japanese Fleet at Midway; the Battle of Midway became a turning point of World War II, securing Midway as a strategic Navy base location for the duration of the war and providing a strategic port location for submarines and ships; during this time about 1,500 people lived on Midway Atoll, which has a total area of about 2.5 square miles (6.5 sq. km). (See Midway Atoll in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands section, Chapter 2); became five-star admiral in December of 1944; named after him is the Nimitz highway between Honolulu and Pearl Harbor.

Nixon, RichardPresident of the United States in October of 1971 when he halted a strike by dockworkers on the West Coast and in the Hawaiian Islands; the strike had begun on July 1, 1971, with about 15,000 members stopping work until Nixon halted the strike for 90 days; the strike resumed the day after Christmas and continued until February, 1972, lasting 134 days in all; arrived in Honolulu on August 30, 1972 for a summit meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

Noble, Gurre P.With Eric Alfred Knudsen (18721957), published Kanuka of Kauai (Honolulu: Tongg, 1945).

Nowlein, SamuelColonel; advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; on January 3, 1895, informed fellow revolutionist Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] that officers of the Republic of Hawai‘i had discovered that they were planning to stage a counter-revolution to restore the rule of Queen Lili‘uokalani, and that the officers knew of the arms and ammunition that were going to be used for this purpose and that these arms were on a ship, the steamer Waimanalo under the command of Captain William Davies, offshore of O‘ahu; Prince Kūhiō, with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903) and John Henry Wise (1869—1937), then sailed out to the Waimanalo in a canoe at Queen Lili‘uokalani’s Waikīkī boathouse; the weapons had been loaded into two boats; under the command of Wilcox, the two boats sailed for Moloka‘i until out of sight of the Waimanalo, then headed to Kāhala where the men buried the weapons under the sand; [on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; hundreds of men were arrested; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; in all, 37 people were found guilty of treason and open rebellion, 141 guilty of treason, and 12 guilty of misprision; twenty-two people were exiled to the United States].

Ogden, MariaAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Kaua‘i’s Waimea mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823); served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); served at Punahou School on O‘ahu [Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children was established in 1841 by Hiram Bingham (17891869); the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College].

Onizuka, EllisonFirst Hawai‘i-born astronaut and first American of Japanese ancestry to fly in space; initially flew into space aboard the space shuttle Discovery in 1985; Major Onizuka died January 28, 1986, along with the crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger as it exploded after takeoff from Florida’s Kennedy Space Center.

Orvis, Mae ZenkeNamed after her is the Orvis Auditorium, completed in 1961 in Honolulu on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa; her husband donated the building.

Osborne, J. G.Architect of the Kamehameha V Post Office Building, which was constructed in 1871 on Merchant and Bethel Streets in downtown Honolulu; the building was constructed in the Renaissance Revival, and became the main Honolulu Post Office until 1922; the Kamehameha V Post Office Building remains today as America’s oldest reinforced concrete building, and is now occupied by the State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.

Osbourne, Lloyd (1868—1947)—Son of Fanny Stevenson (formerly Mrs. Fanny Osbourne); stepson of Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894); in collaboration with Robert Louis Stevenson, wrote the Pacific adventure novel The Wrecker, which was based on an event that occurred when Stevenson was visiting the Hawaiian Islands, and had been reported in the newspapers in Honolulu; also collaborated with Stevenson on The Ebb-Tide; after Stevenson passed away in 1894, served as American Vice Consul at Sāmoa; later authored fiction and plays in New York.

O’Shaughnessy, M. M.Well-known hydraulic engineer; designed the Kohala Ditch, which was completed in 1905 on Hawai‘i Island after 18 months of construction, tapping the rivers of the Kohala mountains to irrigate the region’s sugar plantations; the Kohala Ditch was an engineering feat that included flumes and tunnels spanning 17 miles (27 km), requiring a long and difficult construction process took 17 lives.

Ota, Amy FergusonOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Oyakawa, YoshioOne of the three Hawaiian residents to win a gold medal in the 1952 Helsinki Olympics; Oyakawa’s medal was in the 100-meter backstroke; the other two winners were Ford Konno (1,500-meter freestyle), and William Woolsey (800-meter freestyle relay).

Padovani, PhilippeOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Pahinui, CyrilBorn in 1950; son of Gabby Pahinui; influential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist; began public performances at age 15; first record was made in 1968 with The Sunday Manoa; spent two years in the United States Army; played on all five of his father’s pioneering and influential albums; in 1975, formed The Sandwich Isle Band, which was one of the first to feature the steel guitar and revive jazz-influenced songs from the 1920s and 1930s; the slack key style gained wider popularity in the 1960s and 1970s due to the inspired talents of Pahinui as well as other slack key pioneers such as Sonny Chillingworth, Leonard Kwan, and Atta Isaacs (see Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12); joined the Peter Moon Band in 1979; won Nā Hōkū Hanohano Awards for Best Contemporary Hawaiian Album and Best Male Vocalist from the Hawai‘i Academy of Recording Arts; won the 1994 Nā Hōkū Hanohano for Instrumental Album of the Year for his album 6 & 12 String Slack Key, then the 2000 Nā Hōkū Hanohano Award for Instrumental Album of the Year for Four Hands Sweet & Hot; played on Masters of Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar, Volume 1, which won the 48th Grammy Award for Best Hawaiian Music Album; played on Legends of Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar—Live from Maui, which won the 49th Annual Grammy Award for Best Hawaiian Music Album. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Pahinui, GabbyCompleted the first slack key recordings in 1946 and 1947, including a series of ground-breaking records that for the first time allowed the general public to experience the unique art form; one of Hawai‘i’s most influential slack-key guitarists; father of Cyril Pahinui; the slack key style gained wider popularity in the 1960s and 1970s due to the inspired talents of Pahinui as well as other slack key pioneers such as Sonny Chillingworth, Leonard Kwan, and Atta Isaacs. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Paris, Ella Hudson (1852—1938)—Daughter of John Davis Paris (1809—1892) and Mary (Carpenter) Paris; English teacher in Kona on Hawai‘i Island; assistant for Lanakila Church Sunday School for eight years; for over 30 years, served as Superintendent of Kealakekua’s Kahikolu Trinity Church Sunday School; under the pen name Hualalai, translated over 100 church songs from English into the Hawaiian language.

Paris, John Davis (1809—1892)—Born in Virginia; after two years at Indiana’s Hanover College, graduated from Maine’s Bangor Theological Seminary (1839); in October of 1840, married Mary Grant; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 21, 1841, with the Ninth Company of American missionaries on the Gloucester, which was under the command of Captain Easterbrook (after a difficult 188-day voyage through inclement weather, and including a stop in Brazil for repairs and another stop in Chile); began serving at the Wai‘ōhinu mission station in 1841, the same year it was established; John and Mary had two daughters, but Mary passed away in 1847; in 1851, while in the United States, John married Mary Carpenter, and she returned with him to the Hawaiian Islands; they would have two children, including Ella Hudson Paris (1852—1938); served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kealakekua mission station (1852—1892); served on Hawai‘i Island at the Ka‘awaloa mission station (which was established in 1824).

Paris, Mary (Carpenter)Married American Protestant missionary John Davis Paris (1809—1892) in 1851, while he was in the United States (his first wife had passed away in 1847); returned with him to the Hawaiian Islands; they would have two children, including Ella Hudson Paris (1852—1938).

 

Paris, Mary (Grant)In October of 1840, married American Protestant missionary John Davis Paris (1809—1892); they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 21, 1841, with the Ninth Company of American missionaries on the Gloucester, which was under the command of Captain Easterbrook (after a difficult 188-day voyage through inclement weather, and including a stop in Brazil for repairs and another stop in Chile); began serving at the Wai‘ōhinu mission station in 1841, the same year it was established; John and Mary had two daughters; passed away in 1847.

 

Parker, Avery F.In command of the New England when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on June 7, 1831, carrying the Fourth Company of American missionaries.

Parker, Benjamin Wyman (1803—1877)—Born in Massachusetts; graduated from Amherst College (1829) and Andover Theological Seminary (1832); married Elizabeth Baker in September of 1832 and they would have four children, including Henry Hodges Parker (1834—1927); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) in 1833 with the Sixth Company of American missionaries on the Mentor, which was under the command of Captain Rice; with is wife, and with William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and his wife Mary Ann Alexander, and Richard Armstrong (1805—1860) and his wife Clarissa Chapman Armstrong, attempted to establish a mission in the Marquesas in 1833—1834; then served at the Kāne‘ohe mission station on O‘ahu beginning in 1834.

 

Parker, Elizabeth (Baker)—Married Benjamin Wyman Parker (1803—1877) in September of 1832, and they would have four children, including Henry Hodges Parker (1834—1927); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) in 1833 with the Sixth Company of American missionaries on the Mentor, which was under the command of Captain Rice; with her husband, and with William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and his wife Mary Ann Alexander, and Richard Armstrong (1805—1860) and his wife Clarissa Chapman Armstrong, attempted to establish a mission in the Marquesas in 1833—1834; then served at Kāne‘ohe mission station on O‘ahu beginning in 1834.

 

Parker, Henry Hodges (1834—1927)—Born in Nukuhiva in the Marquesas Islands to Reverend Benjamin Wyman Parker(1803—1877) and Elizabeth (Baker) Parker; attended Punahou School on O‘ahu; studied theology under the direction of Kawaiaha‘o Church pastor Reverend Ephraim Weston Clark; ordained in 1863; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School (founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity); became assistant pastor of Kawaiaha‘o Church; then served as pastor for 50 years; delegate to the Constitutional Convention (1864); preached in the Hawaiian language (his first language); in 1922, completed a revision (begun in 1914) of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary that had previously been published by Lorrin Andrews (1795—1868); [in 1836, Andrews published the first significant Hawaiian-English dictionary (some earlier lists were published—see Hawaiian Language, Chapter 3), which included about 5,700 words and was entitled Vocabulary of Words in the Hawaiian Language; in 1865, Andrews published a Hawaiian-English Dictionary containing about 15,000 words].

Parker, John Palmer (I)Arrived at Waimea on Hawai‘i Island in 1815 to kill wild cattle for King Kamehameha I; the animals had proliferated in Waimea due to a kapu (prohibition) placed upon them with the intention of letting the animals multiply after they were brought to the island by George Vancouver; Parker first saw the Hawaiian Islands aboard a fur trading ship, and was later a supervisor of loko i‘a (fishponds) for King Kamehameha I; Parker was contracted to shoot the Hawai‘i Island cattle for their meat (Parker later claimed to have shot well more than 1,000 cattle); the meat was salted and sold to visiting ships; the hides were also exported; started a cattle ranch, and began building up a herd (now the second largest private ranch in the United States); this was the beginning of the now famous Parker Ranch; married a Hawaiian princess, the cousin of Kānekapōlei (the wife of Kalani‘ōpu‘u); Parker also built a sawmill, and acquired thousands of acres of grazing land; John Palmer Parker’s son, John Palmer Parker II, continued to increase the size of the ranch; in 1943, 30-year-old Richard Palmer Smart became the sole owner of Parker Ranch, the second largest private ranch in the United States at more than 500,000 acres (202,343 ha).

Parker, John Palmer IISon of John Palmer Parker (I); continued to increase the size of Hawai‘i Island’s Parker Ranch, which was built up by his father; in 1943, 30-year-old Richard Palmer Smart became the sole owner of Parker Ranch, the second largest private ranch in the United States at more than 500,000 acres (202,343 ha).

Patton, MariaAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

Paty, John (18071868)Came to the Hawaiian Islands from Massachusetts; beginning in 1846, served as consul for King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), and was also given the rank of commodore and appointed naval commander for the California coast; from 1850 to 1868, sailed various vessels between California and the Hawaiian Islands; in 1857, when King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) traveled to Nihoa (Hawaiian name: Mokumanu), he sent the ship Manuokawai under the command of Captain Paty to search for other lands northwest of Nihoa [Nihoa had been claimed by the Hawaiian monarchy when Queen Ka‘ahumanu traveled there in 1822; King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) reaffirmed the status of Nihoa as part of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1856]; Paty documented numerous islands and atolls including Nihoa Island (Mokumanu), Necker Island (Mokumanamana), Gardner Pinnacles (Pūhāhonu), Laysan Island (Kaūo), Lisianski Island (Papa‘āpoho), and Pearl and Hermes Atoll (Holoikauaua). (See Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

Paulding, Hiram (1797—1878)—First officer on the Dolphin, an armed schooner that arrived in Honolulu on January 16, 1826, becoming the first American warship to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands; the ship, which was under the command of John Percival (1779—1862), had just come from the Marshall Islands on a mission to retrieve the surviving mutineers of the whaling ship Globe; an account of the Dolphin crew’s adventures was published in Journal of a Cruise of the United States Schooner “Dolphin” (New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1831; reprinted Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1970, with an introduction by A. Grove Day).

Paulet, George (1803—1879)—Entered British Royal Navy in 1813; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the frigate Carysfort on February 10, 1843, having been sent by Rear Admiral Richard Darton Thomas (17771851), who had received complaints about activities of the Hawaiian government from Richard Charlton in Mexico; Paulet, after hearing the angry complaints of Alexander Simpson, threatened to use his military might (his ship’s cannons, which could bombard Honolulu), and demanded a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain; Paulet also took over three schooners belonging to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); and demanded $100,000; King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) was summoned from Lahaina and acquiesced to Paulet’s demands to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag was raised in Honolulu; King Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) resigned on May 10, 1843, bringing the public papers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[i]) to keep them from being taken by the British naval officers; Judd then wrote appeals to London and Washington for help in resisting Paulet’s illegal activities; at the Mausoleum, Judd used the coffin of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu as a desk as he wrote his appeals; when the U.S.S. Constellation arrived under the command of Commodore Lawrence Kearney caused fears of a rift between the United States and Britain; a confrontation over Hawai‘i’s independence was avoided when Judd’s appeals resulted in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Lord George Paulet’s superior, Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas (1777—1851) on July 26, 1843, on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin; Thomas rescinded the cession on July 31, 1843 and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was again raised at the place now known as Thomas Square in honor of Admiral Richard Thomas; later that day, the king gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono(“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”); the date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day (see 1843, July 31; 1849, September 11; and Restoration Day, Chapter 12); Thomas remained in the Islands for about six months until consul general William Miller (17951861) arrived with a treaty similar to the treaty King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had been forced to sign in 1839 under the threat of British military force; the treaty brought by Miller was signed on February 12, 1844.

Peacock, WalterEnglish businessman; bar owner who had the Royal Saloon Building built in 1890 in Honolulu’s Chinatown district at Nu‘uanu and Merchant Street; previously a drinking establishment was located on the site; Peacock had the new building constructed in 1889 when Merchant Street was widened; constructed of brick, the Royal Saloon is a one-story building with cast iron ornamentation and white stucco pilasters, balustrade, and cornice; around 1920, an addition was constructed on the Nu‘uanu Avenue side of the building; the Royal Saloon Building now houses Murphy’s Bar & Grill; Peacock also built the 75-room, 4-story Moana Hotel, which opened in Waikīkī on March 11, 1901; at the time it was the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands, and also Waikīkī’s first major hotel; designed by architect Oliver Green Traphagen for Matson Navigation Company, the hotel was constructed at a cost of $150,000 and was known as the “First Lady of Waikīkī”; rooms were initially $1.50 per night and each room featured a bathroom and telephone (luxurious amenities at the time); the hotel also boasted O‘ahu’s first electric elevator; fifteen years later, the Moana Hotel added 100 more rooms as well as a seaside courtyard; King George V of the United Kingdom and Edward, Prince of Wales stayed at the hotel in 1920, garnering national attention. (See Historic Waikīkī in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2).

Peirce, Henry Augustus (18081885)Honolulu merchant; in 1832, outfitted the Denmark Hill, the first whaling ship to sail under the Hawaiian flag; the ship was captained by G. W. Cole [in 1832, a total of 198 whaling ships stopped in Hawaiian ports in 1832, including 118 in Honolulu and 80 in Lahaina, and the whaling industry continued to grow]; moved to Boston and then returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1849; founded H. A. Peirce & Company with Charles Reed Bishop and Judge William Little Lee, beginning the Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation on Kaua‘i; formed a partnership with Charles Brewer and Judge William Little Lee in 1850 to transport freight from Boston to Pacific ports, utilizing C. Brewer & Company as the agents in Honolulu; helped David M. Weston found the Honolulu Iron Works in 1853.

Percival, John (17791862)Placed into Royal Navy at age 13; fought with Americans against Royal Navy in War of 1812; served on Pacific Exploring Squadron as first lieutenant under Commodore Isaac Hull on the flagship U.S.S. United States; known to be hot-tempered, earning him the nickname “Mad Jack”; in command of the armed schooner Dolphin when it arrived in Honolulu on January 16, 1826, becoming the first American warship to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands; the ship had just come from the Marshall Islands on a mission to retrieve the surviving mutineers of the whaling ship Globe; on February 26, 1826 the Dolphin crew along with other sailors who were angry about a missionary-inspired ban on women visiting ships, broke into the home of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], the kālaimoku (counselor) of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu (and formerly the kālaimoku (counselor) to King Kamehameha I); the angry sailors then broke into the home of Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869), who was known for his strict upholding of religious doctrine; Hawaiians protected Bingham from the assaults of the rowdy mob, and Percival helped to calm the sailors; upon his return to the United States Mainland after the voyage, Percival was subjected to a court-martial for actions of the sailors, but was acquitted when it was shown he tried to control the violent behavior of the sailors; an account of the Dolphin crew’s adventures was published in Journal of a Cruise of the United States Schooner “Dolphin” (New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1831; reprinted Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1970, with an introduction by A. Grove Day).

Perón, Pierre Francois (1769c.1830)—Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on December 2, 1796 on the Boston trading ship Otter under the command of Ebenezer Dorr; later wrote Memoires du Capitaine Perón Sur Ses Voyages, published in two volumes in Paris in 1824, including descriptions of King Kamehameha I and the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s; in his writings, Perón stated that there were about 27 foreigners living in the Hawaiian Islands in 1796; later became mayor of the French town of Saumur, serving in that position until 1830. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

Pérouse, Count De La [Jean François de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse]French admiral; navigator; arrived at Maui on May 29, 1786; in command of two French naval frigates, the Boussole and the Astrolabe; had been chosen by Louis XVI to command the two, 500-ton (452-mton) armed frigates; sailing along Maui’s southwest coast Pérouse is met by about 150 canoes; first made a landing on Maui on May 30, 1786 at the spot now known as La Pérouse Bay (Hawaiian name: Kalepolepo); the next day Pérouse went ashore with an armed party and exchanged gifts [Note: During Haleakalā Volcano’s most recent eruption in 1790, the volcano released an estimated 22 square miles (57 sq. km) of lava totaling nearly 1 billion cubic feet (28,300,000 cu. m) of lava; the 1790 lava flows reached the sea where they cooled and hardened, forming the Cape Kīna‘u Peninsula; these massive lava flows changed the shape of the southwest Maui coastline, and created the area now known as La Pérouse Bay, named in honor of the 1786 visit by Pérouse]; while surveying an atoll reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands on March 6, 1786; the two frigates, the Boussole and the Astrolabe, almost wrecked on the reef; the French Frigate Shoals gained their name in honor of this near mishap; this was the first documented Western discovery of French Frigate Shoals; also in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, named Necker Island after a French statesman; after other adventures, the two ships (carrying goods to trade) left Australia in 1788 and then mysteriously vanished; some 40 years later it was revealed that the ships were caught in a storm off the island of Vanicoro, part of the Santa Cruz group.

Perry, JasonPortuguese consul; in 1899, his widow constructed the Perry Building at Hotel Street and Nu‘uanu Avenue; in recent times the building has been used for office space.

Peters, HenryBishop Estate trustee on September 10, 1998 when State Attorney General Margery Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry) (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

 

Petit-Thouars, Abel Du—Arrived in Honolulu in July of 1837 as captain of the Venus, a French warship; also arriving at this time was Captain Edward Belcher on the Sulphur; Belcher and Petit-Thouars signed a pledge that Catholic priests, (Patrick Short and John Alexius (Alexis) Augustine Bachelot) would leave the Hawaiian Islands as soon as possible; on July 24, 1837, Petit-Thouars signed a treaty (although he had no authority to do so) granting French subjects in the Hawaiian Islands equality of rights with the rights granted to persons of the most favored other nation; Petit-Thouars also appointed Jules Dudoit as the French consul to Hawai‘i; later claimed Marquesas and Society Islands as French protectorates; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Petrie, Lester (1878—1956)—Born in San Francisco, California; raised in Hawaiian Islands; educated at Fort Street School; worked for Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway & Land Company for a half century; served on Honolulu Board of Supervisors (1913—1930); served four years on Territorial Senate; Mayor of City and County of Honolulu from January 2, 1941 to January 2, 1947; assisted in founding Shriner’s Hospital for Crippled Children.

Pflueger, J. C.With his brother-in-law, Heinrich (Henry) Hackfeld (1815—1887), in 1849, founded a merchandising firm in Honolulu; later moved to Fort Street (later the site of Liberty House); exported sugar and imported plantation equipment as H. Hackfeld & Company; in 1852; the German-owned H. Hackfeld & Company assets were liquidated during World War I, and then purchased by American Factors, Ltd. (later renamed Amfac), one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies (the other four were Theo H. Davies; C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke); with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom [in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)] 

Pineda, MariannaSculpted, in 1982, the bronze statue of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] that now stands between ‘Iolani Palace and the State Capitol; the statue faces Queen Lili‘uokalani’s former home, Washington Place. (See Washington Place—The Governor’s Residence, Chapter 12.)

Pinkham, Lucius Eugene (1850—1922)—First arrived in the Hawaiian Islands from the United States Mainland in 1891; left three years later; returned in 1898; retired from business in 1903; served as the president of the Territorial Board of Health (two terms); appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in November of 1913 by United States President Woodrow Wilson, serving until June 22, 1918.

PlassardCaptain of the Comète when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on July 7, 1827, carrying three Roman Catholic missionaries: Alexis Bachelot, Patrick Short, and Abraham Armand; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass.

Poepoe, Joseph M.In 1890s, lawyer, member of Hawaiian Legislature, and editor of Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a, a Hawaiian Language newspaper; wrote articles for the Hawaiian-language newspaper Ka Nai Aupuni o Hawaii in 1905-1906; these articles were later used as the primary basis of the articles written by Stephen Langhern Desha Sr. (1859—1934) that were originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii [Hōkū o Hawai‘i] (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924, and later translated by Frances N. Frazier and published as Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. (Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000).

Pogue, John Fawcett (1814—1877)—Born in Wilmington, Delaware; graduated from Ohio’s Marietta College (1840) and Ohio’s Lane Theological Seminary (1843); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 15, 1844, with the Eleventh Company of American missionaries on the brig Globe under the command of Captain Doane; initially served at Kaua‘i’s Kōloa mission station (which was established in 1834), and then beginning in 1848, served on Hawai‘i Island at the Ka‘awaloa mission station (which was established in 1824); married Maria Kapule Whitney in 1848 and they would have four children; the couple served from 1851 to 1866 at Maui’s Lahainaluna, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; then served from 1866 to 1868 on Hawai‘i Island at the Wai‘ōhinu mission station (which was established in 1841); served as secretary of the Hawaiian Board (1870—1877); served at Punahou School on O‘ahu [Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children was established in 1841 by Hiram Bingham (17891869); the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College]; also served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832).

Pogue, Maria Kapule (Whitney)Daughter of Samuel and Mercy Whitney; first female born in the Islands to missionaries; married John Fawcett Pogue (1814—1877) in 1848, and they would have four children; Maria had been on the United States Mainland for 16 years when she returned to the Hawaiian Islands on the same vessel as John Fawcett Pogue (the Globe); the couple served from 1851 to 1866 at Maui’s Lahainaluna, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; then served from 1866 to 1868 at Waiōhinu on Hawai‘i Island.

 

Poindexter, Joseph B. (1869—1951)—Born in Oregon; attended Ohio Wesleyan University; graduated from Washington University St. Louis with a law degree in 1892; Attorney General of Montana; appointed as a United States District Court in Hawai‘i in 1917; appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Democrat) by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (first and second terms), serving until August 24, 1942; as Territorial Governor, invoked Martial Law at 3:30 p.m. on December 7, 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the proclamation declaring Martial Law was signed by Hawai‘i’s Territorial Government; General Walter D. Short took over the powers of the governor [Martial Law was not lifted until October 19, 1944, imposing many restrictions on residents, including enforced blackouts (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) with blackout wardens patrolling neighborhoods]; appointed as Bernice P. Bishop estate trustee in 1943.

Pope, Willis T.Served as (acting) President of the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1907—1908); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawai‘i in 1920.

Portlock, NathanielIn command of the King George, which arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on May 24, 1786, along with the Queen Charlotte under the command of George Dixon; these were the first foreign captains to reach the Hawaiian Islands after the death of Captain Cook in 1779 when they arrived at Kealakekua Bay from London; the two ships stopped in the Hawaiian Islands on their way from London to China after having stopped at America’s Northwest Coast; both the Queen Charlotte and the King George were sponsored by the King George Sound Company, which had gained exclusive trading rights on America’s Northwest Coast in an attempt to avoid conflict with the East India Company and the South Sea Company; the ships sailed on to Waimea, Kaua‘i, and scouted out likely ports for rest and provisioning for future fur trading vessels sailing to China from the Pacific Northwest; George Dixon had been an armorer on the Discovery under Captain Cook; Nathaniel Portlock also had sailed with Cook on his third Pacific voyage, which was the first to establish Western contact with the Hawaiian Islands; the King George: first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 24, 1786; left June 13, 1786; returned November 16, 1786; spent the winter in the Hawaiian Islands, left March 3, 1787; arrived again September 27, 1787; and then left on October 7, 1787; the Queen Charlotte first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 20, 1786; left June 13, 1786; returned on November 16, 1786; departed on March 15, 1787, arrived again on September 5, 1787; and then left on September 18, 1787.

Porteus, Francis (Mainwaring)—Married Stanley David Porteus (1883—1972) in 1909.

Porteus, Stanley David (18831972)Born in Australia; married Francis Mainwaring in 1909; educated at University of Melbourne (19121916); naturalized in the United States in 1932; published Calabashes and Kings: An Introduction to Hawaii (Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books, 1954) and And Blow Not the Trumpet (Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books, 1947).

Potter, MarkWith Harry Livingston Kerr, designed the white-trimmed, red-brick Mission Memorial Building, which was constructed in 1915 by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association at 558 South King Street in Honolulu, marking the 100th anniversary of missionaries arriving in the Hawaiian Islands; the building’s style is Colonial/Greek Revival; the Mission Memorial Building includes an auditorium, and an annex was built in 1930; today the building is known as City Hall Annex and used for City and County Offices; the Mission Memorial Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, and remains as Hawai‘i’s only example of true Georgian architecture, a style common in New England and derived from British monarchy.

Prejean, Gail KawaipunaOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Preis, AlfredAustrian; fled the Nazis in 1939 and later moved to the Hawaiian Islands; architect of the Emerald Building at 1148 Bishop Street in Honolulu in 1939 (Moderne design); architect of the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor, which honors those who died in the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, an event that entered the United States into World War II; the Memorial is an open structure that is 184 feet (56 m) long, and positioned directly over the wreck of the U.S.S. Arizona where 1,177 died and 900 remain entombed; President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the creation of the Memorial in 1958; an Elvis Presley benefit concert at Honolulu’s Bloch Arena on March 25, 1961 raised about $64,000 toward the $500,000 cost of the shrine; the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial was officially dedicated on Memorial Day, May 31, 1962; designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1989, the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial is now one of the most visited attractions in the Hawaiian Islands; about 1.5 million people tour the Memorial each year. (See U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, Chapter 12.)

Presley, ElvisMade his first appearance in the Hawaiian Islands on November 10, 1957, performing in a concert at Honolulu Stadium; performed a concert at Honolulu’s Bloch Arena on March 25, 1961; the concert was a fundraiser for the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, and raised about $64,000 toward the $500,000 cost of the shrine; began filming Blue Hawaii, his most commercially successful movie, in April of 1961; in the movie, Elvis plays Chad Gates, who avoids working in his family’s pineapple business by working for a travel agency; the Hawaiian Wedding Song is sung by Elvis in the famous wedding scene atop a canoe in the lagoon at the Coco Palms hotel; other notable Elvis songs in the movie include Blue Hawaii, Rock-a-Hula Blues, Can’t Help Falling in Love, and Aloha ‘Oe, written by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in 1878; also opening in 1961 is Gidget Goes Hawaiian, starring Deborah Walley; films Paradise Hawaiian Style in 1964 on Kaua‘i, portraying ex-airline pilot Rick Richards who ran a helicopter sightseeing business and found romance at different Island locations; the movie was released in 1966, and in 1967, Elvis and Priscilla Presley married in Las Vegas, later traveling to Kaua‘i to re-enact the famous Blue Hawaii wedding scene at the Coco Palms Hotel, where Elvis renewed his vows to Priscilla; performed at O‘ahu’s Honolulu International Center (later renamed Blaisdell Center) in his Aloha From Hawaii concert in 1973; the show was broadcast live via satellite to an estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide.

Prever, RebeccaMarried pioneer shipbuilder James Robinson and had eight children, including Victoria, who married Southerner Curtis Perry Ward, who came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1860s; their estate was known as Old Plantation, and included the current site of the Neil F. Blaisdell Center; another of Robinson’s children was Mary E. (Robinson) Foster (1844—1930), wife of Thomas R. Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.

Puget, PeterJoined the Royal Navy as a midshipman at the age of 12 in 1778; rising to the rank of lieutenent, he was placed in command of the Chatham, an armed tender, on the expedition of George Vancouver (1758—1798) that made three visits annual to the Hawaiian Islands (1792—1794); in May of 1792, Puget was in command of 16 men in two boats exploring the Pacific Northwest region later named for him, Puget Sound, in Washington State; retired as a Rear Admiral of the Blue.

Purvis, EdwardPopularized the ‘ukulele; said to have been a small, quick man, and apparently the name ‘ukulele “leaping fleas” was a reference to him; others say it simply referred to the swift movements of a ‘ukulele player’s fingers [in 1879, Portuguese contract laborers arrived on the Ravenscrag bringing an instrument called the cavaquinho (on mainland Portugal) or braguinha (on Madeira) to the Hawaiian Islands; a local variant of the instrument came to be known as the ‘ukulele, and quickly became a popular instrument in the Hawaiian Islands].

Purvis, WilliamIntroduced macadamia nuts from Australia to the Hawaiian Islands in 1881 (commercial processing began in 1934, and the first major commercial crop was produced in 1956).

 

Quimper, ManuelIn command of the Princess Royal in the Hawaiian Islands in April of 1791; flying Spanish colors, the Princess Royal was formerly captained by James Colnett (c.1755—1806) before being captured by the Spanish in 1879; also in the Hawaiian Islands in April of 1791 was the Argonaut under the command of Colnett; Quimper (on the Princess Royal) and Colnett (on the Argonaut) met off the coast of Hawai‘i Island; seeing the Princess Royal under Spanish colors, and thinking the Spanish were attempting to take control of the Hawaiian Islands, Colnett came very close to firing a broadside at the ship, which he formerly captained (this later becomes known as the “Nootka Sound controversy”).

Quinn, Nancy Ellen (Witbeck)On July 11, 1942, married William Francis Quinn (1919—2006).

Quinn, William Francis (1919—2006)—First elected governor of the State of Hawai‘i; born on July 13, 1919 in Rochester, New York; on July 11, 1942, married Nancy Ellen Witbeck; served in the United States Navy in World War II from 1942 to 1946, earning the rank of lieutenent commander; after serving in World War II, graduated from cum laude from Harvard Law School (1947); appointed as governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i by Dwight D. Eisenhower (August, 1957); last Territorial Governor; served on the Hawai‘i Statehood Commission in 1957; elected as governor of the State of Hawai‘i (sworn in on August 21, 1959); elected at age 38, becoming Hawai‘i’s youngest governor; lost his re-election campaign to John Anthony Burns (1909—1975) in 1962 after winning the Republican primary against his own lieutenant governor, James (Jimmy) Kealoha; there wouldn’t be another Republican governor until Linda Lingle in 2002; loved to sing and was well known for his renditions of both “When Irish Eyes are Smiling,” and “Ka Kali Nei Au” (“The Hawaiian Wedding Song”); after his long re-election campaign, Quinn returned to practice law and was named president of Dole Company in 1965, serving in the position until 1972, when he was named a senior partner in the law firm Goodsill, Anderson, & Quinn; retired after an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate in 1976; passed away on August 8, 2006 at the age of 87.

QuoyOfficer on the French corvette L’Uranie when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) under the command of Louis Claude Desaulces de Freycinet (1779—1842) on August 8, 1819, becoming one of the first French vessels to reach the Hawaiian Islands (O‘ahu and Maui); various Hawaiian fish were collected by Quoy and another of the ship’s officers, Gaimard; the endemic Hawaiian fish hīnālea lauwili (Thalassoma duperrey, saddle wrasse) is one of the most common reef fish in Hawaiian waters, and the scientific name of the fish, Thalassoma duperrey, honors a midshipman on the L’Uranie.

Ramsey, PaulCaptain who piloted the first jet aircraft flight in the Hawaiian Islands on October 26, 1948, flying the Lockheed TO-1 Shooting Star from Barbers Point Naval Air Station to Honolulu and back in 25 minutes.

Rawlins, William JosephFrom England; began a soap factory in Pālama, Honolulu in 1837.

Rewald, RonInstigated one of the most famous corporate scandals in the history of the Hawaiian Islands in the early 1980s when he purported to have many local connections and deceived a large number of people by throwing lavish parties and staging polo matches, and eventually causing the investment firm of Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong to suffer financial collapse in August of 1983 due to his manipulations; Rewald’s activities resulted in a loss of about $20 million by 418 investors; in 1985 Rewald was convicted of 94 counts of tax evasion, perjury, and fraud, and sentenced to 18 years in federal prison; he was released in 1995 due to a back injury.

Reynolds, ArthurArchitect and designer of the Territorial Office Building, which opened in 1926 at 425 South King Street; designed in the Classical Revival style, the structure is also known as the Kekūanaō‘a Building, after Mataio Kekūanaō‘a, the father of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani; designer and architect of Aloha Tower, which opened on the waterfront at Honolulu Harbor in 1926, becoming the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands and Hawai‘i’s first skyscraper; Aloha Tower is 184 feet, 2 inches (56 m) high, topped with a 40-foot (12-m) flagstaff and a 7-ton (6.4-mton) clock, and featuring balconied openings; each side of the tower has a clock face and the word “Aloha.” (See Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12; also see Ripley & Reynolds.)

Rhee, SyngmanSouth Korea’s first president; went into exile in the Hawaiian Islands; founded the Korean Christian Church in Honolulu in 1918, and Honpa Hongwanji Mission (the world’s first reinforced concrete Buddhist temple) was built to commemorate the Shin sect of Buddhism’s 700th anniversary; a Korean Christian Church was built on Liliha Street in 1938, and the front of the building replicates Kwang Wha Mun gate in Seoul, Korea; in 1913; the Korean Girls’ Seminary was founded by Dr. Syngman Rhee at Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu in 1913 (renamed Korean Christian Institute in 1918); the Honpa Hongwanji Mission in the Islands began in 1889 with a small church on Emma Street.

Rhodes, GodfreyBritish subject; sea captain; on September 8, 1842, in Hanalei, Kaua‘i, established first commercial coffee plantation in the Hawaiian Islands with Frenchman John Bernard on the estate that would one day become “Princeville”; Rhodes and Bernard obtained a 50-year Government lease of 90 acres (35 ha) of land on the east side of the Hanalei River and 60 acres (24.3 ha) on the west side of the river; on this Hanalei land, Rhodes and Bernard began their coffee plantation; in 1843—1844, Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg and Archibald Archer leased a portion of the Bernard/Rhodes land and also grew coffee in an area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna; Rhodes left for Australia in 1844, selling his interest in the coffee operation to Bernard; the following year, Bernard traveled to Honolulu to deal with his financial troubles; when he left Honolulu to return to Kaua‘i on April 18, 1845, he boarded the schooner Paalua (which he had built) and sailed for Hanalei. Tragically, on April 19, 1845 the Paalua sank just a few hundred yards offshore of Hanalei, killing Bernard and several others; on June 16, 1845, Frenchman John Bernard’s estate in Hanalei was bought by John K. Von Pfister and Godfrey Rhodes; Rhodes had just returned from Sydney, Australia, and for a time he was in charge of the bark Clementine owned by Jules Dudoit, who became the French consul in Honolulu; Rhodes made numerous voyages to South America and the Northwest Coast, and many Hawaiians referred to him affectionately as Kapena Loke (“Captain Rose”); Rhodes and Von Pfister’s Hanalei estate became known as the Rhodes & Company Coffee Plantation; Rhodes built a home called Kikiula in 1845 on a plateau atop a bluff above a bend in the Hanalei River; the two-room, stone plantation home was constructed with thick walls and deep-silled windows, and was plastered on the inside and outside; notable for its spectacular mountain and valley views, Kikiula was located along the former road that descended into Hanalei Valley; the sister of Godfrey Rhodes married an expert horticulturalist named Thomas Brown who worked with Rhodes to build a substantial coffee plantation of nearly 1,000 acres; in October of 1845, Rhodes and Von Pfister formed a partnership with retired English Naval Officer Captain Henry Samuel Hunt; at this time about 750 acres (304 ha) in Hanalei Valley were controlled by Rhodes and Von Pfister, and an estimated 1,000 acres (405 ha) of Hanalei Valley were cultivated in coffee; the coffee mill of the Rhodes & Co. Coffee Plantation was built on Hanalei Valley’s eastern slope, just above the current site of the Hanalei Bridge; together, the coffee plantation of Charles Titcomb and the neighboring plantation of Bernard and Rhodes had more than 100,000 coffee trees planted by 1846; Von Pfister left the Hawaiian Islands to participate in the California Gold Rush and was later murdered in San Francisco. Rhodes became the sole owner of the coffee enterprise after Von Pfister left; the plantation was hindered by the loss of labor to the California Gold Rush, and rains and floods did extensive damage to the crop in 1847; the following years also brought epidemics that killed many Hawaiians; in 1851 the coffee plantation suffered the severe effects of a drought, yet a significant amount of coffee was produced; according to the statistics of the Agricultural Society, between July of 1850 and June of 1851, more than 21,000 pounds of coffee were exported from Hanalei along with other crops; Godfrey Rhodes was vice president of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society in 1851; Rhodes’ partner Henry Hunt, like Von Pfister, also left the Hawaiian Islands, and Rhodes inherited the estate; the importation of Chinese laborers and the end of the drought eventually helped to return the coffee fields of Hanalei to significant production; unfortunately, a blight caused by the white hairy louse (a species of aphid), damaged the coffee crops in Hanalei and brought the enterprise to an end. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

RiceCaptain of the Mentor when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) in 1833 carrying the Sixth Company of American missionaries; on board was Reverend John Diell (1808—1841), who later opened the Seamen’s Bethel in Honolulu, and organized the O‘ahu Bethel Church.

Rice, CharlesFather of Juliet (Rice) Wichman (1901—1987).

Rice, Harold “Freddy”Fifth-generation kama‘āina (Hawai‘i-born) who filed a lawsuit against the State of Hawai‘i after he was barred from voting in an Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) election; in February of 2002, in the legal case Rice vs. Cayetano, the United States Supreme Court ruled (7 to 2) that Hawaiians-only voting in elections for trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) violates the United States Constitution’s 15th Amendment, which bans race-based voting restrictions.

 

Rice, Mary Sophia (Hyde)Born in Seneca Village, New York in 1816; married William Harrison Rice (1813—1862) on September 28, 1840; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 21, 1841, with the Ninth Company of American missionaries on the Gloucester, which was under the command of Captain Easterbrook (after a difficult 188-day voyage through inclement weather, and including a stop in Brazil for repairs and another stop in Chile); served at the mission station at Hāna, Maui (18411844); worked at O‘ahu’s Punahou School until 1854 and then they moved to Kaua‘i where her husband became manager of H. A. Peirce & Company (which became Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation Company in 1859); Mary and William had five children, including William Hyde Rice and Hannah Maria Rice (who married Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903); taught Sunday School at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Hawaiian Church; the Rice’s Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i home (which remained until 1875), was called Koamalu and had been prefabricated in China and assembled in the shade of koa trees; the house was notable for its teakwood paneling and was a long house with a low gable; passed away in 1911 in Līhu‘e.

Rice, Mary (Waterhouse)In 1872, married William Hyde Rice (1846—1924) and they would have eight children.

Rice, William Harrison (18131862)Born in Oswego, New York; on September 28, 1840, married Mary Sophia Hyde; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 21, 1841, with the Ninth Company of American missionaries on the Gloucester, which was under the command of Captain Easterbrook (after a difficult 188-day voyage through inclement weather, and including a stop in Brazil for repairs and another stop in Chile); served from 1841 to 1844 at the Hāna, Maui mission station (which was established in 1832); served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); from 1844 to 1854, served at Punahou School on O‘ahu [Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children was established in 1841 by Hiram Bingham (17891869); the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College]; released from mission duty and moved to Kaua‘i in 1854 to become manager of H. A. Peirce & Company (which became Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation Company in 1859), earning $400/year; William and Mary had five children, including William Hyde Rice (18461924) and Hannah Maria Rice (who married Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903); ran Kaua‘i’s Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation; supervised the construction of the first sugarcane irrigation ditch in the Hawaiian Islands; the ditch, begun in 1856 and completed in 1857, was 2.5-feet (.8-m) wide and deep, and 10 miles (16 km) long, including flumes and tunnels, and ran from Hanamā‘ulu Stream to the Līhu‘e sugarcane fields; this use of irrigation to grow sugarcane was the beginning of what would be a massive expansion of sugarcane production as a commercial crop; the Rice’s Līhu‘e home (which remained until 1875) was called Koamalu and had been prefabricated in China and assembled in the shade of koa trees; the house was notable for its teakwood paneling and was a long house with a low gable; passed away due to tuberculosis in 1862 in Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i.

Rice, William Hyde (18461924)Born at Punahou on O‘ahu; eldest son of William Harrison Rice (1813—1862) and Mary Sophia (Hyde) Rice; grandfather of Juliet (Rice) Wichman (1901—1987); educated at O‘ahu’s Punahou School and California’s Braton’s College; in 1872, married Mary Waterhouse and they would have eight children; spoke fluent Hawaiian, learning it as a child, and from other children and from listening to elders, and later in life learned much about Hawaiian history, language, and culture from Paul Kanoa (1802—1885); moved to Kaua‘i in 1854 with his family; brother-in-law of Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903), who he worked under at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation as ranch manager, eventually owning that ranch as well as Kipu [Kīpū] Plantation; skilled horseman; served as president of William Hyde Rice & Company, and specialized in the breeding of fine horses as well as cattle; in 1879, bought a large amount of land on the makai (ocean) section of Kalapaki ahupua‘a from Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani and used it for Lihue [Līhu‘e] Ranch, then sold much of it to Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation and established Kipu [Kīpū] Plantation after buying Kīpū and Kīpū Kai from Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani; entertained Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in 1891 after their Līhu‘e home called Hale Nani, where a large lū‘au (traditional Hawaiian feast) was held and the Royal Hawaiian Band performed; appointed Governor of Kaua‘i in 1891 by Queen Lili‘uokalani; member of the House of Representatives (eight years); participated in writing the Constitution of the Republic of Hawai‘i after the overthrow of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; his collection of legends was published as Hawaiian Legends (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Bulletin No. 3, 1933); passed away on June 15, 1924; exactly one year later, a monument to him was erected on Kīpū Road by his friends and still stands; it states “Erected in Loving Memory By His Japanese Friends.”

 

Richards, Atherton (18951974)Son of William Richards (17931847) and Clarissa (Lyman) Richards; president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company (19321941), losing the job as a result of his advocacy of a law prohibiting pineapple plant exports to foreign growers; employed by Office of Strategic Services during World War II; worked in New York and Washington D.C.; trustee of Bishop Estate (appointed in 1952); owned Hawai‘i Island’s 36,000-acre (14, 569 ha) Kahua Ranch.

Richards, Catherine JonesLandscape architect of the YWCA Building, which opened in 1927 at 1040 Richards Street in downtown Honolulu; built in the Mediterranean style, the YWCA Building consists of two structures linked by a two-story loggia, and includes an outdoor court area and 61-foot (18.6-m) swimming pool; the entrance structure, which includes a stage and auditorium, was named Elizabeth Fuller Memorial Hall after a Hawaiian girl who died while touring with Hawaiian performers in India; the architect of the YWCA Building was Julia Morgan, who also designed Hearst’s San Simeon in California; the YWCA Building was the first major structure in the Hawaiian Islands designed completely by women (Julia Morgan and Catherine Jones Richards); the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.

Richards, C. L.Partner in a ship chandlery with Peter Cushman Jones (1837—1922).

Richards, Clarissa (Lyman)Married William Richards (17931847) in 1822; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands) with the Second Company of American missionaries on April 27, 1823 on the Thames, which was under the command of Reuben Clasby; William Richards and Clarissa (Lyman) Richards had eight children, including Atherton Richards.

Richardson, JohnOne of four Hawaiians (the other three were David Kalauokalani, William Auld, and James Kaulia) who traveled to Washington D.C. in 1897 to present petitions to the United States government opposing annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; [James Keauiluna Kaulia was the president of Aloha ‘Āina, and David Kalauokalani was the president of Hui Kala‘āina, two native Hawaiian groups opposing annexation; the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition against annexation was titled “Palapala Hoopii Kue Hoohui Aina a Ka Lahui” (“Petition of the Nation Protesting Annexation,”) and contained 21,269 signatures (the population of the native Hawaiians at this time was about 40,000); the Hui Kalai‘āina petition contained 17,000 signatures, and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy; these signed documents are known as the Kū‘ē Petitions (kū‘ē means “to oppose, or protest”); agreeing that the main goal was preventing annexation, group leaders decided to present only the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition to the United States government in order to avoid showing a division of opinion; in December of 1897 in Washington D.C., Kaulia and Kalauokalani consulted with Queen Lili‘uokalani before presenting the petitions to Senators Hoar and Pettigrew]; the 566 pages of signatures were sent to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and then discussed on the Senate floor in front of the whole Senate (Note: The anti-annexation petitions, 556 pages in all, are now in the National Archives of the United States on the Mall in Washington D.C.); Queen Lili‘uokalani also presented an Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation on June 17, 1897; the protest states, in part, “I declare such a treaty to be an act of wrong toward the native and part-native people of Hawaii, an invasion of the rights of the ruling chiefs, in violation of international rights both toward my people and toward friendly nations with whom they have made treaties, the perpetuation oft he fraud whereby the constitutional government was overthrown, and, finally, an act of gross injustice to me”[ii]; by the time the native Hawaiian representatives left Washington D.C. in February, 1898, they had succeeded in persuading numerous pro-annexation senators to change their minds, leaving the Senate twelve votes short of passing the treaty (a 2/3 majority was required for ratification) and successfully stalling the political process of annexation; some Senators pushed for a vote among the residents of the Hawaiian Islands, but pro-annexation Senators opposed this as they knew a vote would doom their cause; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Pacific’s Spanish Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important as a coaling base for the United States fleet; on July 6, 1898, a simple majority passed a Joint Resolution of Congress approving annexation; known as the Newlands Resolution (after Congressman Frances Newlands), it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; the Hawaiian flag at ‘Iolani Palace was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i, with Sanford Ballard Dole as the first governor; about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian Crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government as a result of annexation. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, Chapter 12.)

Richardson, Robert Charlwood (Jr.) (18821954)Born in South Carolina; graduated from United States Military Academy (1904); after serving in the Philippines and Europe, became West Point commandant of cadets (1928—1933); appointed as commander of the Hawaiian Department and Hawai‘i’s military governor (head of martial law) in June of 1943; in August, 1943, became commanding general of Central Pacific forces of the United States Army; in August of 1944, named head of Pacific Ocean Army forces; remained as Hawai‘i’s military governor until he retired in 1946; as head of martial law, issued the controversial General Order No. 31, allowing the fining and imprisonment of lawyers and federal judges if they filed constitutional writ of habeus corpeus applications; the Order resulted in Richardson being charged with contempt of court and fined $5,000. The fine was eventually lessened to $100, and President Roosevelt later pardoned Richardson, who was also awarded a Legion of Merit, and a Distinguished Service Medal.

Richardson, William S.Of Hawaiian-Chinese-Caucasian ancestry; Hawai‘i’s Democratic Party chairman from 1956 to 1962, elected as Hawai‘i’s lieutenant governor (Democrat) in 1962 on the ticket with Governor John Burns; served as lieutenant governor until 1966; appointed Chief Justice of the Hawai‘i Supreme Court in 1966 by Governor John Anthony Burns (1909—1975), and served at the post until 1982; a landmark ruling in 1973 by Chief Justice Richardson in the McBryde Sugar Company v. Robinson court case declared that water supplies must remain within their originating watershed; the Richardson court expanded property rights for native Hawaiians and the public, including access to beaches and state waters; while appreciated by native Hawaiians and many members of the general public, Richardson’s activist court was criticized by the legal profession and others; drawing inspiration from ancient Hawaiian beliefs and practices, Richardson declared that the Western concept of exclusivity was not always applicable in the Hawaiian Islands, and that the ocean, the beaches, and surface waters belonged to the people; helped clarify the rights of native Hawaiians in gaining access to ancient sacred sites on private property for traditional practices, and determined that new land created by lava flows belonged to the state and not the nearest landowner; helped to create the law school at the University of Hawai‘i, and it is named in his honor.

Richards, William (17931847)Born in Plainfield, Massachusetts; attended Williams College and Andover Theological Seminary; ordained in 1822, the same year he married Clarissa Lyman; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands) on April 27, 1823 on the Thames, which was under the command of Reuben Clasby, with the Second Company of American missionaries; served as the first minister (along with Charles Samuel Stewart (17951870)) at Maui’s Lahaina mission (which was established in 1823); in October of 1825, whalers from the British whaling ship Daniel who were angry at missionary-influenced restrictions attacked Reverend William Richards’ home in Lahaina, Maui, and native Hawaiians protected Richards from being assaulted; in 1828, Richards performed at least 600 wedding ceremonies; resigned from the mission in 1838 and worked as a translator and recorder, and helped to translate about one-third of the Bible into Hawaiian; his efforts in assisting chiefs led to the 1840 constitution, the first written document declaring the functions of the Hawaiian government; William Richards and Clarissa (Lyman) Richards had eight children, including Atherton Richards; left on a journey to London on July 18, 1842 accompanied by Timoteo Haalilio (1808—1844) to seek confirmation of the independence of the Hawaiian Kingdom, joining Sir George Simpson (17921860) (whose company financed the trip); negotiations between the three envoys (Simpson, Haalilio, and Richards), began in February of 1843; on November 28, 1843 in London, an agreement was signed acknowledging French and British recognition of Hawai‘i’s independence; then they traveled to Washington D.C. in the summer of 1844 where American recognition was granted; Timoteo Haalilio passed away of tuberculosis on December 3, 1844 on the way back to the Hawaiian Islands; served as the Hawaiian Kingdom’s first Minister of Public Instruction; passed away in 1847 and his post was taken over by Richard Armstrong (1805—1860).

Ricord, John (1811—1861)—Born in Belville, New Jersey, educated in law; in 1836, became secretary of state of Republic of Texas; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in February of 1844; appointed as attorney general of Kingdom of Hawai‘i (serving for three years); his government report turned in on May 21, 1845 led to the organic acts of 1845—1847, which brought Anglo-Saxon principles to the government’s judiciary and administration; played a prominent role in drafting the organic acts along with William Little Lee (1821—1857); after suffering financial difficulties, he resigned in 1847 and soon left the Hawaiian Islands.

Ripley and ReynoldsArchitects and designers of the new (1911) floor plan of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the Judiciary Building in Honolulu; the structure underwent reconstruction due to termite damage, and was set on fire so only the exterior walls remained; the new design, which still exists today, includes a rotunda and double staircase, along with steel beams to reinforce the structure; construction of the building was originally completed in 1874, when Ali‘iōlani Hale became the new seat of the Hawaiian government due to the extensive damage of the Honolulu Courthouse caused by supporters of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] when they protested the election lost to King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; begun in 1872, Ali‘iōlani Hale was constructed using concrete blocks; Ali‘iōlani was one of the names of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and is likely a reference to the name Ali‘i-iō-lani, which means “Chief unto heavens,” referring to a person (chief or ruler) of a heavenly nature; Ali‘iōlani housed the Supreme Court, and the Legislature; the Supreme Court consisted of a Chief Justice and two associate justices appointed by the king with the advice of the Privy Council; the 1874 Legislature consisted of the House of Representatives (27 people elected by eligible voters) and the House of Nobles (15 people elected by the king); the Hawaiian National Museum was established on September 9, 1874 in Ali‘iōlani Hale with a collection that included many artifacts donated by Hawaiian royalty; the National Museum at Ali‘iōlani Hale opened on November 8, 1875; after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, the Provisional Government used Ali‘iōlani Hale as their headquarters. (Also see Ali‘iōlani Hale in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Ripley, C. B.Architect, with Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), of the Bishop Estate Building, which was constructed in 1896 on Merchant Street in Honolulu; the structure was built in the Romanesque Revival style, using blue stone; architect, with Charles William Dickey, of the Irwin Block, constructed in 1897 at 928 Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu’s Chinatown district by William G. Irwin, a sugarcane entrepreneur; the building’s style is Richardsonian Romanesque; the exterior is rough-hewn volcanic stone and brick; the building was used for about 25 years by Yoichi Takakuwa as a wholesale store and political headquarters; in 1923, the building was bought by Nippu Jiji (a Japanese-language newspaper originally founded as The Yamato in 1895 and later called Hawaii Times), which occupied the building until 1984; cornices on the building show the dates 1895 and 1923; in 1973, the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places; extensive interior renovations took place in 1982, and an interior mezzanine level was added along with a five-story addition on the rear of the building. (Also see Ripley and Reynolds.)

Ritte, Walter (Jr.)One of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Ritte, Walter (Sr.)One of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Rives, Jean-Baptiste Jassont Lafayette (John) (1793—1833)—Born in Bordeaux, France; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1810; married Kaheikeimalie Holau (niece of Ka‘ahumanu); befriended King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and provided the chiefs with medical advice; acquired land on Hawai‘i Island, Moloka‘i, O‘ahu, and Maui; served as royal secretary for King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) during his 1823 voyage to England; Rives was the initial proponent of the French colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and for establishing the Catholic religion there; his efforts led to later arrivals of French warships; the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu; Legoarant De Tromelin, a Rear Admiral in the French Navy; arrived in Honolulu in April of 1848 in command of two French ships: the Gassendi (a steam corvette) and La Poursuivante; demanded equality of worship and an end to duties on French imports, claiming these acts violated an earlier treaty; his ten demands were sent to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and included equality of worship; engaged in reprisals that included taking over government buildings and ransacking Fort Kekuanohu in Honolulu and seizing the yacht of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); departed ten days later, taking with him Guillaume Patrice Dillon, the French Consul, whose complaints had initiated the conflict. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Robinson, AubreyIn 1884, with cousin Francis Gay, founds Gay & Robinson, which becomes a major sugar producer in the Hawaiian Islands.

Robinson, JamesOn board brig Hermes, a whaling ship on the way to Japan, when it ran aground in the leeward Hawaiian Islands on what is now called Pearl and Hermes Reef (in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) in April of 1822; built a schooner from the wreckage of the Hermes; the survivors of the wreck sailed back to Honolulu, where they remained; became a pioneer shipbuilder, and in 1823 formed James Robinson & Co., which was a prominent waterfront shipyard until 1868, when Robinson’s partner in the venture, Robert Lawrence, passed away; Robinson married Rebecca Prever and had eight children, including Victoria, who married Southerner Curtis Perry Ward, who came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1860s; their estate was known as Old Plantation, and included the current site of the Neil F. Blaisdell Center; another of Robinson’s children was Mary E. (Robinson) Foster (1844—1930), wife of Thomas R. Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.

Rodgers, JohnCommander of a four-man crew flying a two-engine PN-9 Navy seaplane on August 31, 1925, from near San Francisco toward the Hawaiian Islands in an attempt to complete the first flight between the Hawaiian Islands and the United States Mainland; Rodgers’ plane ran out of gas 300 miles (483 km) from Maui, and the crew used improvised sails and tow assistance to reach Kaua‘i’s Ahukini Harbor on September 10, 1925; named after him was John Rodgers Airport, which was dedicated in Honolulu on March 21, 1927, becoming Hawai‘i’s first official civilian airfield; it was later renamed Honolulu International Airport. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Rogers, Edmund Horton (18071853)Born in Massachusetts; trained in printing; came to the Hawaiian Islands with the Fifth Company of American missionaries on the whale ship Averick, which was under the command of Captain Swain and arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); prominent early missionary printer in charge of the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office), which was constructed of coral blocks in 1823 in Honolulu; [missionary Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) used a second hand iron and mahogany Ramage press brought on the Thaddeus to complete the first printing in the North Pacific region at the grass-thatched Hale Pule (Christian Meeting House) on January 7, 1822]; the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) became the home of the Mission Press, which eventually printed millions of pages in the Hawaiian language; language teachers and translators utilized the lead-type press and were helped by nā kānaka pa‘i (native Hawaiian assistants); the first book published in the Islands came off the press in 1823, and was entitled Na Himeni Hawaii (Hymns of Hawai‘i); the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) was considered the birthplace of the written Hawaiian language, producing books, broadsides, hīmeni (hymns), newspapers, rules, primers, and the first translation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language; [today the complex of missionary buildings is known as the Mission Houses Museum, also called Nā Hale Hō‘ike‘ike O Nā Mikanele (“Exhibition House of the Missionaries”); the Mission Houses Museum is located at 553 S. King Street, Honolulu (across from Kawaiaha‘o Church); Phone: 808-531-0481; Open 9 to 4, Tuesday-Saturday; www.lava.net/ormhm/main.htm.] (see The Mission Houses, Chapter 12); married Mary Ward in 1833; after Ward passed away in 1834, Rogers married Elizabeth Hitchcock and they would have four children; from 1835 to 1840, served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School (founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity); served again at the Honolulu printing office until he passed away in 1853.

Rogers, Elizabeth (Hitchcock)Married Edmund Horton Rogers (1807—1853) after his first wife, Mary (Ward) Rogers, passed away in 1834; Edmund and Elizabeth had four children.

Rogers, LincolnSee Lincoln Rogers.

Rogers, Mary (Ward)Married Edmund Horton Rogers (1807—1853) in 1833; passed away in 1834.

 

Rooke, Thomas Charles BydeHusband of Grace Kama‘iku‘i Young Rooke; maternal aunt of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]; member of the Church of England; wrote regular weather record reports for the Honolulu Spectator, which began publication in 1837.

Roosevelt, Franklin DelanoOn July 26, 1934, became the first United States President to visit the Hawaiian Islands, arriving in Honolulu aboard the cruiser Houston; in consultation with Territorial Governor Joseph B. Poindexter (1869—1951), in response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Martial Law was declared in the Hawaiian Islands at 4:30 p.m. on December 7, 1941, and the writ of habeas corpus was suspended, stripping Poindexter of his administrative powers; with the imposition of Martial Law, Governor Poindexter turned civilian duties over to Lieutenant General Walter Short, who became military governor of the Islands; all residents of the Hawaiian Islands were subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and the Territorial constitution was suspended, as was the authority of the Supreme Court and the Legislature; civilian courts were replaced with military judges. (See Martial Law, Chapter 12.)

Roosevelt, TheodorePresident of the United States on July 4, 1903 when he sent a message to the United States and all of its properties and territories, wishing all a happy Independence Day; the westward extension of an undersea cable to Midway, Guam, and the Philippines had just been completed, allowing the first round-the-world message; [the Hawaiian Islands had been linked to the United States on December 28, 1902 by a Commercial Pacific Cable Company telegraph cable beneath the Pacific Ocean; the submarine cable was laid by the cable ship Silvertown, and was more than 2,000 miles (3,219 km) long, extending from Ocean Beach in San Francisco to Waikīkī’s San Souci Beach; the first message across the new undersea cable was sent to San Francisco from Waikīkī on January 1, 1903; the first wireless message between the United States and Japan was relayed from Tokyo through Kahuku, O‘ahu to New York on July 27, 1915.] (See Communication, Chapter 12.)

Rouchouze (Bishop)Vicar apostolic of the Pacific; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 5, 1840, along with Hawai‘i’s first Catholic bishop, Father Louis Desire Maigret (18041882) and two other priests; on O‘ahu a stone church was built and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; the events leading up to their arrival in the Hawaiian Islands began when Jean-Baptiste Jassont Lafayette (John) Rives (1793—1833), during an 1823 voyage to England (he had lived in the Hawaiian Islands since 1910), became the initial proponent of the French colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and for establishing the Catholic religion there; his efforts led to later arrivals of French warships; the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century). (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Rowan, Chad [Akebono]—On January 27, 1993, at the age of 23, became the first sumo wrestler not born in Japan (he was born in Hawai‘i) to achieve the esteemed sumo rank of Yokozuna (Grand Champion); retired in 2001 at the age of 31 with a record of 566-198, including 11 championships; the rank of Yokozuna had been attained by just 63 others during the previous two centuries.

Rowell, George Berkeley (1815—1884)—Born in New Hampshire; graduated from Amherst College (1837) and Andover Theological Seminary (1841); married Malvina Jerusha Chapin in April, 1842; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on September 21, 1842, with the Tenth Company of American missionaries on the brig Sarah Abigail, which was under the command of Captain Doane; served at O‘ahu’s Waialua mission station (which was established in 1832); from 1843 to 1846, served at Kaua‘i’s Wai‘oli mission station where George became minister, taking over the duties of Reverend William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884), and then from 1846 to 1853, served at Kaua‘i’s Waimea mission station (which was established in 1820), moving in to the former home of Reverend Peter Johnson Gulick (1796—1877); expelled from the church by the American Board of Commissions for Foreign Missions; in 1853, opened a new Protestant church in Waimea called the Independent, or Makai Church; spoke fluent Hawaiian, served for 41 years on Kaua‘i, passing away on June 15, 1884.

Rowell, Malvina Jerusha (Chapin)Married George Berkeley Rowell (1815—1884) in April, 1842; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on September 21, 1842, with the Tenth Company of American missionaries on the brig Sarah Abigail, which was under the command of Captain Doane; from 1843 to 1846, the Rowells served at Kaua‘i’s Wai‘oli mission station, where George became minister, taking over the duties of Reverend William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884), and then from 1846 to 1853, served at Kaua‘i’s Waimea mission station (which was established in 1820), moving in to the former home of Reverend Peter Johnson Gulick (1796—1877).

Ruger, Thomas H.Served from 1871 to 1876 as the superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point; major general; named for him was Ruger Military Reservation, established at the edge of the Diamond Head (Lē‘ahi) crater in 1906; a network of tunnels was carved into the mountain, and cannon emplacements were placed atop the crater rim along with observation posts and bunkers; Fort Ruger was reinforced during World War II, though the guns were never fired; the fort included Battery Harlow (1910-1943); Battery Birkhimer (1916-1943); Battery Granger Adams (1935-1946); Battery Dodge (1915-1925); Battery Mills (1916-1925); Battery 407 (1944); Battery Hulings (1915-1925); and Battery Ruger (1937-1943). (See Diamond Head in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Ruggles, Nancy Wells (1791—1873)—Wife of Samuel Ruggles (1795—1871), and they would have six children together.

Ruggles, Samuel (1795—1871)—Born in Connecticut; brother of Lucia (Ruggles) Holman (Mrs. Thomas Holman); attended the mission school at Cornwall; on August 31, 1819, left Boston on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard, sailing to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820, reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin congregational mission work; husband of Nancy Wells Ruggles (1791—1873) and together they would have six children; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Ka‘awaloa mission station (which was established in 1824); with Samuel Whitney (1793—1845) and his wife Mercy Partridge Whitney, established a mission station at Wailua, Kaua‘i; with Joseph Goodrich (1794—1852) and his wife Martha, established mission station at Hilo on Hawai‘i Island in 1824; on May 3, 1820, arrived on Kaua‘i aboard the Thaddeus with another American missionary, Samuel Whitney (1793-1845); also on board the ship was George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, the son of Kaumuali‘i, the ruler of Kaua‘i; as a young child, George P. Kaumuali‘i (also known as Humehume) was sent to the United States, reportedly to protect him from the queen; the missionaries (Ruggles and Whitney) were welcomed by Kaumuali‘i, ruler of the island, and were given land and a residence, and the ship captain was given a valuable cargo of ‘iliahi (Santalum species, sandalwood); at Waimea, Kaua‘i, Ruggles and Whitney established a mission station, and they preached throughout the island; Samuel was called Keiki by native Hawaiians; at the end of 1822, the Ruggles started a school in Hanapēpē, Kaua‘i; about six months later they left for Hilo; the Ruggles family returned to the United States Mainland in 1834 due to Samuel’s poor health.

RussellLord; in command of the Acteon, a British sloop of war when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on October 23, 1836; on November 16, Russell negotiated a treaty between Britain and the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

Russell & CompanyIn 1878, constructed the Falls of Clyde in Port Glasgow, Scotland; today it is parked at the Hawai‘i Maritime Center in Honolulu, and remains as the world’s last remaining full-rigged, four-masted ship; the wrought iron Falls of Clyde has a length of 266 feet (81 m) on its deck, and a breadth of 40 feet (12 m); the ship also has a mast height of 138 feet (42 m), and a net tonnage of 1,740 tons (1,579 mtons); named after the waterfalls on the river Clyde, the Falls of Clyde was the first of nine vessels of the Falls Line built by Russell & Company. (See Falls of Clyde in Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum section, O‘ahu, Chapter 2.)

Samuel, EdwinFather of Victor Stewart [Stuart] Kaleoaloha Houston.

Samwell, David (17511798)Welsh doctor; began serving in the Royal Navy in 1775; in 1776, appointed to be surgeon’s mate on the Resolution under Captain Cook during his third Pacific voyage; later became surgeon on the Discovery; wrote A Narrative of the Death of James Cook (London: Robinson, 1786); served on ships of the Royal Navy until 1796.

Sapp, Carolyn SuzanneJunior at O‘ahu’s Hawai‘i Pacific University when she wins the Miss Hawai‘i pageant on September 14, 1991, and then becomes the first Hawaiian resident to win the Miss America title.

Schäffer, Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) (17791836)Surgeon in the Russian army; built hot air balloons in Moscow in 1812 to observe the movements of Napoleon’s armies; sent to the Hawaiian Islands in 1815 by the Russian-American Company to retrieve or seek appropriate payment for the cargo of the Behring, which had wrecked on Kaua‘i; [the 210-ton, three-masted Russian ship Behring arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1815 under the command of Captain James Bennett; the Behring was carrying sealskins (otter pelts) bound for the Russian-American Company’s headquarters at Sitka, Alaska, the capital of Russian-America; after the Behring anchored at Waimea Bay and the captain went ashore, an unexpected southwest wind rapidly intensified and pushed the Behring broadside onto the shore; an estimated 2,000 Kauaians attempted unsuccessfully to save the vessel; King Kaumuali‘i had the valuable pelts on board the ship taken to his home near Makaweli]; when Schäffer first arrived at the end of 1815 (having been sent by the governor of the Russian-American Company, Alexander Baranov) he cured King Kamehameha I of a feverish cold, and was given land on O‘ahu; Schäffer then began building a blockhouse on the Honolulu waterfront, causing John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) to persuade King Kamehameha to halt the work (see Chapter 11, Timeline: 1815); with three Russian ships and their crews, traveled to Kaua‘i where he befriended Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler, Kaumuali‘i; on May 21, 1816, enticed Kaumuali‘i to sign a document putting Kaua‘i under the protection of the Russian Czar, Alexander Pavlovich; proceeded to build Fort Elizabeth at Waimea, Kaua‘i, naming the fort in honor the consort of the Russian Emperor; Fort Elizabeth overlooked Waimea Bay, with guns positioned to protect the anchorage’s trading vessels; Schäffer also built two forts in Hanalei, Kaua‘i, including Fort Alexander overlooking the mouth of the Hanalei River and Fort Barclay on Hanalei Bay; though Schäffer was overstepping his authority, he sought a trade monopoly for Russia, and in return promised Kaumuali‘i independence from King Kamehameha I and conquests of other Hawaiian Islands Kaumuali‘i felt he had a hereditary right to rule; Schäffer in turn would get rights to all of the valuable sandalwood growing on O‘ahu; Kaumuali‘i had ceded the island of Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810, however, so the vassal ruler’s agreement with Schäffer was considered treasonous; nevertheless the Czar’s flag flew over Kaua‘i and Schäffer built two more forts in Hanalei; when Otto von Kotzebue on the Russian Navy brig Rurik visited the Hawaiian Islands in 1816, he repudiated Schäffer’s acts; in May of 1817, Kaumuali‘i renounced his agreement with Schäffer, who was soon forced to leave the Hawaiian Islands; on July 7, 1817, Schäffer left on the American vessel Panther headed for Macao; in 1821, Schäffer went to Brazil and was made a nobleman by Emperor Dom Pedro I, under the title of Count von Frankenthal (See The Exploits of Georg Anton Schäffer, Chapter 12.)

Schirra, Walter M.Picked up in the Pacific Ocean about 1,300 miles (2,092 km) north of Honolulu on October 6, 1962 by the aircraft carrier Kearsarge after circling Earth six times in the Sigma 7 spacecraft, and then plunging down into the ocean; Schirra is then flown to O‘ahu’s Hickam Air Force Base.

Schluter, PaulNavigator of the Aloha, the second place plane (flown by pilot Martin Jensen) in the Dole Air Derby; the competition took place on August 16, 1927; billed as the first trans-oceanic flight race, with entrants competing for the prizes of $25,000 and $10,000, which were offered by James Drummond Dole, president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company; eight planes left Oakland, California for the Hawaiian Island; this was the first race from the United States Mainland to the Hawaiian Islands; a total of ten lives were lost when two planes crashed on take-off; two planes encountered difficulties and had to turn back; and two planes disappeared over the Pacific Ocean; the winner of the trans-oceanic race was Art Goebel (with navigator William Davis) in the monoplane Woolaroc, with just 4 gallons (15 liters) of fuel to spare. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Schofield, John McAllister (1831—1906)—Graduated from West Point (1853); fought in the American Civil War, earning a Congressional Medal of Honor; helped lead the march through Georgia under General Sherman; in 1872, served as commander of the Military Division of the Pacific; President Andrew Johnson’s Secretary of War; named after him in 1909 was Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, established on 14,000 acres (5,666 ha) on the Leilehua plain in Wahiawā, O‘ahu; the military reservation eventually became the biggest permanent United States Army post; retired as a lieutenant general. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Selfridge, Thomas E.Army aviator; first lieutenant; died when he flew as an observer in Orville Wright’s plane as it was being demonstrated to the Army; the plane lost a propeller at a height of 150 feet (46 m), damaging a wing and causing it to crash, seriously injuring Wright; Selfridge was the first death in a heavier-than-air craft crash; named after him in 1911 was Battery Selfridge, the first to be constructed at Fort Kamehameha, with two twelve-inch disappearing rifles able to fire 1,046-pound (474 kg) projectiles 17,000 yards (15,545 m); [Fort Kamehameha Military Reservation was established in 1907 at the entrance to Pearl Harbor at Hickam Air Force Base, becoming the only United States fort to be named after a foreign king; soon constructed was a series of coastal artillery batteries, a “Ring of Steel” including long-range guns and mortars to fortify O‘ahu’s harbors; coastal batteries at Fort Kamehameha included Battery Selfridge, Battery Randolph, Battery Jackson, Battery Hawkins, Battery Hasbrouck, and Battery Closson.] (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Selleck, TomStar of the Magnum PI television series filmed in the Hawaiian Islands, which ended in 1988 after eight seasons.

Shafter, William R. (18351906)Major General; Civil War Medal of Honor winner; named after him in 1907 was Shafter Military Reservation, originally known as Kahauiki Military Reservation, which was established in Honolulu in 1905, becoming the first permanent United States Army post in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Shaler, William (c.1773—1833)—In command of the American brig Lelia Byrd in 1803 when it brought the first horses to the Hawaiian Islands, from California; American trader in partnership with Richard Cleveland; a foal and a mare were unloaded at Kawaihae Bay for John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835), and a mare and a stallion were landed at Lahaina, Maui for King Kamehameha I, who became the first in the Hawaiian Islands to practice horsemanship.

Shepard, StephenAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823); prominent early missionary printer at the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office), which was constructed of coral blocks in 1823 in Honolulu; [missionary Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) used a second hand iron and mahogany Ramage press brought on the Thaddeus to complete the first printing in the North Pacific region at the grass-thatched Hale Pule (Christian Meeting House) on January 7, 1822]; the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) became the home of the Mission Press, which eventually printed millions of pages in the Hawaiian language; language teachers and translators utilized the lead-type press and were helped by nā kānaka pa‘i (native Hawaiian assistants); the first book published in the Islands came off the press in 1823, and was entitled Na Himeni Hawaii (Hymns of Hawai‘i); the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) was considered the birthplace of the written Hawaiian language, producing books, broadsides, hīmeni (hymns), newspapers, rules, primers, and the first translation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language; [today the complex of missionary buildings is known as the Mission Houses Museum, also called Nā Hale Hō‘ike‘ike O Nā Mikanele (“Exhibition House of the Missionaries”); the Mission Houses Museum is located at 553 S. King Street, Honolulu (across from Kawaiaha‘o Church); Phone: 808-531-0481; Open 9 to 4, Tuesday-Saturday; www.lava.net/ormhm/main.htm.] (See The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

Shipman, William C.American Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Wai‘ōhinu mission station (which was established in 1841).

Short, PatrickEnglishman; Roman Catholic missionary; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; also on board were Roman Catholic missionaries Alexis Bachelot and Abraham Armand; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Short, Walter Campbell (1880—1949)—Born in Illinois; graduated from the University of Illinois (1901); became second lieutenant in United States Army (1902); after World War II began, Short became assistant chief of staff of the Third Army; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in February of 1941 as a lieutenant general in charge of the Hawaiian Department; Joseph B. Poindexter (1869—1951) declared Martial Law at 4:30 p.m. on December 7, 1941 due to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and a proclamation declaring Martial Law was signed by Hawai‘i’s Territorial Government; Short assumed governor duties on December 8, 1941, under Martial Law, which was not lifted until October 19, 1944, imposing many restrictions on residents, including enforced blackouts (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) with blackout wardens patrolling neighborhoods; many Japanese were arrested and interned under suspicion of espionage or sabotage, though none were ever found guilty; one Japanese flyer landed on Ni‘ihau, leading to the only armed combat to take place in the Hawaiian Islands during the war; the flyer was killed by Ni‘ihau resident Benehakaka Kanahele; on December 17, 1941, Short was replaced by Delos C. Emmons (18891965), and he retired from the United States Army in March of 1942; although Short was exonerated by a court of inquiry in 1944, a joint Congressional investigation in 1945-1946 placed the blame for Pearl Harbor on Short as well as Admiral Husband Edward Kimmel, who was Commander of the Pacific Fleet. (See Martial Law, Chapter 12.)

Simpson, Alexander—Employed by Hudson’s Bay Company in Canada; nephew of Sir George Simpson (1792—1860); made four visits to the Hawaiian Islands around 1840; proponent of dominant British influence in the Hawaiian Islands over American interests.

Simpson, George (Sir) (17921860)Began working for the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1820; in 1821, began serving as governor of Hudson’s Bay Canadian interests; knighted in 1841; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in February of 1842; in response to individuals such as Captain S. Mallet, Alexander Simpson (the nephew of George Simpson), and Richard Charlton and their desire to annex the Hawaiian Islands to Britain, George Simpson was confident that authorities in England would reject this concept and so he used his own company’s money (£10,000), to help finance a journey to London by Timoteo Haalilio (1808—1844) and William Richards (1793—1847), who left the Hawaiian Islands on the mission on July 18, 1842; negotiations between the three envoys (Simpson, Haalilio, and Richards), began in February of 1843; on November 28, 1843 in London, an agreement was signed acknowledging French and British recognition of Hawai‘i’s independence; then they traveled to Washington D.C. in the summer of 1844 where American recognition was granted; Timoteo Haalilio passed away of tuberculosis on December 3, 1844 on the way back to the Hawaiian Islands; published Narrative of a Journey Round the World during the Years 1841 and 1842 (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1847; London: H. Colburn, 1847).

Sinatra, FrankIn 1953, starred in the movie From Here to Eternity, along with Deborah Kerr, Burt Lancaster, and Clift Montgomery; filmed on O‘ahu and includes three weeks of filming at Schofield Barracks; the film was based on the novel of the same name by James Jones; From Here to Eternity takes place before the Pearl Harbor attack and involves a private who is punished for not boxing on his unit’s team; meanwhile, his captain’s wife falls in love with the second in command; Sinatra won an Academy Award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his role as the tough Italian Maggio who had strong convictions and refused to be broken; From Here to Eternity received 13 Academy Award nominations, winning eight.

Sinclair, Eliza (McHutcheson) (1803—1895)—Born in Scotland; wife of Captain Francis S. Sinclair R.N.; mother of Anne McHutcheson (Sinclair) Knudsen; moved to New Zealand in 1840 and became a widow when her husband was lost at sea; left with her family in 1863 on the Corsair, stopping in Tahiti and the Hawaiian Islands before settling in Canada, but soon returning to the Hawaiian Islands; in 1864, purchased the island of Ni‘ihau from King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) for the price of $10,000; also purchased lands on Kaua‘i including land at Makaweli; founder of the landholdings of the Sinclair—Robinsons; passed away at the age of 92.

Sinclair, Francis S.Captain in the Royal Navy; commander of a British man-of-war that brought the Duke of Wellington back to England on his triumphant return after the Battle of Waterloo; husband of Eliza (McHutcheson) Sinclair; she was widowed when he disappeared at sea off Christchurch, New Zealand; mother of Anne McHutcheson (Sinclair) Knudsen.

Sinclair, Gregg Manners (1890—1976)—Born in Ontario, Canada; graduated from the University of Minnesota (1912); earned a masters from Columbia University (1919); in 1939, married Marjorie Putnam; director of Oriental Institute at University of Hawai‘i (1935—1945); served as the fourth President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1942—1955); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920]; influential in founding of the University of Hawai‘i’s East-West Center; Sinclair Library, completed on the University of Hawai‘i’s Mānoa campus in 1956, was named after him.

Sinclair, Marjorie (Putnam)Wife of Gregg Manners Sinclair (1890—1976)

Smart, Richard PalmerSon of John Palmer Parker (II); grandson of John Palmer Parker (I); at the age of 30 in 1943, became the sole owner of Hawai‘i Island’s Parker Ranch, the second largest ranch in the United States at more than 500,000 acres (202,343 ha).

Smith, AbigailGrandmother of Mary Emma (Dillingham) Frear (1870—1957); wife of Lowell Smith.

Smith, Asa B.American Protestant missionary; served at O‘ahu’s Waialua mission station (which was established in 1832).

Smith, ErnestPilot of the 27-foot (8.2-m) monoplane The City of Oakland navigated by Ernest Smith on July 14, 1927, when it crash landed on Moloka‘i; with this flight, Bronte and Smith become the first civilians to fly to the Hawaiian Islands from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California); this first trans-Pacific flight by civilians covered about 2,200 miles (3,541 km) and taking 26 hours and 36 minutes; they originally intended to fly to Honolulu, but a fuel shortage led to the crash landing on Moloka‘i in their 27-foot (8.2-m) monoplane named The City of Oakland. (See Smith and Bronte Landing in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Smith, James William (1810—1887)—Born in Connecticut; attended New York College of Physicians and Surgeons; married Melicent Knapp and they would have nine children, including missionary William O. Smith; practiced medicine for five years in New York; the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with the Tenth Company of American missionaries on the brig Sarah Abigail, which was under the command of Captain Doane; medical missionary; stationed at Kaua‘i’s Kōloa mission station (which was established in 1834), but served the whole island, being the only doctor on Kaua‘i for much of the 1840’s and 1850’s; known for his tireless efforts to come to the aid of those in need; when a smallpox epidemic was killing thousands of people on the other Hawaiian Islands, vaccinated virtually every person on Kaua‘i; beginning in 1848, assisted by Reverend John Fawcett Pogue (1814—1877); also assisting Smith was Samuel Kahooki; released from mission service in 1851; ordained in 1854 and became Koloa [Kōloa] Church pastor; in early 1866, R. C. Wyllie (the former R. C. Cockrane, and the nephew of Robert Crichton Wyllie) was engaged to be married to Ida Von Pfister (daughter of John Von Pfister), and he was in Hanalei preparing to welcome his bride-to-be; on February 4, 1866, just eight days before the marriage was to take place, Wyllie cut his own throat with a razor and was bleeding profusely from the large gash; Dr. Smith was summoned from Kōloa and used a relay of horses to make the journey in record time; unfortunately, Wyllie died several days later. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Smith, LowellAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Moloka‘i’s Kalua‘aha mission station (which was established in 1832); served at O‘ahu’s ‘Ewa mission station (which was established in 1834); father of Emma Louise (Smith) Dillingham, wife of Benjamin Franklin Dillingham (1844—1918); grandfather of Mary Emma (Dillingham) Frear (1870—1957); wife of Abigail Smith.

Smith, Lucia G.American Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity.

Smith, MarciaAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Punahou School on O‘ahu [Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children was established in 1841 by Hiram Bingham (17891869); the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College]; served at Kaua‘i’s Kōloa mission station (which was established in 1834).

Smith, Marcia M.American Protestant missionary; served at O‘ahu’s Kāne‘ohe mission station (which was established in 1834).

Smith, Melicent (Knapp)Married James William Smith (1810—1887) and they would have nine children, including missionary William O. Smith; the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with the Tenth Company of American missionaries on the brig Sarah Abigail, which was under the command of Captain Doane; in 1861, founded the Koloa [Kōloa] Boarding School for Girls.

Smith, William O.Son of Dr. James Smith; when Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] visited her 4,200-acre (1,700-ha) Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate in 18701871, William O. Smith and George Norton Wilcox (son of Wai‘oli missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox) rode on horseback with Queen Emma to an area upland of her Lāwa‘i estate where they surveyed a water source; Wilcox and Smith consulted with Queen Emma to plan an irrigation ditch to provide water to the estate; George Wilcox had studied at Yale College’s Sheffield Scientific School, where he earned an engineering degree that also helped him plan and build ditches to irrigate his Grove Farm Plantation; two men were hired to construct the ditch about 1 foot (30 cm) deep and wide, and about 2 miles (3.2 km) long; the ditch to Mauna Kilohana began functioning on March 11, 1871; once water was available, Queen Emma personally assisted in the planting; Queen Emma was accompanied on this Kaua‘i visit by an entourage of about 100 retainers and servants, and she journeyed up to the highlands forests of Kōke‘e and the Alaka‘i Swamp with her sizable retinue including hula dancers and musicians, venturing as far as the Kilohana Lookout (see Kōke‘e State Park section); in honor of her journey, the Queen renamed her Lāwa‘i estate Mauna Kilohana.

Snyder, Laurence H.Served as President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1958—1963); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Soper, John Harris (1846—1944)Marshal of the Kingdom; head of the force suppressing the revolt led by Robert W. Wilcox on July 30, 1889; Wilcox (who was part Hawaiian) led about 150 armed insurgents in a revolt against King Kalākaua’s signing of the 1887 “Bayonet Constitution”; at 6 a.m. the men marched to Ali‘iōlani Hale (the Judiciary Building), the government building in Honolulu, and took over the building as well as the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace; the rebels opposed reform measures instituted in 1887, and wanted King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to proclaim a new constitution; King Kalākaua refused and shots were exchanged between Wilcox’s men and government forces, who placed sharpshooters in the tower of Kawaiaha‘o Church and surrounding buildings; bombs made with dynamite were thrown into the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace, scattering the rebels; seven insurgents were killed during the rebellion and 12 more wounded; Wilcox surrendered and was tried for treason, but was later acquitted, claiming the king sanctioned his actions; Soper later headed the forces of the Provisional Government, suppressing the counter-revolution of 1895 that attempted to reinstate Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] to the throne.

 

Spalding, Alice (Cooke)Daughter of Academy of Arts founder Anna Charlotte (Rice) Cooke (Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke), who built the Spalding House in 1927 and named it after her daughter; sister of Clarence Hyde Cooke and Charles Montague Cooke Jr. (1874—1948); wife of Philip E. Spalding, who donated the house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art; located in Makiki Heights, the Honolulu Academy of Arts is a museum, library and educational facility; the art objects of Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke form the basis of the museum’s collection.

Spalding, Philip E.Husband of Alice (Cooke) Spalding; donated his house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art; located in Makiki Heights, the Honolulu Academy of Arts is a museum, library and educational facility; the art objects of Anna Charlotte (Rice) Cooke (Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke) form the basis of the museum’s collection.

Spalding, Zephaniah SwiftSon of United States Congressman; lieutenent colonel in Civil War; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in December of 1867 visiting Honolulu to investigate (secretly), for authorities in Washington D.C., feelings toward a reciprocity treaty; served as United States vice consul in Honolulu beginning in 1868; invested in a sugar-growing enterprise in Maui where he owned a 90-acre (36-ha) estate and built a home; married a woman of the Makee family from ‘Ulupalakua, Maui; in 1888, for Kaua‘i’s Makee Sugar Plantation, introduced the first diffusion process plant for manufacturing sugar; later moved to Europe where his daughters married noblemen of Italy.

Spalding, Philip E.Husband of Academy of Arts founder Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke, who built the Spalding House in 1927 and named it after her daughter, Alice (Cooke) Spalding; Philip E. Spalding donated the house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art; located in Makiki Heights, the Honolulu Academy of Arts is a museum, library and educational facility; the art objects of Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke form the basis of the museum’s collection.

Spaulding, Ephraim W. (1802—1840)—Born in Vermont; graduated from Vermont’s Middlebury College (1828) and Massachusetts’ Andover Theological Seminary (1831); in November of 1831, married Julia Brooks; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; beginning in 1832, they served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823), serving whalers as well as churches and schools; Ephraim and Julia had four children; in 1837, Ephraim needed to return to the United States for health reasons.

Spaulding, Julia (Brooks)Married Ephraim W. Spaulding in November of 1831; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; beginning in 1832, they served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823); Ephraim and Julia had four children.

Spencer, A. H.With Robert Wood, financed East Maui Plantation in 1849.

Spreckels, Claus (1828—1908)—Born in Hanover, Germany; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1876, having previously worked as a financier of sugarcane enterprises, and involved with San Francisco’s California Sugar Refinery; anticipated a profit due to a reciprocity treaty being passed in the Hawaiian Islands, and invested in Hawai‘i’s sugar industry, including mills, rails, irrigation and land, because he anticipated a profit due to a reciprocity treaty being passed in the Hawaiian Islands; [King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] negotiated the Reciprocity Treaty in 1875, allowing Hawaiian products to be sold in the United States without customs or duties; the treaty was signed in Washington D.C. on January 30, 1875; then on August 15, 1876 the United States Senate ratified the treaty, and on September 17, 1876, the United States Congress passed a motion to give effect to the treaty, thus allowing Hawaiian sugar into the United States duty free; in return, the United States is allowed to use Pearl Harbor as a naval base; the Reciprocity Treaty resulted in a rapid expansion of the sugar business in the Hawaiian Islands, which increased ten-fold over the next 15 years, and then continued to double each decade; the sugar business also brought many Hawaiian merchants and sugar planters into positions of influence as their profits increased dramatically; the expansion of the sugar industry provided an economic boost for the Hawaiian Islands, and opened the door to the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; in 1878, helped secure and develop some 18,000 acres (7,284 ha) of leased Crown lands on Maui, leading to the establishment of the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company; financed the construction of the 30-mile (48-km) long Ha‘ikū Ditch between 1878 and 1880; the ditch was built to carry 50 million gallons (189 million liters) of water daily to sugarcane fields in Pu‘unēnē and Spreckelsville; founded a Honolulu banking and agency house with William G. Irwin (1843—1914) that controlled most of Hawai‘i’s sugarcane crop in 1882; became known as the “Sugar King of Hawai‘i” and “the uncrowned king,” and was later accused of corruption involving secret deals with King Kalākaua; befriended Captain William Matson (18491917) and helped to finance new ships for Matson’s growing shipping enterprise; played poker with King Kalākaua, who began dismissing Cabinet members who refused to approve land, water, and financial deals with Spreckels, who made personal loans to the monarch; purchased a land claim from Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, and later, to settle this claim, Spreckels was given 24,000 acres (9,712 ha) of Crown lands in Wailuku, Maui, which was conveyed to him by the Legislature; profited about $150,000 from a coinage deal approved by the Legislature resulting in $1 million in silver coins bearing the head of King Kalākaua, and minted in San Francisco; left the Hawaiian Islands in 1886 but still owned a significant amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands and occasionally returned to visit; sold Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company to Alexander & Baldwin.

 

Spreckels, John D.—Son of Claus Spreckels (1828—1908); founder of Oceanic Steamship Company, which initially provided transport between San Francisco and the Hawaiian Islands, later adding routes to New Zealand and Australia. 

 

Stainback, Ingram Macklin. (1883—1961)—Born in Tennessee; graduated from Princeton University (1907); graduated from the University of Chicago Law School (1912); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1912 and practiced law until being appointed as the Territory’s Attorney General in 1914; spent one year as an officer in World War I; partner in a law firm (1918—1934); United States Attorney (1934—1940); became a federal judge in 1940; after the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941, Stainback served as an advisor to the office of the military governor; appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Democrat) by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (first term, serving until August 24, 1946) and Truman (second term, serving until April 30, 1951); served as associate justice of the Territorial Supreme Court (1951—1959).

Staley, Catherine W. (Shirley)—Wife of Thomas Nettleship Staley; arrived in Honolulu with her husband in October of 1862.

 

Staley, Thomas Nettleship (1823—1898)—Born in Yorkshire, England; fellow at Cambridge University; chosen by Archbishop Sumner to become Honolulu’s first Anglican bishop in 1861; arrived in Honolulu with his wife Catherine W. (Shirley) Staley (1823—1898) in October of 1862; appointed to Privy Council and Board of Education; started two boarding schools run by the church; published Five Years’ Church Work in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i (London: Rivington, 1868).

Stangenwald, Hugo (1829—1899)—Born in Germany; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in 1851; married Mary Catherine Dimond in 1854; Honolulu physician; in 1860, his home was built on Honolulu’s ‘Iliahi Street in Nu‘uanu; interested in photography, and made daguerreotypes that were the first in the Hawaiian Islands; passed away in 1899; on the site of his offices at 119 Merchant Street in Honolulu, the six-story Stangenwald Building was constructed in 1901; the architect of the Stangenwald Building was Charles William Dickey (1871—1942); the building is noted for its Italian Renaissance elements; features include arched windows, pressed-copper trim, terra cotta ornamentation, and a wrought-iron balustrade; the Stangenwald Building is considered the first skyscraper in the Hawaiian Islands, and for more than a half century it was the tallest building in Honolulu; it also had the first electric elevator in the Hawaiian Islands, and housed the first shared law library in the Hawaiian Islands; built in the wake of the devastating Chinatown fire [the fire was intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days)]; the Stangenwald Building was constructed of brick and concrete, with a steel frame and built-in fire hoses; considered Honolulu’s first fully fireproof structure, the building was built with fireproof vaults on every floor; in 1980, a restoration of the structure was completed under Honolulu architect James Tsugawa.

Stangenwald, Mary Catherine (Dimond)Daughter of Henry Dimond (1808—1895); married Hugo Stangenwald (1829—1899) in 1854.

Starkey, JamesFounded a small trading company in the Hawaiian Islands in 1845 with Robert C. Janion; the company is boarded in 1857 by Theophilus Harris Davies (1833—1898).

Stender, OswaldBishop Estate trustee on September 10, 1998 when State Attorney General Margery Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry) (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Stettin, H. R.Architect of the Hawaii Building, which was constructed at 1133 Bethel Street in Honolulu in 1924, using concrete blocks to simulate stone.

Stevenson, FannyWife of Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894); mother (with her first husband) of Lloyd Osbourne (1868—1947), and Isobel (Osbourne) Strong, the wife of Joseph Strong, who was the court painter of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Stevenson, Robert Louis (1850—1894)—Renowned Scottish author; arrived in Waikīkī with his family on the chartered yacht Casco in 1889; stayed in the Hawaiian Islands for five months; husband of Fanny Stevenson (formerly Mrs. Fanny Osbourne); step-father of Isobel (Osbourne) Strong and Joseph Strong, who was the court painter of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; Robert Louis Stevenson and his wife Fanny were quickly accepted by the royalty of the era; not long after the death of Father Damien in 1889, Stevenson visited Moloka‘i and stayed in the guest house at the leprosy (Hansen’s disease) colony at Kalaupapa; visited Hawaiian Islands again, for five weeks, in 1893, just one year before he passed away in Sāmoa; in collaboration with his stepson Lloyd Osbourne (1868—1947), wrote the Pacific adventure novel The Wrecker, which was based on an event that occurred when Stevenson was visiting the Hawaiian Islands, and had been reported in the newspapers in Honolulu; already famous for such works as Treasure Island and Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson began writing some of his finest stories during his time in Hawai‘i, including The Isle of Voices and The Bottle Imp, both set in the Hawaiian Islands; when the Sans Souci Hotel opened in 1893 in Waikīkī along the shoreline of Kapi‘olani Park, the hotel hosted Robert Louis Stevenson for a five week visit (see San Souci Beach; O‘ahu section, Chapter 2); when Princess Ka‘iulani departed for England, author Robert Louis Stevenson (who had visited her in Waikīkī) wrote a celebrated poem: “Forth from her land to mine she goes, The island maid, the island rose, Light of heart and bright of face, The daughter of a double race, Her islands here in Southern sun, Shall mourn their Kaiulani gone, And I, in her dear banyan’s shade, Look vainly for my little maid, But our Scots Islands far away, Shall glitter with unwanted day, And cast for once their tempest by, To smile in Kaiulani’s eye.” (Robert Louis Stevenson, 1889). (See Historic Waikīkī, Chapter 12.)

Stevens, John Leavitt (1820—1895)—United States Minister; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the U.S.S. Boston, on January 4, 1893 with United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens; spent ten days off Honolulu engaged in target practice; on January 15, 1893, in consultation with U. S. Minister Stevens, the Committee of Public Safety (a group of annexation supporters) was assured that Stevens would land troops from the U.S.S. Boston if any danger was posed to American lives or property; the Committee of Public Safety called a meeting for the following day for all supporters of annexation; supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] also called for a meeting on the same day; despite Queen Lili‘uokalani’s declaration in an official proclamation on January 16, 1893 that changes to the constitution would only be made with the consent of the Legislature (to allay fears that she would declare a new constitution), two mass meetings were held, one by supporters of annexation, and the other by supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani; Judge Hartwell arranged for military forces to come ashore under the pretense of protecting American lives and property, and Stevens ordered the troops from the U.S.S. Boston ashore in Honolulu, saying it was necessary to protect American lives and property; Stevens claimed the Americans were in danger and had no protection; troops from the U.S.S. Boston came ashore on January 16 at 5 p.m. and marched down King Street past Ali‘iōlani Hale and ‘Iolani Palace, and then stationed themselves at Arion Hall, across from ‘Iolani Palace; meanwhile, the Committee of Public Safety met to further their plans for a Provisional Government; on January 17, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani requested assistance from the U.S. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, but Stevens refused; the Honolulu Rifles, an armed volunteer group, assembled in Ali‘iōlani Hale in opposition to the loyalist guard across the street at ‘Iolani Palace; at 2:30 p.m., January 17, 1893 on the rear veranda of Ali‘iōlani Hale, a Provisional Government was proclaimed, and recognized by U. S. Minister to Hawai‘i John L. Stevens as Hawai‘i’s lawful government; at 6 p.m. that same day, Queen Lili‘uokalani yielded not to the Provisional Government but to the United States government, “...until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands”[iii]; as stated in The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii:Queen Liliuokalani issued the following statement yielding her authority to the United States Government rather than to the Provisional Government: ‘I Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the Constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the Provisional Government. Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do this under protest and impelled by said force yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands. Done at Honolulu this 17th day of January, A.D. 1893”[iv] (Lili‘uokalani later states that she resigned her throne to avoid bloodshed, fearing the bombing of ‘Iolani Palace and loss of lives.); the Committee of Public Safety met on January 17, 1893 at 8 p.m. to finalize the Provisional Government’s officers and Cabinet; Sanford Ballard Dole was asked to be president; that evening, about 100 armed men gathered around Ali‘iōlani Hale in support of the annexationists; guards were posted around Ali‘iōlani Hale, the new headquarters of the Provisional Government, and drills were held on King Street in front of ‘Iolani Palace; Martial Law was declared, and troops from the U.S.S. Boston remained nearby; at this point the Hawaiian monarchy was essentially overthrown. (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1993, Nov.23 for a synopsis of the events of the overthrow); on February 1, 1893, Stevens (who favored annexation), recognized the new Provisional Government and raised the United States flag over the Hawaiian Islands; troops from the U.S.S. Boston took over as official guards of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the headquarters of the Provisional Government; the Blount Report, issued on October 18, 1893, blamed Stevens for the overthrow of the monarchy, and suggested restoring the Hawaiian government; Blount had arrived on March 29, 1893, by order of President Cleveland, to investigate the events leading to the overthrow of the Hawaiian government, and Blount ordered that the American flag be taken down and the Hawaiian flag raised; he also ordered the United States naval forces to be sent back to their ships; President Cleveland denounced the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts,” and sent word that he regretted the “unauthorized intervention” that took away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty; on November 4, 1893, orders were given by President Cleveland to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani’s power; the Provisional Government refused to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict would force them to give up power; though Cleveland did not support annexation, he was reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans (and their mostly American supporters). (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

 

Stewart, Charles Samuel (17951870)Born in New Jersey; graduated from Princeton College (1815); ordained at Princeton Theological Seminary (1821); husband of Harriet Bradford Tiffany (1798—1830); the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands) on April 27, 1823 on the Thames, which was under the command of Reuben Clasby, with the Second Company of American missionaries; served as the first minister (along with William Richards(17931847) at Maui’s Lahaina mission (which was established in 1823); Charles and Harriet had three children; Charles later married Sarah Ann Stewart and they had one daughter together; Charles returned to the United States in 1825 due to his wife’s health, later returning to the Hawaiian Islands as chaplain on the United States Sloop Vincennes [under the command of William Finch, the United States Navy corvette Vincennes arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on October 2, 1828; the Vincennes was the first United States naval vessel to tour the globe]; books published by Stewart included: Journal of a Residence in the Sandwich Islands (London: H. Fisher, Son & Jackson, 1828); Private Journal of a Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (New York: J. P. Haven, 1828); A Visit to the South Seas, in the U.S. Ship “Vincennes” (London: Fisher, Son & Jackson, 1832); and A Residence in the Sandwich Islands (Boston: Weeks, Jordan, 1839).

Stewart, Harriet Bradford (Tiffany) (1798—1830)—Wife (first) of Charles Samuel Stewart (1795—1870); the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands) on April 27, 1823 on the Thames, which was under the command of Reuben Clasby, with the Second Company of American missionaries; Charles and Harriet had three children; due to her health, she returned to the United States in 1825 with her husband.

Stewart, Sarah AnnSecond wife of Charles Samuel Stewart (1795—1870); Charles and Sarah had one daughter.

Stockton, BetseyAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

Stone, DeliaAmerican Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kailua mission station (which was established in 1820).

Straub, George F. (1879—1966)—Born in Germany; studied medicine in Wuerzburg; completed clinical training in Heidelberg; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in 1906; ran a private medical practice in Honolulu; in 1921, established The Clinic (later renamed Straub Clinic) to provide specialists for medical services; Straub Hospital (located on King Street) is also named in his honor; retired in 1933 but later served in World War II; cellist for the Honolulu Symphony; also crafted fine musical instruments.

Strehl, GaryOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Strong, Isobel (Osbourne)Daughter of Fanny Stevenson (formerly Mrs. Fanny Osbourne); step-daughter of Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894); wife of Joseph Strong, the court painter of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Strong, JosephHusband of Isobel (Osbourne) Strong, the daughter of Fanny Stevenson (formerly Mrs. Fanny Osbourne), the wife of Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894); court painter of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Sumner, CharlesIn command of the barque Mary Frazier when it arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on April 9, 1837 carrying the Eighth Company of American missionaries; the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days; the group included missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox, who first served on the island of Hawaii and O‘ahu, then spent 20 years (1846—1869) at the Wai‘oli mission on Kaua‘i.

Sunn, Rell Kapolioka‘ehukai (1950—1998)—As a youth, honed her surfing skills at O‘ahu’s Mākaha Beach, which was just two minutes from her home; won the Hawaiian Junior Championships; in 1966, competed in the World Contest (the world championship of surfing at the time) in San Diego; seven times during the following years Rell was in the top eight in the world, twice placing third; excelled not only at surfing, but also at bodysurfing, outrigger canoe paddling, and spearfishing; kumu hula; black belt in martial arts; earned a degree in cultural anthropology from the University of Hawai‘i; an all around waterwoman, Rell was an expert diver and was the first female lifeguard in the Hawaiian Islands; international surfing champion and a founder of the Women’s Professional Surfing Association; tireless advocate of children’s surfing, and founded the Rell Sunn Menehune Championships at Mākaha in 1976; the event recently marked its 30th year; Rell also took kids to Europe for surfing expeditions; in 1982, Rell was the top ranked longboard champion; the following year she was diagnosed with cancer and battled the disease for the next 15 years; in 1988 she went into a coma but came out of it and then in 1991 the doctor told her she had just six months to live, but she lived for seven more years; Rell Kapolioka‘ehukai Sunn passed away on January 2, 1998 at the age of 47; loved and respected by many, and her funeral at Mākaha was attended by thousands of people; Rell’s middle name, Kapolioka‘ehukai, was given to her by her grandmother, and means “Heart of the sea”; affectionately known as the Queen of Mākaha.

Suter, JohnIn command of Cleopatra’s Barge during its journey to the Hawaiian Islands in 1820; the ship, whose construction had been commissioned by George Crowninshield Jr. and was then purchased by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) for a cargo of sandalwood (8,000 piculs) worth about $80,000 in China; after purchasing Cleopatra’s Barge, King Kamehameha II renamed the ship Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i), and used it as a royal pleasure craft, ship-of-state, merchant vessel, and for interisland travels that included transporting American missionaries; on April 5, 1824, the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i became shipwrecked at the mouth of the Wai‘oli River in Hanalei Bay, and was abandoned; in 1995, the Smithsonian Institution’s Dr. Paul Forsythe Johnston used remote sensing equipment to discover the buried location of the sunken wreck of Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Prince of Hawai‘i), and hundreds of artifacts were eventually recovered. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

SwainCaptain of the whale ship Averick, which arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on May 17, 1832 carrying the Fifth Company of American missionaries; at this time the population of the Hawaiian Islands was estimated to be about 130,000 people.



[i] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ii] Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation: Presented by Lili‘uokalani in Washington D.C., June 17, 1897. Internet site: http://hawaiii-nation.org/treatyprot.html, 6/14/2005.

[iii] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[iv] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.