Part 2 Glossary (T-Z)

Takai, DavidOf Japanese-Hawaiian ancestry; tried for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; she told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Takakuwa, YoichiUsed the Irwin Block building for about 25 years as a wholesale store and political headquarters; the Irwin Block was constructed in 1897 at 928 Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu’s Chinatown district by William G. Irwin, a sugarcane entrepreneur; the architects of the two-story, high-ceilinged building were C. B. Ripley and Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and the building’s style is Richardsonian Romanesque; the exterior is rough-hewn volcanic stone and brick; in 1923, the building was bought by Nippu Jiji (a Japanese-language newspaper originally founded as The Yamato in 1895 and later called Hawaii Times), which occupied the building until 1984; cornices on the building show the dates 1895 and 1923; in 1973, the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places; extensive interior renovations took place in 1982, and an interior mezzanine level was added along with a five-story addition on the rear of the building.

Takasaki, Richard S.Served as (acting) President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1969); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Tavares, HannibalServed as Mayor Maui County; term began in 1979.

Taylor, Patrick GordonWith Charles Kingsford-Smith, flew a single-engine Lockheed Altair named Lady Southern Cross from Brisbane, Australia to Oakland, California (via Fiji and Honolulu) in October of 1934, completing the first eastbound flight from the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Mainland, arriving in Oakland on November 3, 1934. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Taylor, Townsend E.American Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

Temple, ShirleyActress; visited the Hawaiian Islands in 1935 at age five.

Tenney, Edward D.One of two men (the other was Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911)) who received the first two automobiles in the Hawaiian Islands on October 8, 1899 in Honolulu; the automobiles were “Wood electrics.”

Tennyson, Lord AlfredEnglish poet laureate; wrote a poem entitled “Kapiolani” in memory of the 1824 event when Chiefess Kapi‘olani (1781-1841), a Protestant convert, led a march from Kona to Kīlauea Volcano where she defied the volcano goddess Pele by proclaiming the power of Jehovah; when Kapi‘olani was not engulfed by lava, at least 90 Hawaiians, including the high priest of the volcano, joined the Hilo mission and convert to the Protestant religion; Tennyson’s poemKapiolani, by Lord Alfred Tennyson: When from the terrors of Nature a people have fashion’d and worship a Spirit of Evil, Blest be the Voice of the Teacher who calls to them, “Set yourselves free!”, Noble the Saxon who hurled at his Idol a valorous weapon in olden England!, Great, and greater, and greatest of women, island heroine Kapiolani, Clomb the mountain, and flung the berries and dared the Goddess, and freed the people, Of Hawa-i-ee!, A people believing that Peelè the Goddess would wallow in fiery riot and revel, On Kilauea, Dance in a fountain of flame with her devils or shake with her thunders and shatter her island, Rolling her anger, Thro’ blasted valley and flowing forest in blood-red cataracts down to the sea!, Long as the lava-light, Glares from the lava-take, Dazing the starlight; Long as the silvery vapor in daylight, Over the mountain, Floats, will the glory of Kapiolani be mingled with either on Hawa-i-ee, What said her Priesthood?, “Woe to this island if ever a woman should handle or gather the berries of Peelè, Accursed were she!, And woe to this island if ever a woman should climb to the dwelling of Peelè the Goddess!, Accursed were she!”, One from the Sunrise, Dawned on His people and slowly before him, Vanished shadow-like, Gods and Goddesses, None but the terrible Peelè remaining as Kapiolani, Ascended her mountain, Baffled her priesthood, Broke the Taboo, Dipt to the crater, Called on the Power adored by the Christian and crying, “I dare her, let Peelè avenge herself!”, Into the flame-billows dashed the berries, and drove the demon from Hawa-i-ee.”

Thomas, Richard Darton (17771851)British Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy; received complaints about activities of the Hawaiian government from Richard Charlton in Mexico, and in response sent Lord George Paulet (1803—1879) of Britain to the Hawaiian Islands; Paulet arrived on the frigate Carysfort on February 10, 1843, and after hearing the angry complaints of Alexander Simpson; Paulet threatened to use his military might (the ship’s cannons, which could bombard Honolulu), and demanded a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain; Paulet also took over three schooners belonging to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); and demanded $100,000; King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) was summoned from Lahaina and acquiesced to Paulet’s demands to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag was raised in Honolulu; King Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) resigned on May 10, 1843, bringing the public papers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[i]) to keep them from being taken by the British naval officers; Judd then wrote appeals to London and Washington for help in resisting Paulet’s illegal activities; at the Mausoleum, Judd used the coffin of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu as a desk as he wrote his appeals; when the U.S.S. Constellation arrived under the command of Commodore Lawrence Kearney caused fears of a rift between the United States and Britain; a confrontation over Hawai‘i’s independence was avoided when Judd’s appeals resulted in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Lord George Paulet’s superior, Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas (1777—1851) on July 26, 1843, on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin; Thomas rescinded the cession on July 31, 1843 and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was again raised at the place now known as Thomas Square in honor of Admiral Richard Thomas; later that day, the king gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono(“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”); the date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day (see 1843, July 31; 1849, September 11; and Restoration Day, Chapter 12); Thomas remained in the Islands for about six months until consul general William Miller (17951861) arrived with a treaty similar to the treaty King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had been forced to sign in 1839 under the threat of British military force; the treaty brought by Miller was signed on February 12, 1844.

Thompson, DorothyKnown as “Auntie Dottie”; for many years planned and organized the Merrie Monarch Festival, which premiered in 1964 as part of the Hilo Festival; the Merrie Monarch Festival became an organized hula competition in 1971; television coverage of the event began in 1981, and today the Merrie Monarch is the premier hula event in the state, and also the largest [the Merrie Monarch Festival was named in honor of King David La‘amea Kalākaua, who reigned from 1874 to 1891 and was known as the Merrie Monarch for his revival of hula and other Hawaiian customs]; starting each year on Easter Sunday, the Merrie Monarch Festival hula competition is a prominent showcase of the living Hawaiian culture of hula and mele; stringent guidelines require Merrie Monarch contestants to present the judges with fact sheets detailing their research and the rationale for their performance; costumes are also required to fit the time portrayed in the chant or dance (see The Merrie Monarch Festival, Chapter 12.)

Thorn, JonathanArrived in the Hawaiian Islands on February 13, 1811 in command of the Tonquin; the ship was on its way to the settlement of John Jacob Astor at the mouth of the Columbia River; the Tonquin was the first of three supply ships sent to the settlement by Astor; twelve Hawaiians left on the Tonquin to work in the Oregon Territory.

Thrum, Thomas George (1842—1932)—Born in Australia; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands at age eleven; worked at Kaua‘i’s Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation; in 1870, took charge of Honolulu’s Black & Auld, a news and stationery firm; in 1875; married Anna Laura Brown, and they would have four children; published the first Hawaiian Almanac and Annual, and then continued to edit and publish it annually; founded the monthly Paradise of the Pacific in 1888 (which was incorporated into Honolulu Magazine in 1966) with James J. Williams (1853—1926) (see Early Publications, Chapter 12); Thrum is said to have documented the location of more than 500 heiau (sacred places); published Hawaiian Folk Tales: A Collection of Native Legends (Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1907); Stories of the Menehunes (Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1910); and More Hawaiian Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1923); after William DeWitt Alexander (1833—1913) passed away, Thrum published the work Alexander had been editing: Abraham Fornander’s Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folklore; at the time, Fornander’s work was the most comprehensive book of its kind yet published; in 1921, Thrum was named an associate in Hawaiian folklore at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

Thrum, Anna Laura (Brown)Married Thomas George Thrum (1842—1932) and they would have four children.

Thurston, Asa (17871868)Born in Massachusetts; graduated form Yale College (1816) and Andover Theological Seminary (1819); married Lucy Goodale (17951876), and a few weeks later, on August 31, 1819, they left Boston on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard, sailing to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820, reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin their congregational mission work; father of Asa Goodale Tyerman Thurston; grandfather of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931); leader, with Hiram Bingham (17891869), of the First Company of American missionaries; Asa and Lucy served at the mission station at Kailua (on Hawai‘i Island, established in 1820), then Maui, then the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820), and then at the Kailua mission station in 1823; instrumental in the first translation of the Bible into Hawaiian; visited Kīlauea Volcano with Artemas Bishop (1795—1872), who came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1822 with the Second Company of American missionaries and William Ellis (17941872), the first person in the Hawaiian Islands to preach a sermon in the Hawaiian language; they were among the first foreigners to visit the summit of Kīlauea Volcano; the men were searching for a suitable site to set up a mission station; visited New England from 1840 to 1842.

Thurston, Asa Goodale TyermanSon of Asa Thurston (17871868) and Lucy (Goodale) Thurston (1795—1876); husband of Sarah Andrews Thurston; Asa and Sarah were the parents of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931).

Thurston, Harriet (Potter)Second wife of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931) and they would have two children including a son, Lorrin Potter Thurston, and a daughter, Margaret Carter Thurston.

Thurston, Lorrin Andrews (1858—1931)Born in Honolulu; son of Asa Goodale Tyerman Thurston and Sarah Andrews Thurston; grandson of Asa Thurston (17871868) and Lucy (Goodale) Thurston (1795—1876) (parents of Asa Goodale Tyerman Thurston); attended O‘ahu’s Punahou School; attended Columbia University where he studied law, joining the Honolulu bar in 1878; married Margaret Clara Shipman and they had one son, Robert Shipman Thurston; married Harriet Potter and they would have two children including a son, Lorrin Potter Thurston, and a daughter, Margaret Carter Thurston; in 1886, elected to the House of Representatives, and then in 1892 elected to the House of Nobles; in 1887, appointed as Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; instrumental in the construction of a road to the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, and the building of a hotel there; in 1887, drafted the “Bayonet Constitution”; part of the political organization of American merchants called the Hawaiian League that instigated the new constitution; the League’s membership included Sanford Ballard Dole (1844—1926); the Hawaiian League considered King Kalākaua to be corrupt; when King Kalākaua’s government sold its opium monopoly to a Chinese interest, the American’s tried to restrict King Kalākaua’s power; holding a mass meeting, the League demanded the dismissal of Kalākaua’s Cabinet, including Premier Walter Murray Gibson (18821888), and also insisted that Kalākaua sign a new constitution; a radical faction of the League wanted to march to ‘Iolani Palace with guns and annex the Hawaiian Islands to the United States, but Dole and the majority only wished to limit King Kalākaua’s monarchical powers; King Kalākaua soon signed a new constitution, which was later given the nickname “The Bayonet Constitution,” implying the document was signed at gunpoint; accounts vary on the actual threats that were wielded against the king to force him to attach his signature to the new constitution, but the effects of the new document included drastic changes that severely curtailed Kalākaua’s power, and ended 23 years of rule under the previous constitution of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); one result of the Bayonet Constitution was that a vote of the Legislature became necessary to replace Cabinet members; the constitution also allowed nobles to be elected by those who owned large amounts of land, and this significantly reduced the power of Asians and native Hawaiians; the constitution allowed the Legislature to override the king’s veto, and extended voting rights to all Europeans and Americans who would take an oath to support the new constitution; one view of these events attributes the new constitution to mercantile, commercial and industrial interests, including the Chamber of Commerce, sugar planters, and missionary store workers who banded together with the aim of abrogating the monarchy, declaring the Hawaiian Islands a Republic, and annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; politically known as the “down-town party,” they sought to reduce King Kalākaua’s sovereign power; another view emphasizes the corruption said to be taking place among Kalākaua’s Cabinet at the time, particularly by his Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Walter Murray Gibson (1882—1888); one of the leaders of the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; left Hawaiian Islands for Washington D.C. on January 18, 1893, serving as Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary for the revolutionists, remaining in Washington D.C. for about two years; in 1898, served as annexation commissioner; for the next two decades, in partnership with Benjamin Franklin Dillingham (1844—1918), involved in developing railroad lines and sugarcane plantations (Olaa [‘Ōla‘a] Plantation; Kihei [Kīhei] Plantation; and Maui Plantation); founder of the Honolulu Rapid Transit Company; publisher of Honolulu Advertiser beginning in 1900.

Thurston, Lorrin PotterSon of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931) and Harriet (Potter) Thurston.

 

Thurston, Lucy (Goodale) (1795—1876)—Daughter of a Congregational Church deacon; married Asa Thurston (1787—1868), and a few weeks later, on August 31, 1819, they left Boston on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard, sailing to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820, reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin their congregational mission work; leader, with Hiram Bingham (17891869), of the First Company of American missionaries; they served at the mission station at Kailua, then Maui, then the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820), and then at Kailua in 1823; Lucy and Asa Thurston had five children; wrote a notable account of early missionary life in the Hawaiian Islands, which was published in The Life and Times of Lucy G. Thurston (Ann Arbor, Mich.: S. C. Andrews, 1882).

 

Thurston, Margaret Clara (Shipman)From Hilo; wife of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931) and they had one son, Robert Shipman Thurston;

Thurston, Robert ShipmanSon of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931) and Margaret Clara (Shipman) Thurston.

Thurston, Robert S. (Jr.)Graduated from Punahou School in 1941; disappeared on a military mission over the Pacific Ocean in 1945; in 1966, Thurston Memorial Chapel was constructed on Punahou School campus in Honolulu; the Chapel was a gift of the Thurstons as a memorial to their son.

Thurston, Sarah AndrewsWife of Asa Goodale Tyerman Thurston; Asa and Sarah were the parents of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931).

Tinker, ReubenAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station, which was established in 1820; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station, which was established in 1823; served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station, which was established in 1832; served at Kaua‘i’s Kōloa mission station, which was established in 1834.

Tongg, RudyHonolulu publisher; founded Trans-Pacific Airlines on July 26, 1946, with the first flight in a war surplus DC-3 carrying 21 passengers to Hilo from Honolulu; the company was renamed Aloha Airlines in 1958.

Traphagen, Oliver GreenArchitect of the Judd Building, constructed in 1899 on Fort Street in Honolulu; the building is four-stories tall, and has the first passenger elevator in the Hawaiian Islands; later a fifth floor was added; architect of the Mendoca Block, a brick building spanning one block long, which was constructed in 1901 at North Hotel and Maunakea Streets in Honolulu’s Chinatown district, becoming one of the first major structures to begin the rebuilding after the devastating 1900 Chinatown fire; the fire was intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days; the Mendoca Block building was rehabilitated in 1979; architect and designer of the 75-room, 4-story Moana Hotel, which opened in Waikīkī on March 11, 1901; at the time it was the tallest building in the Hawaiian Islands, and also Waikīkī’s first major hotel; Traphagen designed the hotel for Matson Navigation Company; the hotel was constructed by English businessman Walter Peacock at a cost of $150,000 and was known as the “First Lady of Waikīkī”; rooms were initially $1.50 per night and each room featured a bathroom and telephone (luxurious amenities at the time); the hotel also boasted O‘ahu’s first electric elevator; fifteen years later, the Moana Hotel added 100 more rooms as well as a seaside courtyard; King George V of the United Kingdom and Edward, Prince of Wales stayed at the hotel in 1920, garnering national attention. (See Historic Waikīkī in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2); architect and designer of the Territorial Archives Building (Old Archives Building), which was completed on August 23, 1906, in the Renaissance Revival style at 364 King Street on the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace in downtown Honolulu, becoming the United States’ first building constructed for the sole purpose of preserving public archive materials. (Note: Hawai‘i was a Territory from 1900 to 1959.); the Archives includes historical photographs and documents, private papers, records, manuscripts, maps, books, and items from various collections, including the Captain Cook Memorial Collection; the Archives also contains approximately 100,000 photographs, 1,800 maps, and 9,000 books, many of which contain past government publications; many papers associated with the Hawaiian Kingdom (before 1893), the Republic of Hawai‘i (1893-1900), the Territorial Government (1900-1959), and the government of the State of Hawai‘i (1959-present) are found in the Archives; the records span all aspects of the government, including the Executive Branch, Legislature, and Judiciary; the Governors’ Records span from 1900 to the present and include press releases, speeches, and personal papers; catalogs and indexes in the Reference Room include the Computerized Library Catalog, which makes it easy to locate information and photos; virtually fireproof, the Old Archives Building is primarily stucco-covered brick, and divided into two main sections with a public reading room and offices on one side and a large vault area on the other side; additions to the building were constructed in 1929, including another vault area, a basement in the back, and a bay added to the front left side of the building; in 1949, a small addition was made to the rear of the right side wing of the building; in 1959, when officials decide that State of Hawai‘i buildings should have Hawaiian names, the Old Archives Building was renamed Kana‘ina Building after Charles Kana‘ina (c.1801-1877), the husband of Kekāuluohi (Miriam ‘Auhea, 1794-1845), and they were the parents of King Lunalilo; also in 1953, the new Hawai‘i State Archives Building was completed, and the old Archives Building housed the State Attorney General’s office, and then later served other functions including housing the State of Hawai‘i Identification Office and the Office of Children and Youth; in 1987, the Friends of ‘Iolani Palace restored the original interior colors and design of the Old Archives Building, which still retains its domed, stained-glass skylight in the foyer as well as the original terrazzo floor; Friends of ‘Iolani Palace now uses the historical building for its education center and administrative offices. (See Old Archives Building—Kana‘ina Building in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Tromelin, Legoarant DeRear Admiral in French Navy; arrived in Honolulu in April of 1848 in command of two French ships: the Gassendi (a steam corvette) and La Poursuivante; demanded equality of worship and an end to duties on French imports, claiming these acts violated an earlier treaty; his ten demands were sent to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and included equality of worship; engaged in reprisals that included taking over government buildings and ransacking Fort Kekuanohu in Honolulu and seizing the yacht of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); departed ten days later, taking with him Guillaume Patrice Dillon, the French Consul, whose complaints had initiated the conflict; [on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Trousseau, George P. (18331894)Born in Paris to a renowned physician; graduated from Ecole de Médicine in Paris; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1872 after serving in the French Army; served as president of the Board of Health under King Lunalilo [William Charles Lunalilo], and also as the monarch’s personal physician; initiated the segregation of leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients; was succeeded in his position as president of the Board of Health by Nathaniel Bright Emerson (1839—1915); his medical skills were utilized at Queen’s Hospital as well as numerous other Island institutions, including Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison and Oahu [O‘ahu] Insane Asylum; involved in various business enterprises, including growing sugarcane, raising sheep and ostriches, and yachting.

Tsugawa, JamesHonolulu architect; in 1980, directed a restoration of the Stangenwald Building at 119 Merchant Street in Honolulu; the six-story Stangenwald Building was originally constructed in 1901, and was built on the site of the offices of Hugo Stangenwald (1829—1899), a Honolulu physician who passed away in 1899; the architect of the Stangenwald Building was Charles William Dickey (1871—1942); the building is noted for its Italian Renaissance elements; features include arched windows, pressed-copper trim, terra cotta ornamentation, and a wrought-iron balustrade; the Stangenwald Building is considered the first skyscraper in the Hawaiian Islands, and for more than a half century it was the tallest building in Honolulu; it also had the first electric elevator in the Hawaiian Islands, and housed the first shared law library in the Hawaiian Islands; built in the wake of the devastating Chinatown fire (the fire was intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days); the Stangenwald Building was constructed of brick and concrete, with a steel frame and built-in fire hoses; considered Honolulu’s first fully fireproof structure, the building was built with fireproof vaults on every floor.

Tucker, J.Sponsored by the Hilo Planter’s Association; brought 72 mongooses from Jamaica to Hilo on September 30, 1883; the predatory animals were brought to the Islands in an effort to control the cane rats plaguing sugar plantations, and Tucker’s effort was sponsored by the Hilo Planter’s Association; the mongooses, instead of controlling the cane rats; began preying on native birds and eventually decimated numerous species.

Turner, DebbyeBorn at Schofield Barracks when her father served in the Army; competing as Miss Missouri, became the first Hawai‘i-born Miss America in 1998.

Tuttle, ElbertAt age 13, with his brother Malcolm (age 14), on October 10, 1910, carried a home-made, 40-pound (18-kg) glider to the top of O‘ahu’s Kaimukī Crater; Malcolm flew the craft, which measured about 15 feet (4.6 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) across, for a distance of about 40 feet (12 m) at a height of about 10 feet (3 m) off the ground; this was the beginning of aviation in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Tuttle, MalcolmAt age 14, with his brother Elbert (age 13), on October 10, 1910, carried a home-made, 40-pound (18-kg) glider to the top of O‘ahu’s Kaimukī Crater; Malcolm flew the craft, which measured about 15 feet (4.6 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) across, for a distance of about 40 feet (12 m) at a height of about 10 feet (3 m) off the ground; this was the beginning of aviation in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Twain, MarkSee Clemens, Samuel Langhorne.

Tweed, John (Sir)Sculptor who crafted the statue of British Captain James Cook in the explorer’s hometown of Whitby, England; a replica of the statue is known as the Captain James Cook Monument and is located alongside the main road in Hofgaard Park in Waimea, Kaua‘i.

Twigg-Smith, Margaret Carter (Thurston)Daughter of Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1858—1931) and Harriet (Potter) Thurston; wife of William Twigg-Smith.

Twigg-Smith, WilliamHusband of Margaret Carter (Thurston) Twigg-Smith. 

Vancouver, George (1758—1798)—Joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13; became a British captain; served under Captain Cook on his second Pacific voyage; served as Cook’s midshipman on his third voyage when Cook first found the Hawaiian Islands; in 1789, placed in charge of an exploring expedition to the South Seas, and to again take control over the Nootka Sound region where furs were plentiful, as well as to continue the search for the “Northwest Passage,” an elusive (because it was non-existent) route from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean; on this expedition, Vancouver was in command of the Discovery (not the same ship Captain Cook sailed) and the Chatham, a ship that was first commanded by Lieutenant William Robert Broughton and then by Lieutenant Peter Puget; returned to the Hawaiian Islands on March 5, 1792; came to the Islands again in 1793 and 1794, meeting with many important Hawaiian chiefs; during the second visit (in 1793), introduced sheep, cattle, goats, and geese as well as a variety of seeds and plants including almond and orange trees as well as grapevines; hoped that the food products would be raised and cultivated by the Hawaiians and then would later supply food for British seamen stopping in the Hawaiian Islands; Vancouver’s ships worked for two years to chart and name the coastal regions north of San Francisco, California, spending the winter months in the Hawaiian Islands; the ships were twice re-supplied by the Daedalus; on February 25, 1794, Vancouver obtained an informal treaty of cession from Kamehameha I; the two men were friends, and Kamehameha sought assurance that the Hawaiian Islands would be under British protection; Kamehameha received a gift of a British flag (a Union Jack) from Vancouver, and flew the flag for the next 22 years at various places where he lived; it is uncertain what meaning Kamehameha attributed to the flag, however, since the British Parliament never ratified the apparent cession agreement with Vancouver; during Vancouver’s 1794 visit, his carpenters helped Kamehameha construct the 36-foot (11-m) Britannia, the first foreign-designed ship in the Hawaiian Islands; arrived back in London, England in October of 1795; wrote of his Hawaiian adventures in Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean (London: C.J. and J. Robinson, J. Edwards, 1798).

Van Duzee, William S.American Protestant missionary; served at O‘ahu’s ‘Ewa mission station (which was established in 1834); served on Hawai‘i Island at the Ka‘awaloa mission station (which was established in 1824).

 

Van Tassel, Joseph LawrenceCompleted the first successful manned hot-air balloon flight in the Hawaiian Islands on November 2, 1889 in O‘ahu’s Kapi‘olani Park, ascending to an altitude of 1 mile (1.6 km) and then parachuting back to Earth; less than three weeks later, on November 18, Van Tassel attempted the same thing from Pūowaina (Punchbowl), but drowned when winds blew him off course and he landed in Ke‘ehi Lagoon; this was the first air fatality in the Hawaiian Islands.

 

Varigny, Charles-Victor Crosnier De (18291899)Born in France; married Louise Constantin (1828—1894) and they would have two daughters and one son’ the couple arrived in Honolulu in 1855; after serving as French Consul, became Minister of Finance under King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) in 1863, and then Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1865 (succeeding Robert Crichton Wyllie; helped draft the Constitution of 1864; published a historical/political travel narrative entitled Quatorze Ans aux Iles Sandwich (Paris: Hachette, 1874); his writings were also published in Fourteen Years in the Sandwich Islands (1855—1868), which was translated by Alfons L. Korn and published by the University of Honolulu Press in 1981.

Varigny, Louise (Constantin) (1828—1894)—Married Charles-Victor Crosnier De Varigny (1829—1899), and they would have two daughters and one son; the couple arrived in Honolulu in 1855.

Varney, Ada S.Taught at the Territorial Normal Training School from 1911-1929; Varney Memorial Fountain was built on the University of Hawai‘i’s Mānoa campus in 1934 using money collected from former students.

Vidinha, Antone K.Served as Mayor of Kaua‘i County (19691972).

Villalba, KarlaOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Von Hamm, Conrad Carl (1870—1965)—Born in Germany; employed by Deutschen Bank beginning in 1885; cousin of William Maertens; arrived in Honolulu in 1891 to work at the importing firm of Hoffschlaeger & Company (his cousin William Maertens was a senior partner in the company); philatelist; married Ida Bernice Young in 1898 and they would have two daughters; established Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. in 1899 in partnership Alexander Young (1832—1910) and Alexander’s son, Archibald Alfred Young, bringing gasoline and automobiles to the Hawaiian Islands; in 1900, Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. suffered severe losses in the Chinatown fire [the fire had been intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days]; in 1907, Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. opened a garage; soon expanded to other islands including Kaua‘i, Hilo, and Maui; president of Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. (1925—1942); served as Chairman of the Board (1942—1958).

Von Hamm, Ida Bernice (Young)—Daughter of Alexander Young (1832—1910); married Conrad Carl Von Hamm (1870—1965) in 1898, and they would have two daughters; passed away in 1963.

 

Von Holt, Alice (Brown)Married Hermann J. F. Von Holt (1830—1867) and they would have two daughters and one son.

 

Von Holt, Hermann J. F. (18301867)Born in Hamburg, Germany; arrived in Honolulu in 1851 with merchandise to open a store; married Alice Brown, and they would have two daughters and one son.

Von Pfister, IdaDaughter of John Von Pfister; in early 1866, fiancé of R. C. Wyllie (the former R. C. Cockrane, and the nephew of Robert Crichton Wyllie), who was in Hanalei preparing to welcome his bride-to-be; on February 4, 1866, just eight days before the marriage was to take place, Wyllie cut his own throat with a razor and was bleeding profusely from the large gash; Dr. Smith was summoned from Kōloa and used relays of horses to ride the 45-mile (72-km) distance in about three hours; unfortunately, Wyllie died several days later. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Von Pfister, John K.With Godfrey Rhodes, purchased Frenchman John Bernard’s estate in Hanalei on June 16, 1845; Rhodes and Von Pfister’s Hanalei estate became known as the Rhodes & Company Coffee Plantation; in October of 1845, Rhodes and Von Pfister formed a partnership with retired English Naval Officer Captain Henry Samuel Hunt; at this time about 750 acres (304 hectares) in Hanalei Valley were controlled by Rhodes and Von Pfister, and an estimated 1,000 acres (405 hectares) of Hanalei Valley were cultivated in coffee; the coffee mill of the Rhodes & Co. Coffee Plantation was built on Hanalei Valley’s eastern slope, just above the current site of the Hanalei Bridge; together, the coffee plantation of Charles Titcomb and the neighboring plantation of Bernard and Rhodes had more than 100,000 coffee trees planted by 1846; Von Pfister left the Hawaiian Islands to participate in the California Gold Rush and was later murdered in San Francisco; Rhodes became the sole owner of the coffee enterprise after Von Pfister left; father of Ida Von Pfister. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Waihee, John D. (III)Lieutenant Governor (Democrat) of Hawai‘i from 1982 to 1986; elected as Governor of the State of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in 1986; first elected governor of Hawaiian ancestry; ordered the American flag lowered and the Hawaiian flag raised on government buildings in the area of the Capitol District during a series of events that occurred in downtown Honolulu from January 13 to January 18, 1993, as part of the ‘Onipa‘a Centennial Observance of the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; native Hawaiians and their supporters called for the restoration of Hawaiian sovereignty, declaring the overthrow of the monarchy an illegal act, and demanding the shutdown of military bases and return of stolen lands; ‘Onipa‘a means “Stand firm,” or “Steadfast,” and was the motto of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]); on January 17, 1993, the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, a procession of pro-sovereignty marchers estimated to exceed 10,000 people marched from Aloha Tower to ‘Iolani Palace; served as governor until 1994.

Wakayama, TeruhikoUniversity of Hawai‘i postdoctoral student; developed a new cloning technique in 1998 that produced, from adult cells, three generations of genetically identical cloned mice (e.g., a clone of a clone of a clone), totalling 50 mice in all, in less than nine months; the research team was led by Ryozu Yanagimachi and Teruhiko Wakayama, whose research had earlier helped in the cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1997 in Scotland.

Waldron, Fred. L.Lived in a home constructed in 1905 on Vancouver Drive in Mānoa, Honolulu; the home later became the Baptist Student Center.

Walker, ClarenceCrashed his biplane into a hala tree in Hilo on June 10, 1911, and survived; this was the first airplane crash in the Hawaiian Islands. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Walsh, Arsenius (Father)Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on September 30, 1836 as part of a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Islands; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians [the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California]; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived; following Murphy’s arrival was the arrival of Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Ward, Curtis PerrySoutherner who married Victoria Robinson, daughter of pioneer shipbuilder James Robinson and his wife Rebecca; came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1860s; their estate was known as Old Plantation, and included the current site of the Neil F. Blaisdell Center; another of Robinson’s children was Mary E. (Robinson) Foster (1844—1930), wife of Thomas R. Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.

Ward, MaryAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823); served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity.

Ward, Victoria (Robinson)Daughter of pioneer shipbuilder James Robinson and his wife Rebecca; married Southerner Curtis Perry Ward, who came to the Hawaiian Islands in the 1860s; their estate was known as Old Plantation, and included the current site of the Neil F. Blaisdell Center; sister of Mary E. (Robinson) Foster (1844—1930), wife of Thomas R. Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.

Waterhouse, Elizabeth B. (Pinder)Married John Thomas Waterhouse Jr. (1845—1904); their sons included John Waterhouse and George S. Waterhouse, who were both successful in business enterprises in the Hawaiian Islands.

 

Waterhouse, George S.Son of John Thomas Waterhouse Jr. (1845—1904) and Elizabeth B. (Pinder) Waterhouse; grandson of John Thomas Waterhouse Sr. (1845—1904); brother of John Waterhouse; successful businessman in the Hawaiian Islands.

 

Waterhouse, JohnSon of John Thomas Waterhouse Jr. (1845—1904) and Elizabeth B. (Pinder) Waterhouse; grandson of John Thomas Waterhouse Sr. (1845—1904); brother of George S. Waterhouse; successful businessman in the Hawaiian Islands.

 

Waterhouse, John Thomas (Jr.) (18451904)Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with his father, John Thomas Waterhouse Sr. (1845—1904), in 1851; founded the Waterhouse Trust Company, a financial firm dealing with real estate, brokerage, investments, insurance); served in the Legislature during the monarchy and also during the Provisional Government and the Republic; married Elizabeth B. Pinder; their sons included John Waterhouse and George S. Waterhouse, who were both successful in business enterprises in the Hawaiian Islands; preached for a decade to the congregation at Kaumakapili; superintendent of Kawaiaha‘o Sunday School (18991904); involved with First Methodist Church, Central Union Church, Sailor’s Home, and Lunalilo Home.

Waterhouse, John Thomas (Sr.) (1845—1904)—Methodist missionary; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1851; favored annexation; involved in various business ventures including N.W. Dimond, H. May & Company, and Waterhouse Investment Company; father of John Thomas Waterhouse Jr. (1845—1904).

Wayne, JohnStarred in Donovan’s Reef, filmed on Kaua‘i in 1962; at the time, Wayne was Hollywood’s most popular star; in the film he plays “Guns” Donovan, a former United States Marine who opens a tropical bar in the South Pacific.

Weeks, Henry (Jr.)Kona cabinetmaker; commissioned by Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi (18711922) to build a 42-foot (12.8-m) racing canoe that became known as the ‘Ā; the six-man racing canoe was praised for its design as well as the crews that earned first place in many competitions from 1906 to 1910; the canoe is now on display at Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu. (See Bishop Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Weinberg, HarryOwner of the Honolulu Rapid Transit on January 1, 1971 when transit workers represented by Hawai‘i Teamsters Local 996 went on strike against the private company; the strike lasted for two months, inconveniencing some 70,000 commuters and leading to the creation of a city transportation system negotiated by Mayor Frank Fasi. (See Unions, Chapter 12.)

Weston, David M.While working for the East Maui Plantation in 1851, invented a centrifugal machine that allowed sugar to be separated from molasses much quicker than was previously possible (completing in just minutes what previously took weeks), and speeding up the drying process; the new process also increased the quality, and thus the value, of the sugar; opened a successful machine shop in Honolulu in 1853 in partnership with Henry Augustus Peirce (1808—1885), then established Honolulu Iron Works.

Wetmore, Charles H.American Protestant missionary; served at the Hilo mission station (which was established in 1824).

Wheeler, Sheldon H.Air Force major; died in a plane crash in 1921; named after him in 1922 was Wheeler Field (now known as Wheeler Air Force Base), which was established near Schofield Barracks in Wahiawā, O‘ahu. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Whitfield, Henry D.Brother-in-law of philanthropist Andrew Carnegie; designed new Hawai‘i State Library building on King Street in Honolulu, constructed in 1911 (additions were built in 1930); particularly notable is the library’s entrance, consisting of 20-foot (6.1 m) high “Tuscan” columns and 18-foot (5.5 m) arches; the Hawai‘i State Library is located at 478 South King Street; phone: 808-586-3500; reference services phone: 586-3621; 1-800-390-3611; which opened in 1879 on King Street in Honolulu; the structure was built in the Classical Revival style, with a four-story, rectangular main building and a six-story tower at the rear; the original “Reading Room” opened in 1879, and only men were allowed to check out books from the original collection of 5,000 volumes; this was sponsored by the Hawai‘i Workingmen’s Library Association, who were trying to keep rowdy seamen out of trouble; construction of the new Hawai‘i State Library building in 1911 was made possible by a $100,000 donation by industrialist and donor-philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in 1898 after annexation; two wings to expand the library were built in 1930, creating the open-air center courtyard; a bust of Andrew Carnegie greets visitors at the entrance. (See Hawai‘i State Library in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Whittlesey, Eliphalet W.American Protestant missionary; served at the mission station at Hāna, Maui (which was established in 1832).

Whitney, Henry M.Honolulu Post Office postmaster when it first opened in 1850; by 1855, mail from New York took about 35 days to reach the Hawaiian Islands.

Whitney, Maria K.American Protestant missionary; served at Kaua‘i’s Waimea mission station (which was established in 1820).

Whitney, Mercy PartridgeWife of Samuel Whitney (1793—1845); on May 3, 1820, Samuel and Mercy arrived on Kaua‘i aboard the Thaddeus along with American missionary Samuel Ruggles (1795—1871) and his wife Nancy; also on board the ship was George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, the son of Kaumuali‘i, the ruler of Kaua‘i; as a young child, George P. Kaumuali‘i (also known as Humehume) was sent to the United States, reportedly to protect him from the queen; the Ruggles and Whitneys were welcomed by Kaumuali‘i, ruler of the island, and were given land and a residence; at Waimea, Kaua‘i, the Ruggles and Whitneys established a mission station, and Samuel Whitney and Samuel Ruggles preached throughout the island; Samuel and Mercy Whitney remained on Kaua‘i for many years; by April of 1821 they had built a large, Western-style wooden house near the Waimea River, where they ran a school and held church services.

Whitney, Samuel (1793—1845)On May 3, 1820, arrived on Kaua‘i aboard the Thaddeus with his wife Mercy Partridge Whitney as well as American missionary Samuel Ruggles (1795—1871) and his wife Nancy; also on board the ship was George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i, the son of Kaumuali‘i, the ruler of Kaua‘i; as a young child, George P. Kaumuali‘i (also known as Humehume) was sent to the United States, reportedly to protect him from the queen; the Ruggles and Whitneys were welcomed by Kaumuali‘i, ruler of the island, and were given land and a residence; at Waimea, Kaua‘i, the Ruggles and Whitneys established a mission station, and Samuel Whitney and Samuel Ruggles preached throughout the island; Samuel and Mercy Whitney remained on Kaua‘i for many years; by April of 1821 they had built a large, Western-style wooden house near the Waimea River, where they ran a school and held church services; Samuel frequently traveled around the island preaching and helping to establish other mission stations.

 

Wichman, Charles “Chipper”—Grandson of Juliet (Rice) Wichman(1901—1987) who founded, with Robert Allerton and others, the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden in 1960 (it was later renamed National Tropical Botanical Garden); Limahuli Reserve was established in 1974, and Limahuli was established as a National Tropical Botanical Garden in 1976 by Mrs. Juliet (Rice) Wichman; in 1977, Juliet and her son Charles Rice Wichman donated 13 acres (5.3 hectares) of lower Limahuli Valley to the National Tropical Botanical Garden; a 17-acre (6.9-ha) lower portion of the valley was opened to the public in 1995; Juliet’s grandson, Charles “Chipper” Wichman later donated an adjoining 985 acres (399 ha) of Limahuli Valley to the National Tropical Botanical Garden; the ancient terraces of kalo (Colocasia esculenta, taro) at Limahuli Garden hearken to old Hawai‘i; the trail through the botanical garden is about 2/3-mile (.3 ha), passing many native and Polynesian-introduced plant species, and climbing about 200 feet (61 m) to an overlook with views of the north shore coastline and the Pacific Ocean; the American Horticultural Society recognized Limahuli’s excellent design as well as its research, conservation, and education efforts in 1997, naming Limahuli the United States’ best natural botanical garden; [National Tropical Botanical Garden: Tours/Gift shop: 808-826-1053; Information: 332-7631; Location: 5-829 Kūhiō Highway (Route 560), near Mile Marker #9 just before the end of the road; open Tuesday to Friday, and Sunday, from 9:30-4; guided tours are given from 10 to 2 by reservation; www.ntbg.org.]

Wichman, Charles Rice—Son of Juliet (Rice) Wichman (1901—1987); in 1977, Juliet and Charles donated 13 acres (5.3 hectares) of Limahuli Valley to the National Tropical Botanical Garden. (See Wichman, Juliet (Rice))

 

Wichman, Frederick WarrenMarried the widow Juliet (Rice) Goodale in 1927 after her husband Holbrook M. Goodale died in a plane crash on O‘ahu; Frederick and Juliet had one son.

Wichman, Juliet (Rice) (1901—1987)—Daughter of Charles Rice; raised in Kalapakī, Kaua‘i in the former home of William Hyde Rice (18461924) (her grandfather); attended Vassar College in New York; lived at her home in Hā‘ena, Kaua‘i; married Holbrook M. Goodale and they would have two sons before Holbrook died in a plane crash on O‘ahu; married Frederick Warren Wichman in 1927 and they had one son; in 1931, published a pamphlet entitled Hawaiian Planting Traditions; published a cookbook (including photographs and historical information) with Dora Jane (Isenberg) Cole, entitled Early Kauai Hospitality; known for her interest in preserving native sites and traditions, and for one particular incident in which she stood in front of a sacred ancient stone wall near her Hā‘ena, Kaua‘i home (near Kē‘ē beach) and blocked the county workers from taking the rocks for a construction project, telling them they would have to bulldoze her over if they wanted the rocks; the workers soon were ordered to abandon their effort by someone higher up in the county administration; in 1960, founded Kaua‘i Museum in Līhu‘e; sponsored Edward Joesting’s historical text: Kauai: The Separate Kingdom (University of Hawaii Press, 1984); with Robert Allerton and others, founded the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, later renamed National Tropical Botanical Garden; Limahuli Reserve was established in 1974, and Limahuli was established as a National Tropical Botanical Garden in 1976 by Mrs. Juliet (Rice) Wichman; in 1977, Juliet and her son Charles Rice Wichman donated 13 acres (5.3 hectares) of lower Limahuli Valley to the National Tropical Botanical Garden; a 17-acre (6.9-ha) lower portion of the valley was opened to the public in 1995; Juliet’s grandson, Charles “Chipper” Wichman later donated an adjoining 985 acres (399 ha) of Limahuli Valley to the National Tropical Botanical Garden; the ancient terraces of kalo (Colocasia esculenta, taro) at Limahuli Garden hearken to old Hawai‘i; the trail through the botanical garden is about 2/3-mile (.3 ha), passing many native and Polynesian-introduced plant species, and climbing about 200 feet (61 m) to an overlook with views of the north shore coastline and the Pacific Ocean; the American Horticultural Society recognized Limahuli’s excellent design as well as its research, conservation, and education efforts in 1997, naming Limahuli the United States’ best natural botanical garden; [National Tropical Botanical Garden: Tours/Gift shop: 808-826-1053; Information: 332-7631; Location: 5-829 Kūhiō Highway (Route 560), near Mile Marker #9 just before the end of the road; open Tuesday to Friday, and Sunday, from 9:30-4; guided tours are given from 10 to 2 by reservation; www.ntbg.org.]

Widemann, Herman A. (18021899)Born in Germany; in 1837, at age 14, joined the crew of a whaling ship; arrived on Kaua‘i in 1846; worked as a tutor for the children of Thomas Brown and his wife, who lived at Wailua home known as “Wailua Falls Estate” on about 1,000 acres (405 hectares) of leased Crown lands, including a grand English-style home (shipped from England) on the hillside above the eastern side of Wailua Falls above the fork in the Wailua River; went to California in 1849 to seek riches in the gold fields; became overseer of Peirce Plantation (the predecessor of Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation), which began formal business operations on February 16, 1850; married Mary Kaumana and they would have a large family; purchased land in 1856 on Kaua‘i in the valleys of Hulē‘ia and Halekaha from James Marshall for $8,000 and started Grove Farm Sugar Plantation; hired a Honolulu engineer to design a 2-mile- (3.2-km-) long irrigation ditch to supply water for the sugarcane; ignored the advice of George Norton Wilcox (1839—1933), who recommend the ditch drop 1 foot (.3 meters) for every 1,000 feet (305 meters) (Wilcox had just graduated from Yale with a degree in engineering); Widemann proceeded with his planned ditch; the irrigation ditch ultimately failed due to lack of sufficient slope when it was completed in July of 1864; later leased George Wilcox the Grove Farm land, including 400 acres (162 hectares) of sugarcane land along with another 500 acres (202 hectares) of pasture land and Widemann’s house (a long, thatched-roof structure); Widemann began serving as a judge on the Kaua‘i Circuit Bench in 1863; served in Hawaiian Legislature; Minister under King Kalākaua; Minister of Finance under Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] after the counter-revolution of 1895, when she was arraigned before the military commission for treason, a charge that was later changed to misprision of treason, which involves knowing of treason (the attempted counter-revolution) but not disclosing it; passed away on February 7, 1899.

Widemann, Mary (Kaumana)From Anahola, Kaua‘i; descendant of the Kamehameha and Kaumuali‘i lines; married Judge Herman A. Widemann (1802—1899) and they had a large family.

Wilcox, Abner (18081869)Married Lucy Eliza Hart on November 23, 1836; they were both district schoolteachers in Connecticut before volunteering for missionary work; just three weeks after being married, the newlyweds left Boston Harbor and sailed for Hawai‘i with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries; the Wilcoxes, along with 30 other missionary volunteers, sailed around Cape Horn aboard the 228-ton barque Mary Frazier on a 116-day voyage; after teaching at the Hilo mission station (which was established in 1824) from 1837 to 1844, Abner and Lucy Wilcox were transferred to Waialua, O‘ahu, where Abner was placed in charge of the Manual Labor Boarding School; Lucy led weekly prayer meetings for females; on July 15, 1846, the Wilcoxes boarded the schooner Emelia with their four young sonsCharles Hart, George Norton, Edward Payson, and Albert Spencerand sailed for Kaua‘i to teach at the Wai‘oli mission station; the next day they sailed into Hanalei Bay where a large group of native Hawaiians awaited them at the landing; for the next 23 yearsfrom 1846 to 1869Abner and Lucy Wilcox and their growing family lived in the Wai‘oli Mission House and Abner Wilcox taught at the Wai‘oli Select School for Hawaiian boys; the curriculum taught by Abner Wilcox at Wai‘oli included reading, writing, mathematics, geography, moral philosophy, and church history; he also preached on Sundays; the initial classes conducted by Abner Wilcox in the thatched schoolhouse at Wai‘oli were attended by 48 native Hawaiian boys ranging in age from 12 to 18; classes were taught in the Hawaiian language using Hawaiian language materials; the Wai‘oli Select School sought the brightest and most promising students of the various schools on Ni‘ihau and Kaua‘i, and the finest of these students were in turn sent to the Lahainaluna Seminary on Maui; in the twelve years following their arrival at Wai‘oli, Abner and Lucy Wilcox had four more sons: Samuel Whitney, William Luther, Clarence Sheldon, and Henry Harrison; seven of Abner and Lucy’s eight children lived to adulthood; Abner and Lucy Wilcox made a return visit to their original home in Connecticut in 1869, their first trip home since leaving for Hawai‘i in 1836 with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries; accompanied by their youngest son Henry, Abner and Lucy crossed the United States Mainland from California via the new transcontinental railroad; they dropped Henry off in California where their oldest son Charles was employed with the brother of Lucy Wilcox; tragically, both Abner and Lucy Wilcox contracted malarial fever and died soon after they reached their New England home; they had intended to return to Kaua‘i after their Mainland visit, but this was not to be; Lucy Wilcox passed away on August 13, 1869; Abner Wilcox passed away on August 20, 1869; Abner and Lucy Wilcox left a legacy on Kaua‘i not only in their enduring mission work but also in their many sons, who would go on to leave their own legacies. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Albert Spencer (1844—1919)—Son of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox; born in Hilo on Hawai‘i Island; grew up at Wai‘oli in Hanalei, Kaua‘i; attended Punahou School on O‘ahu; worked with his brother George Norton Wilcox (1839—1933) in a sugarcane enterprise in Hanalei before working as the manager of Hanamaulu [Hanamā‘ulu] Plantation; in 1851, at the age of five, his father took him to Boston for corrective surgery on his clubfeet; member of the House of Representatives of the Hawaiian Kingdom from 1891 to 1892; helped to found the Samuel Mahelona Memorial Hospital at Kapa‘a, Kaua‘i with Mabel Wilcox (the daughter of Samuel and Emma Wilcox) as a memorial to his stepson; established the Kauikeolani [Kauikeōlani] Children’s Hospital in Honolulu; built the main house of his estate Kauikeōlani on Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 1899; lived in the house with his wife Emma Kauikeōlani Napoleon Mahelona, who was the widow of Samuel Mahelona; Albert and Emma named their Hanalei home after Emma’s namesake, Kauikeōlani, which means “Beautiful vision in the morning mist,”[ii] also translated as “Place in the skies [of] heaven[iii]; purchased an interest in the Princeville Plantation in 1892, and secured complete ownership by 1899; sold the Princeville lands in June of 1916, but maintained ownership of Kauikeōlani as well as “the old Mission Home, and some kuleanas along the beach.”[iv] Albert had grown up in the Wai‘oli Mission House, and in 1912 he led the effort to build Wai‘oli Hui‘ia Church in Hanalei in honor of his parents; Kauikeōlani is also known as the Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House; Kauikeōlani was originally comprised of three bedrooms but has grown in size over the years; the home is now divided into seven bedrooms and six baths, and serves as a vacation rental that is often used for weddings and other occasions; the outside of the historic beach home is covered with sand, a technique that was used at the time to provide termite protection, and a twelve-foot wide verandah wraps around part of the home; Kauikeōlani Estate is currently owned by Patsy Wilcox Sheehan [Alice Patricia Kuaihelani Wilcox Sheehan], the great great granddaughter of Abner and Lucy Wilcox; today the central parlor portion of Kauikeōlani remains somewhat of a living museum. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Charles Hart Son of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Clarence SheldonSon of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Edward Payson Son of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, ElsieDaughter of Samuel and Emma Wilcox; along with her sister Mabel, helped to found Wilcox Memorial Hospital with funding provided by the trust of their uncle George Norton Wilcox; Chairman of the Kaua‘i Board of Child Welfare and Commissioner of Education for twelve years; resigned to take a post as the first woman Senator in the Territorial Legislature; served in that capacity for eight years. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Emma Washburn (Lyman)Lived in Hilo on Hawai‘i Island before marrying Samuel Whitney Wilcox (1847—1929) in 1874; they would have six children.

Wilcox, George Norton (1839—1933)—Born in Hilo; second son of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox; grew up at Wai‘oli in Hanalei, Kaua‘i; attended Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College from 1860 to 1862, majoring in engineering and earning his engineering certificate; George’s first job was planting sugarcane on his parents’ land at Wai‘oli; he later worked as a luna (foreman) on the Princeville sugar plantation of Robert Crichton Wyllie; in 1864, leased Grove Farm sugar plantation in Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i from Judge Herman A. Widemann (1802—1899) and began using irrigation methods pioneered by William Harrison Rice, eventually acquiring more land and building Grove Farm into a major plantation; [in 1856, a 10-mile (16-km) long irrigation ditch was dug on Kaua‘i to supply water for the production of sugarcane at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation, run by William Harrison Rice; the use of irrigation to grow sugarcane soon led to a massive expansion of sugarcane production as a commercial crop]; when Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] visited her 4,200-acre (1,700-ha) Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate in 18701871, George N. Wilcox and William O. Smith, rode on horseback with Queen Emma to an area upland of her Lāwa‘i estate where they surveyed a water source; Wilcox and Smith consulted with Queen Emma to plan an irrigation ditch to provide water to the estate; Wilcox’s engineering helped him plan and build ditches; two men were hired to construct the ditch about 1 foot (30 cm) deep and wide, and about 2 miles (3.2 km) long; the ditch to Mauna Kilohana began functioning on March 11, 1871; once water was available, Queen Emma personally assisted in the planting; in 1881, Widemann added another 10,500 acres to Grove Farm by purchasing land from Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani; George used his engineering skills to direct the construction of extensive irrigation ditches that made Grove Farm one of the most productive plantations in the Hawaiian Islands at the time; the original home of George Norton Wilcox at Grove Farm, just south of Līhu‘e and north of Nāwiliwili Harbor, was built in 1864, and was a relatively sparse cottage; a two-story main house was later built by George for the family of his brother Samuel; it was later home to Mabel Wilcox, the niece of George, who established the museum at Grove Farm in the 1970’s; George Wilcox used his great wealth to become one of Kaua‘i’s most generous philanthropists; member of every Hawaiian legislative body from 1888 until 1898; served as King Kalākaua’s Prime Minister in 1892; in 1948, Gaylord Wilcox, the heir of Grove Farm, bought Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation, increasing Grove Farm’s landholdings to more than 22,000 acres; the Grove Farm Corporation shut down its sugarcane operations in 1974, and McBryde Sugar Company bought most of Grove Farm’s land along with the Kōloa Mill and Factory; today the restored plantation home is known as Grove Farm Homestead Plantation Museum; the estate at Grove Farm features period furniture, Hawaiian quilts, a koa staircase, and floors made from wood of the native ‘ōhi‘a lehua tree. (See Grove Farm Homestead Plantation Museum in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2; also see Hanalei History, in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Henry HarrisonSon of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox; in 1869, accompanied parents as they made a return visit to their original home in Connecticut (their first trip home since leaving for Hawai‘i in 1836 with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries); Henry, Abner, and Lucy crossed the United States Mainland from California via the new transcontinental railroad; Henry was dropped off in California where his oldest brother, Charles, was employed with the brother of Lucy Wilcox. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilcox, Lucy Eliza (Hart)Married Abner Wilcox on November 23, 1836; they were both district schoolteachers in Connecticut before volunteering for missionary work; just three weeks after being married, the newlyweds left Boston Harbor and sailed for Hawai‘i with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries; the Wilcoxes, along with 30 other missionary volunteers, sailed around Cape Horn aboard the 228-ton barque Mary Frazier on a 116-day voyage; after teaching in Hilo from 1837 to 1844, Abner and Lucy Wilcox were transferred to Waialua, O‘ahu, where Abner was placed in charge of the Manual Labor Boarding School; Lucy led weekly prayer meetings for females; on July 15, 1846, the Wilcoxes boarded the schooner Emelia with their four young sonsCharles Hart, George Norton, Edward Payson, and Albert Spencerand sailed for Kaua‘i to teach at the Wai‘oli mission station; the next day they sailed into Hanalei Bay where a large group of native Hawaiians awaited them at the landing; for the next 23 yearsfrom 1846 to 1869Abner and Lucy Wilcox and their growing family lived in the Wai‘oli Mission House and Abner Wilcox taught at the Wai‘oli Select School for Hawaiian boys; in the twelve years following their arrival at Wai‘oli, Abner and Lucy Wilcox had four more sons: Samuel Whitney, William Luther, Clarence Sheldon, and Henry Harrison; seven of Abner and Lucy’s eight children lived to adulthood; in 1851, Abner Wilcox took his five-year-old Albert to Boston for corrective surgery on his clubfeet; during Abner’s absence, Lucy Wilcox ran the Wai‘oli Select School and tended to the many tasks required to raise her children, not always easy in such a remote area as Kaua‘i’s north shore; Abner and Lucy Wilcox made a return visit to their original home in Connecticut in 1869, their first trip home since leaving for Hawai‘i in 1836 with the Eighth Company of American Protestant missionaries; accompanied by their youngest son Henry, Abner and Lucy crossed the United States Mainland from California via the new transcontinental railroad; they dropped Henry off in California where their oldest son Charles was employed with the brother of Lucy Wilcox; tragically, both Abner and Lucy Wilcox contracted malarial fever and died soon after they reached their New England home; they had intended to return to Kaua‘i after their Mainland visit, but this was not to be; Lucy Wilcox passed away on August 13, 1869; Abner Wilcox passed away on August 20, 1869; Abner and Lucy Wilcox left a legacy on Kaua‘i not only in their enduring mission work but also in their many sons, who would go on to leave their own legacies. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

 

Wilcox, MabelDaughter of Samuel and Emma Wilcox; helped to found the Samuel Mahelona Memorial Hospital at Kapa‘a with Albert Wilcox; selected by the Territorial Board of Health as Kaua‘i’s first public health nurse in 1913; Kaua‘i’s Territorial Board of Health Tuberculosis Nurse from 1914 to 1917; volunteered for duty in World War I, serving for 18 months in Belgium and France.

Wilcox, Robert W. (1855—1903)—Born in Honua‘ula, Maui; son of Captain William Wilcox and Kalua Makoleokalani, who was a descendent of Maui ali‘i (royalty); attended school in Wailuku, Maui beginning at the age of eight; at age ten attended an English school; in 1869, was among the first students at Haleakalā School, where he graduated in 1875; later was a teacher at ‘Ulupalakua, Maui; elected to the Legislature in 1880; on July 30, 1889, led about 150 armed insurgents in a revolt against King Kalākaua’s 1887 signing of the “Bayonet Constitution”; at 6 a.m. the men marched to Ali‘iōlani Hale (the Judiciary Building), the government building in Honolulu, and took over the building as well as the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace; the rebels opposed reform measures that had been instituted in 1887, and wanted King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to proclaim a new constitution; King Kalākaua refused and shots were exchanged between Wilcox’s men and government forces, who placed sharpshooters in the tower of Kawaiaha‘o Church and surrounding buildings; bombs made with dynamite were thrown into the grounds of ‘Iolani Palace, scattering the rebels; seven insurgents were killed during the rebellion and 12 more wounded; the head of the force suppressing the revolt was John Harris Soper (1846—1944), Marshal of the Kingdom; Wilcox surrendered and was tried for treason, but was later acquitted, claiming the king sanctioned his actions; served in the Legislature in 1890, representing Honolulu; headed the Liberal Party in 1892 representing Ko‘olau Loa; on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists (including Wilcox), mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; Colonel Samuel Nowlein, an advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani, informed fellow revolutionist Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] on January 3, 1895 that officers of the Republic of Hawai‘i had discovered that they were planning to stage a counter-revolution to restore the rule of Queen Lili‘uokalani, and that the officers knew of the arms and ammunition that were going to be used for this purpose and that these arms were on a ship, the steamer Waimanalo under the command of Captain William Davies, offshore of O‘ahu; Prince Kūhiō, with Robert W. Wilcox and John Henry Wise (1869—1937), sailed out to the Waimanalo in a canoe at Queen Lili‘uokalani’s Waikīkī boathouse; the weapons had been loaded into two boats; under the command of Wilcox, the two boats sailed for Moloka‘i until out of sight of the Waimanalo, then headed to Kāhala where the men buried the weapons under the sand; John Harris Soper (1846—1944), now representing the Republic of Hawai‘i, again headed the forces suppressing the rebellion, known as the counter-revolution of 1895; [on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; hundreds of men were arrested; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; in all, 37 people were found guilty of treason and open rebellion, 141 guilty of treason, and 12 guilty of misprision; twenty-two people were exiled to the United States]; Wilcox was condemned to death for his participation in the counter-revolution; due to intervention by the United States Congress, Wilcox’s sentence was lessened by Sanford Ballard Dole (18441926) to 35 years in jail with hard labor, as well as a $10,000 fine; within a few months, however, Wilcox was pardoned; during his time in jail his Italian wife filed for an annulment of their marriage; married Princess Theresa Owana Kaohelelani, who was a direct descendant of the Kona high chief Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui],[v] the father of King Kamehameha I; in November of 1900, as a member of the Home Rule Party, Wilcox was elected as a Territorial Delegate to Congress (as a non-voting member), serving until 1902, when he lost to Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922); [the Home Rule Party was organized by former royalists against the overthrow of the monarchy; their motto was “Hawai‘i for Hawaiians”]; Wilcox fought successfully to make literacy and education, not property ownership, the requirement for voting in the Hawaiian Islands (see The Organic Act, Chapter 12); Robert W. Wilcox, the leader of two failed rebellions, passed away on October 23, 1903, at the age of 48; many considered Wilcox, as one of Hawai‘i’s charismatic folk heroes.

Wilcox, Samuel Whitney (1847—1929)Born at Wai‘oli in Hanalei, Kaua‘i to Abner and Lucy Wilcox; attended Punahou School on O‘ahu; managed the cattle-raising branch of Grove Farm Plantation on Kaua‘i, which was under the direction of his brother, George Norton Wilcox; married Emma Washburn Lyman of Hilo in 1874 and they would have six children; Samuel and Emma Wilcox built the Līhu‘e Parish House as a memorial to their sons Charles and Ralph; father of Mabel Wilcox; became Sheriff of Kaua‘i in 1872, and served in that capacity for 25 years; member of the House of Representatives (19011902); Senator (19031907). (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

 

Wilcox, WilliamCaptain; father of Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903).

Wilcox, William Luther Son of Abner Wilcox (1808—1869) and Lucy Eliza (Hart) Wilcox. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 2.)

Wilder, Elizabeth Kinau (Judd)Daughter of Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873); married Samuel Gardner Wilder (1831—1888) in 1857; Samuel and Elizabeth had five children, including Gerrit Parmele Wilder (18631935) and James Austin (Kimo) Wilder (18681934).

Wilder, Gerrit Parmele (1863—1935)—Son of Samuel Gardner Wilder (1831—1888) and Elizabeth Kinau (Judd) Wilder.

Wilder, James Austin (Kimo) (18681934)—Son of Samuel Gardner Wilder (1831—1888) and Elizabeth Kinau (Judd) Wilder; married Sara Harnden in 1899, and they would have two children.

Wilder, Samuel Gardner (18311888)Born in Leominster, Massachusetts; rode for the Pony Express in the western states; worked for California’s Adams Express Co.; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1856; married Elizabeth Kinau Judd (daughter of Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) in 1857; Samuel and Elizabeth had five children, including Gerrit Parmele Wilder (18631935) and James Austin (Kimo) Wilder (18681934); engaged in numerous business enterprises, including shipping guano; from the South Pacific to New York; worked with Gerrit Parmele Judd in founding a sugarcane plantation in Kualoa, O‘ahu; established Wilder & Company in 1872 in partnership with Christopher H. Lewers, which merged with Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company in 1905; informed James S. McCandless that artesian wells were needed in the Hawaiian Islands; instrumental in developing railroads on Hawai‘i Island (1881) and on Maui (1884); served in the House of Nobles under King Lunalilo beginning in 1873; served as King Kalākaua’s Minister of Interior (18781880).

Wilder, Sara (Harnden)Married James Austin (Kimo) Wilder (1868—1934) in 1899, and they would have two children.

Wilkes, Charles (17981877)Born in New York; became a midshipman in the United States Navy; studied oceanography; as a lieutenant, Wilkes was appointed to lead an expedition surveying America’s Northwest Coast and the Pacific region; six vessels, including the expedition’s flagship, the Vincennes; set sail in 1938 for the four-year scientific journey, which at the time was the most ambitious journey undertaken by any nation; the expedition arrived in Honolulu in 1841 and completed explorations on O‘ahu as well as Hawai‘i Island and Maui; a three week journey to Mauna Loa Volcano was led by Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873); a report on the expedition was published in eleven volumes and entitled: Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1843 (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1845).

Wilkinson, John (?1826)English gardener; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the Blonde in 1825 with Boki; [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; John Wilkinson was formerly a resident of the West Indies and served as a captain against Napoleon’s forces in the Peninsular War; pioneer sugar planter in the Hawaiian Islands; raised sugarcane and coffee trees in Mānoa Valley with Boki; cultivated a large area of land (about 100 acres (40 ha)) of sugarcane in just about 1½ years; distilled rum; passed away in November of 1826 and his plantation continued until 1829; [the first commercial sugarcane plantation in the Hawaiian Islands occurred a decade later in Kōloa, Kaua‘i (see Ladd, William)].

Williams, James J. (1853—1926)—Born in England; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands about 1879, from Cleveland, Ohio, and was employed by Dixon Brothers firm, which he later purchased and renamed J. J. Williams Studio; for more than four decades Williams was Honolulu’s most prominent photographer, and he amassed an extensive collection of plates and photographs of the period; established the Territory of Hawai‘i’s first travel agency; founded the monthly Paradise of the Pacific in 1888 (incorporated into Honolulu Magazine in 1966) with Thomas George Thrum (1842—1932); passed away at age 72 due to a streetcar accident.

Williams & WallaceOpened the Honolulu Skating Rink on July 22, 1871 on Hotel Street in Buffum’s Hall; Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] attended the grand opening, which included a Virginia reel and other dances performed on roller skates; open five nights a week; the fee to skate at the rink was 25 cents per hour.

Wilson, John HenryMayor of City and County of Honolulu from February 5, 1920 to January 2, 1927; January 2, 1929 to January 2, 1931; and from January 2, 1947 to January 2, 1955.

Wilson, WillardServed as (acting) President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1957—1958); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Wilson, WoodrowPresident of the United States; declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917; to assist in the war effort, the Hawaiian National Guard was mobilized; American combat troops traveled to France.

Winship, JonathanAlong with Nathan Winship and William Heath Davis, signed a contract with King Kamehameha I in 1812, giving them exclusive rights to export and sell sandalwood from all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i; Jonathan and Nathan Winship first visited the Hawaiian Islands in 1806; under the command of Jonathan Winship, the O’Cain (a Boston trading ship) arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the spring of 1806; chief mate of the ship was Jonathan’s brother, Nathan Winship; the brothers returned to O‘ahu in October of 1806; in the spring of 1810, Nathan returned as captain of the Albatross, and transported Kaua‘i’s ruler, Kamuali‘i, to O‘ahu so he could cede his land to King Kamehameha I; in the winter of 1811, the two brothers returned to O‘ahu (Jonathan on the O‘Cain and Nathan on the Albatross); they took away a load of sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), and when King Kamehameha I was happy with his profits, he granted the Winships (along with Captain William Heath Davis) an exclusive ten-year contract for sales of sandalwood on all the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i; the two brothers become pioneers in the sandalwood trade in the Hawaiian Islands; due to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States, however, the Winships’ contract was cancelled after their 1813 voyage; in 1816 the Winships returned to Boston, but sandalwood remained the main source of income for the Hawaiian Islands for the next 15 years; [between 1810 and 1820, sandalwood sold for about $125/ton, generating more than $3 million; the peak years of the sandalwood trade were from 1810 to 1840, a time that also saw a steadily increasing desire for Western goods in the Islands, and consequently a large debt incurred by the Hawaiian monarchy; by 1821, sandalwood exports totaled about 1,400 tons annually]. (See The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade, Chapter 12.)

 

Winship, NathanAlong with Jonathan Winship and William Heath Davis, signed a contract with King Kamehameha I in 1812, giving them exclusive rights to export and sell sandalwood from all of the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i; Jonathan and Nathan Winship first visited the Hawaiian Islands in 1806; under the command of Jonathan Winship, the O’Cain (a Boston trading ship), arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the spring of 1806; chief mate of the ship was Jonathan’s brother, Nathan Winship; the brothers returned to O‘ahu in October of 1806; in the spring of 1810, Nathan returned as captain of the Albatross, and transported Kaua‘i’s ruler, Kamuali‘i, to O‘ahu so he could cede his land to King Kamehameha I; in the winter of 1811, the two brothers returned to O‘ahu (Jonathan on the O‘Cain and Nathan on the Albatross); they took away a load of sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), and when King Kamehameha I was happy with his profits, he granted the Winships (along with Captain William Heath Davis) an exclusive ten-year contract for sales of sandalwood on all the Hawaiian Islands except Kaua‘i; the two brothers become pioneers in the sandalwood trade in the Hawaiian Islands; due to the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States, however, the Winships’ contract was cancelled after their 1813 voyage; in 1816 the Winships returned to Boston, but sandalwood remained the main source of income for the Hawaiian Islands for the next 15 years; [between 1810 and 1820, sandalwood sold for about $125/ton, generating more than $3 million; the peak years of the sandalwood trade were from 1810 to 1840, a time that also saw a steadily increasing desire for Western goods in the Islands, and consequently a large debt incurred by the Hawaiian monarchy; by 1821, sandalwood exports totaled about 1,400 tons annually]. (See The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade, Chapter 12.)

Winterhalter, Franz-XavierRenowned portraitist; painted a full-length portrait of Louis Philippe in 1848; the painting arrived as a gift from the ruler of France to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); the portrait of Louis Philippe is now on display in the ‘Iolani Palace Blue Room. (See French / Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Wise, John Henry (1869—1937)—Born in Kohala on Hawai‘i Island to Julius A. Wise and Rebecca Nawaa; graduated from Hilo Boarding School (1886); attended Kamehameha School for Boys when it was established in 1887; in 1893, graduated from a theological seminary in Oberlin, Ohio; in 1897, married Lois Kawai and they would have ten children; participant in the counter-revolution of 1895; [when Colonel Samuel Nowlein, an advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], informed fellow revolutionist Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] on January 3, 1895 that officers of the Republic of Hawai‘i had discovered that they were planning to stage a counter-revolution to restore the rule of Queen Lili‘uokalani, and that the officers knew of the arms and ammunition that were going to be used for this purpose and that these arms were on a ship, the steamer Waimanalo under the command of Captain William Davies, offshore of O‘ahu, Prince Kūhiō, with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903) and John Henry Wise (1869—1937), sailed out to the Waimanalo in a canoe at Queen Lili‘uokalani’s Waikīkī boathouse; the weapons had been loaded into two boats; under the command of Wilcox, the two boats sailed for Moloka‘i until out of sight of the Waimanalo, then headed to Kāhala where the men buried the weapons under the sand; [on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; hundreds of men were arrested; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; in all, 37 people were found guilty of treason and open rebellion, 141 guilty of treason, and 12 guilty of misprision; twenty-two people were exiled to the United States]; Wise was sentenced to and served one year in prison for his participation in the rebellion; in 1901, became interpreter for House of Representatives; supported native Hawaiian causes; knowledgeable regarding the Hawaiian language, landholdings, land and water rights, and customs.

Wise, Julius A.Born in Germany; married Rebecca Nawaa, and they were the parents of John Henry Wise (1869—1937).

Wise, Lois (Kawai)—Married John Henry Wise (1869—1937) and they would have ten children.

Wise, Rebecca (Nawaa)Wife of Julius A. Wise; mother of John Henry Wise (1869—1937).

Wist, Benjamin Othello (18891957)In 1912, married Blanche Canario and they would have three daughters; published A Century of Public Education in Hawaii, October 15, 1840 to October 15, 1940 (Honolulu: Hawaii Educational Review, 1940)

 

Wist, Blanche (Canario)Married Benjamin Othello Wist (1889—1957) in 1912 and they would have three daughters.

Wong, AlanOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Wong, RichardBishop Estate trustee on September 10, 1998 when State Attorney General Margery Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry) (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Wood, John H.Pioneer merchant; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1846; later constructed, on Fort Street, the first brick store building; lived where the Foster Botanical Gardens is now located.

 

Wood, Hart (18801957)—Born in Philadelphia; employed with San Francisco architecture firms; in 1906, married Jessie F. Spangler, and they would have four children; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in 1919; initially worked as Charles William Dickey’s chief designer; later became a partner with Dickey; later worked with Wood, Weed & Associates; designed many prominent residences in the Hawaiian Islands; architect, with Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), of Honolulu Hale, Honolulu’s City Hall, which was built at South King and Punchbowl Streets in 1927 to provide offices for the mayor and city council; designed by architects Wood, Dickey, and others, the building has pillars and arches, decorative balconies, ceiling frescoes, and a tiled roof; Honolulu Hale was modeled after Florence, Italy’s Bargello Palace, which was built in the 13th century; the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 (see O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Honolulu Hale, Chapter 12); architect of the Alexander & Baldwin Building with Charles William Dickey; the Alexander & Baldwin Building was constructed in 1929 at 822 Bishop Street in downtown Honolulu; the building was constructed in memory of Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911) and Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904), the founders of the Alexander & Baldwin firm, one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies; the building is notable for its recessed entry with mosaic murals; architect of the Gump Building, which opened at Lewers and Kalākaua Streets in Waikīkī in 1929 to house the art treasures of the Gump collection; designed numerous private residences as well as the Chinese Christian Church (on King Street), and the Christian Science Church (on Punahou Street); designed the pumping stations for the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

Wood, Jessie F. (Spangler)Married Hart Wood (1880—1957) in 1906 and they would have four children. 

Wood, Robert—Graduated from Waterville College; in 1832, earned a medical degree from Bowdoin College; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1839; for ten years ran Honolulu’s American Seamen’s Hospital; sold medical supplies to visiting ships; principal creditor of Ladd & Company, and when the company’s Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation ran into difficulties, he took it over in 1844; with A. H. Spencer financed East Maui Plantation in 1849; hired David M. Weston, who was working for the East Maui Plantation in 1851 when he invented a centrifugal machine that allowed sugar to be separated from molasses much quicker than was previously possible (completing in just minutes what previously took weeks), and speeding up the drying process; the new process also increased the quality, and thus the value, of the sugar; [Weston opened a successful machine shop in Honolulu in 1853 in partnership with Henry Augustus Peirce (1808—1885), then established Honolulu Iron Works]; in 1848, opened the first public pharmacy in Honolulu; ran a mercantile business; ship-owner; ran the Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation for 27 years; the plantation was sold in 1872 to a consortium and then in 1878 incorporated as Koloa [Kōloa] Sugar Company; moved to Massachusetts in 1866; passed away in 1892.

Woolsey, WilliamOne of the three Hawaiian residents to win a gold medal in the 1952 Helsinki Olympics; Woolsey’s medal was in the 800-meter freestyle relay; the other two winners were Ford Konno (1,500-meter freestyle); and Yoshio Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke).

Worth, ThomasIn command of the Nantucket whaling ship Globe, which arrived in Honolulu on May 1, 1823; less than one year later, on January 25-26, 1824, near Fanning Island, the Globe was involved in the worst mutiny in whaling history; the mutiny was led by Samuel Comstock.

Wou, Leo S.Architect (with Victor Gruen) of The Financial Plaza of the Pacific, built in 1968 at the corner of King and Bishop Streets in Honolulu.

Wright, George FredMayor of City and County of Honolulu from January 2, 1931 to July 15, 1938.

Wright, LucyWaimea schoolteacher Lucy Wright; native Hawaiian and prominent local community member who taught in Waimea for 35 years; passed away in 1931; Lucy Wright Beach Park is located on the western bank of the mouth of Kaua‘i’s Waimea River, where British Captain James Cook first came ashore in the Hawaiian Islands (first landfall); the landing of Captain Cook at Waimea is also memorialized by a plaque at the park; shade trees make it a nice picnic spot, and camping and picnic facilities are available (see Lucy Wright Beach Park in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2).

Wright, OrvilleFamous aviation pioneer; first lieutenant and Army aviator Thomas E. Selfridge died when Wright was demonstrating his plane to the Army; Selfridge was in the plane as an observer when the plane lost a propeller at a height of 150 feet (46 meters), damaging a wing and causing it to crash, seriously injuring Wright. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Wundenberg, Ann Moorea (Henry)—Married Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg on December 12, 1845; they lived at Kuna on the east side of Hanalei Valley, Kaua‘i until 1847, when they built a new home at Limunui in the valley across the Hanalei River; Gottfried Wundenberg went to California in November of 1848 along with Judge Herman A. Widemann (1802—1899) and Charles Titcomb, all three men seeking riches in the Gold Rush; while Wundenberg was in California, his family stayed with the Dudoits at Lanihuli in the house built by Captain Kellett on a hill overlooking the mouth of the Hanalei River; the Wundenbergs returned to Hanalei in September of 1849, and in 1851 Gottfried Wundenberg began to grow tobacco in the area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna; also planted tobacco at Limunui with Archibald Archer on the banks of the Hanalei River; prospects appeared favorable for about two years, and by 1852 a large crop was almost ready for harvest when a cutworm devastated the crop, along with any hopes for a tobacco industry in Hanalei; moved to Honolulu in 1853, and then returned in 1855 to manage the Princeville Plantation for Robert Crichton Wyllie. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Wundenberg, Gottfried FrederickAgriculturalist from Hanover, Germany; served as secretary of Robert Crichton Wyllie; served as Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Hawaiian Kingdom; with Archibald Archer, in 18431844, leased land in Hanalei, Kaua‘i (see Rhodes, Godfrey), and also grew coffee in an area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna; on December 12, 1845, married Ann Moorea Henry; they lived at Kuna on the east side of Hanalei Valley until 1847, when they built a new home at Limunui in the valley across the Hanalei River; Gottfried Wundenberg went to California in November of 1848 along with Judge Herman A. Widemann (1802—1899) and Charles Titcomb, all three men seeking riches in the Gold Rush; while Wundenberg was in California, his family stayed with the Dudoits at Lanihuli in the house built by Captain Kellett on a hill overlooking the mouth of the Hanalei River; Wundenberg’s business operations were run by Archibald Archer; the Wundenbergs returned to Hanalei in September of 1849, and in 1851 Gottfried Wundenberg began to grow tobacco in the area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna; also planted tobacco at Limunui with Archibald Archer on the banks of the Hanalei River; prospects appeared favorable for about two years, and by 1852 a large crop was almost ready for harvest when a cutworm devastated the crop, along with any hopes for a tobacco industry in Hanalei; moved to Honolulu in 1853, and then returned in 1855 to manage the Princeville Plantation for Robert Crichton Wyllie. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Wyllie, Robert CrichtonBorn in Ayrshire, Scotland; worked as a surgeon aboard British ships before becoming wealthy as a merchant in London, Mexico, and South America; in 1853, Wyllie paid $1,300 for the Government (Crown) lands leased to the Rhodes & Co. Coffee Plantation in Hanalei Valley, Kaua‘i and later added to his Hanalei land holdings by purchasing a great deal of adjacent land to the east above Hanalei Valley (this would later become Princeville); when Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) visited Hanalei, Kaua‘i in 1860 with their son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), they were the guests of Wyllie, who was the Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Hawaiian Kingdom; in the summer of 1860, to honor the young Prince Albert, Wyllie changed the name of his Hanalei estate to the Princeville Plantation, and made the young Prince the intended heir to the estate; tragically, Prince Albert passed away in 1862 at the age of four; Wyllie began construction of the Hanalei Sugar Mill in 1861 on the east bank of the Hanalei River; with a brick smokestack rising to 110 feet (34 meters) and $40,000 worth of machinery from Glasgow, Scotland, the 1000-ton capacity mill was the most modern and productive mill in the Hawaiian Islands at the time; the mill’s rollers were able to express 600 gallons (2,271 liters) of cane juice in 20 minutes; the Princeville Plantation’s first crop of sugar was harvested in 1863, and by the early 1870’s the mill was processing a crop averaging about 400 tons annually[vi]; scows (flat-bottom boats) were used to bring sugarcane down the Hanalei River to the mill, and then a conveyor belt carried the cane in to be processed; the Hanalei Sugar Mill became the center of a small but busy factory village that included a post office, storage buildings, camphouses, and a butcher shop; Wyllie passed away in 1865 at his Rosebank estate on O‘ahu, and was buried at Honolulu’s Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[vii]). (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

 

Wyllie, Robert Crichton (Cockrane)Principal heir and nephew of Robert Crichton Wyllie (owner of Princeville Plantation); shortly before Robert Crichton Wyllie passed away in 1865, Robert Crichton Cockrane went to Kaua‘i from Waltham, Illinois to learn the sugarcane business from John Low, the manager of the Princeville Plantation at the time; in early 1866, Cockrane was in Hanalei preparing to welcome his bride-to-be; just eight days before the marriage was to take place, Cockrane was at the home of Princeville Plantation manager John Low, where several men had gathered to listen to a musical performance; Cockrane left the group for a time, and when Low went to look for him he discovered him in the outside privy, where he had cut his own throat with a razor; he was bleeding profusely from the large wound, and fell forward into Low’s arms; Cockrane’s wound was sewed up, and for the next several days he slipped in and out of consciousness, sometimes acting rational but other times becoming delirious; Cockrane wrote and tremulously signed a bloodstained will that gave Princeville Plantation to his fiance and his mother; Dr. James William Smith (1810—1887) was summoned from Kōloa and made a famous three-hour, 45-mile (72-km) ride using a relay of horses; despite the effort, Cockrane passed away and was buried in the Wai‘oli Church cemetery in an unmarked grave. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Yamaguchi, RoyOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Yat-Sen, SunIn the Lum Yip Kee Building, planned a revolution in China with members of the Tung Meng Hui “Alliance Society”; Dr. Sun Yat-Sen was later considered the founder of modern China; the Lum Yip Kee Building was constructed in 1903 at 80 King Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown, though the building didn’t open until 1910; the building was constructed in the 20th Century Commercial style; Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s older brother was Sun Mei, who came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1871 and lived on O‘ahu and Maui, where he was a rancher and a merchant; Sun Mei brought his younger brother to the Hawaiian Islands and puts him to work in his store; Sun then enrolled in Bishop’s College School (later called ‘Iolani) at the age of 14; his accomplishments included an English grammar award given to him by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; Sun later returned to China where he began his political activities while continuing to travel back and forth between China and the Hawaiian Islands; a new facade was added to the Lum Yip Kee building in the 1970s, and then in 1973 the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; a bust of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen is located in front of the Chinese Cultural Plaza, and another may be seen on Maui.

Yat-Sen, Sun MeiOlder brother of Sun Yat-Sen (considered the founder of modern China; planned the revolution in the Hawaiian Islands with members of the Tung Meng Hui “Alliance Society”); came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1871 and lived on O‘ahu and Maui, where he was a rancher and a merchant; brought his younger brother, Sun Yat-Sen, to the Hawaiian Islands and put him to work in his store.

York & SawyerDesigners and architects (from New York) of the United States Post Office, Custom House, and Federal Court House, which was built at 335 Merchant Street in Honolulu in 1922; the Post Office building was designed in the Spanish Mission Revival style, and notable for its arched openings and tile roof; served as the headquarters for most of the federal agencies in the Hawaiian Islands, including the U.S. District Court and Post Office; an addition to the Post Office structure was built in 1929, and it was renamed the King David Kalākaua Building in 2002 (King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] was Honolulu’s postmaster from 1863 to 1865); the structure is now used by the Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs; the United States Post Office, Custom House, and Federal Court House building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

Young, Alexander (1832—1910)—Born in Scotland; trained as a mechanical engineer and machinist; in 1860, married Ruth Pearce, and they would have nine children, including Archibald Alfred Young, and Ida Bernice Young (who married Conrad Carl Von Hamm (1870—1965)); built and operated a sawmill on Vancouver Island; in 1865, arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with his family and with the family of John Mortimer Lydgate (I); developed a machine shop and foundry in Hilo in partnership with William Lidgate; with John Mortimer Lydgate (I), founded Hilo Iron Works and then purchased Lydgate’s share of the business; purchased an interest in Honolulu Iron works and worked there for more than three decades; president of Waiakea [Waiākea] Mill Company; invested in Kahuku Plantation; member of the House of Nobles (1889); after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, served as the Minister of the Interior under President Sanford Ballard Dole (1844—1926); established Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. in 1899 in partnership his son Archibald Alfred Young and Conrad Carl Von Hamm, bringing gasoline and automobiles to the Hawaiian Islands; in 1900, Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. suffered severe losses in the Chinatown fire [the fire had been intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days]; in 1907, Von Hamm-Young and Company opened a garage; soon expanded to other islands including Kaua‘i, Hilo, and Maui; Alexander Young financed the construction of the Alexander Young Building, which was completed in 1903 and primarily used as a hotel; purchased Waikīkī’s Moana Hotel in 1905; purchased Hawaiian Hotel (located at Hotel and Richards Streets); father-in-law of Conrad Carl Von Hamm and with him and others established Von Hamm-Young Company, an automobile business.

 

Young, Archibald AlfredSon of Alexander Young (1832—1910) and Ruth (Pearce) Young; successful businessman in the Hawaiian Islands; established Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. in 1899 in partnership with his father and Conrad Carl Von Hamm (1870—1965), bringing gasoline and automobiles to the Hawaiian Islands; in 1900, Von Hamm-Young Company, Ltd. suffered severe losses in the Chinatown fire [the fire had been intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days]; in 1907, Von Hamm-Young and Company opened a garage; soon expanded to other islands including Kaua‘i, Hilo, and Maui.

Young, JohnEngineer; with Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), designed Honolulu’s Central Fire Station, which opened at 104 South Beretania Street in 1934, and became the headquarters of the Honolulu Fire Department; the building’s style is Moderne, with elements of Art Deco (e.g., the aluminum garage doors); the two-story Central Fire Station building is a large rectangular structure, five bays wide, including three garage bays in the middle, and a hose tower at the rear of the building; later additions increased office space; the building has louver windows, and a balcony on one end of the structure; the Central Fire Station was placed on the National and Hawai‘i Registers of Historic Places in 1980.

 

Young, John (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835)—Englishman; boatswain of the snow Eleanora, a small fur-trading ship that arrived off Maui in 1790 under the command of Simon Metcalfe; when one of the ship’s skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured many natives in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this later came to be known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas, who was killed with all of the Fair American’s crew, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake) (17581810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; John Young (I), the boatswain, was ashore at the time, and Simon Metcalfe sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands without knowing if his son has been killed; the Fair American was then taken over by King Kamehameha I; John Young (I) was the father of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young, Grace Kama‘iku‘i (Young) Rooke, and John Young (II) [Keoni Ana] with Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]; grandfather of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (daughter of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young and George Na‘ea); great grandfather of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) (son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma; instructed local chiefs in the use of guns and other Western weapons; participated in the battle called Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula (“War of red-mouthed cannon.”), and the battle known as Kepaniwai (“The Water Dam”) in ‘Īao Valley; fought on the side of the warrior Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) against the warriors of Kalanikūpule and Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] in the 1795 invasion of O‘ahu, manning the cannons in the Battle of Nu‘uanu along with Isaac Davis [‘Aikake] and Peter Anderson; when King Kamehameha I moved his capital in 1803 from Hilo to Lahaina (and then in 1804 to Honolulu), John Young (I) [‘Olohana] served as Governor of Hawai‘i Island in King Kamehameha’s absence (served from 1802 to 1812); in 1865, his body was moved to the Royal Mausoleum [the Royal Mausoleum, designed by Theodore Heuck (Honolulu’s first resident architect), was built in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[viii]) in 1865; it was planned by King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma for their deceased son, the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862); the second body placed in the Mausoleum was King Kamehameha IV; other deceased royalty were later transferred from the first Royal Mausoleum at ‘Iolani Palace to the new Royal Mausoleum, which now holds the remains of King Kamehameha II through V as well as King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and other important persons of Hawai‘i’s past].

Young (II), John [Keoni Ana] (1810—1857)—Son of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]; born on Hawai‘i Island at Kawaihae; grandson of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (the brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]); great grandson of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]); husband of Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i]; Kuhina Nui (Premier) (1845—1854) during reigns of: King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); later served as Maui governor, Minister of the Interior, and Justice on the Supreme Court.

Young, Ruth (Pearce)Wife of Alexander Young (1832—1910); mother of Archibald Alfred Young.

Young, TuckBuilt the Oahu [O‘ahu] Market in 1904 at North King and Kekaulike Streets in Honolulu’s Chinatown district; [the style of the Oahu [O‘ahu] Market building is 20th Century Commercial; the open-air building was constructed using bricks and coral blocks, with a stone foundation and a wooden roof; the interior is divided into stone-floored stalls that are open to the street; the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.



[i] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ii] Kauikeōlani Estate: Hanalei Plantation Cottages. Internet site: http://www.hanaleiland.com/pages/kaui_history.htm, 12/27/2002.

[iii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[iv] p. 283, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[v] Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Keōua [Keōuakupuapāikalaninui; Keōua].

[vi] p. 282, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[vii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[viii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.