Part II. Hawaiian Princes, Princesses, and Queens

Chapter 16—Part II

Hawaiian Princes, Princesses, and Queens

Queen Ka‘ahumanu (c.1768—1832)

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (1778—1823)

Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802—1824)

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua;

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] (1815—1836)

Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826—1883)

Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884)

Queen Kapi‘olani (1834—1899)

Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke;

Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836—1885)

Princess Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu (1838—1866)

Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871—1922)

Princess Ka‘iulani [Victoria Kawēkiu Ka‘iulani] (1875—1899)

Princess Likelike [Miriam Kapili Likelike] (1851—1887)


Queen Ka‘ahumanu

Biographical Sketch: Queen Ka‘ahumanu

Born: c.1768.

Died: 1832.

Father: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe.

Mother: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Brothers: Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox]; Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams].

Sister: Kalākua.

Husband: King Kamehameha I, and then later, Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler King Kamuali‘i, and his heir Keali‘iahonui.

Children: Foster mother of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (the future Kamehameha II).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keawepoepoe and Kūma‘aikū.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

Summary of Life of Queen Ka‘ahumanu:

· Queen as favorite wife of King Kamehameha I.

· Born in Hāna, Maui at Pōnahakeone (“Circle [of] the sand”).[i]

· When King Kamehameha I died, he established the office of Kuhina Nui (Premier, or Regent), allowing Ka‘ahumanu, his favorite wife, to become co-ruler with King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and she served in that capacity from 1819 to 1832. This severely diminished the power of King Kamehameha II.

· Within months of assuming the throne, King Kamehameha II ate food in public with the dowager queens Ka‘ahumanu and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], thus breaking the kapu against men and women eating together.

Since the defiant act brought no retribution from the gods, eating together was no longer kapu, and this began a process that eroded traditional Hawaiian religious beliefs, and eventually led to the complete overturning of the traditional kapu system. (See 1819, May 20.)

· Known as a strict ruler, Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu was left in charge of the government of the Hawaiian Kingdom when the royal party visited London in 1823, and with the assistance of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] she helped to stop the Kaua‘i rebellion that was led by George P. Kaumuali‘i.

· Became a strong proponent of Protestantism, and was baptized in December of 1825. Ka‘ahumanu was taught to read and write by the Reverend Hiram Bingham, who was the first to translate the New Testament into the Hawaiian language. Bingham presented Ka‘ahumanu with the first copy of the new translation shortly before her death in 1832.

· Died on June 5, 1832 at her Mānoa Valley home called Puka‘ōma‘o, which means “Green opening” (the home had green shutters).

· Ka‘ahumanu means “The bird [feather] cloak.”[ii]

(For more information about Ka‘ahumanu, see 1768; 1780; 1782; 1785; 1797; 1803; 1805; 1814, Mar.17; 1819, May 8; 1819, May 20; 1821, July 21; 1823, Nov. 27; 1824; 1829, Dec. 2; 1831; 1832, June 5; 1838; 1843, Feb.10.)


Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]

 

Biographical Sketch:

Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]

Born: 1778.

Died: 1823.

Father: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli].

Mother: Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]).

Great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu]).

Husband: King Kamehameha I.

Children: King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), and Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

Summary of Life of Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani]:

· Keōpūolani means “The gathering of the clouds of heaven,” also translated as “The cluster of royal chiefs.” [iii]

· Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] is a descendent of four high-chiefly lines, including her father, Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], and her mother Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

· As the granddaughter of Kalola, Keōpūolani was raised under many kapu (prohibitions) as a sacred person.

· In 1795, at the age of 17, Keōpūolani became the sacred wife of King Kamehameha I. When Keōpūolani was about 11 years old, Kalola had promised Keōpūolani to Kamehameha in marriage.

· With King Kamehameha I, Keōpūolani gave birth to two future kings, Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), and a princess, Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani].

· An hour before her death, queen mother Keōpūolani became the first native Hawaiian to receive the Protestant rite of baptism. (See 1823, September 16.) (For more information about Keōpūolani, see 1768; 1776; 1795; 1797; 1814, Mar. 17; 1815; 1819, May 20; 1823, Sep. 16.)


Queen Kamāmalu

Biographical Sketch: Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (1802—1824)

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Kalākua.

Husband: King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

Brother: Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] (mother of Lunalilo).

Half-Sister: Kīna‘u (daughter of Kalākua and King Kamehameha I).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Great grandparents Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (father of King Kamehameha I).

Summary of Life of Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano]:

· Queen as favorite wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

· Visited London with her husband, King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho), and died there of measles on July 8, 1824, six days before her husband (King Kamehameha II) succumbed to the disease. (See 1824.)

(For more information about Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano], see 1776; 1797; 1824; 1829, Dec. 2.)


Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena

Harriet Keōpūolani

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena

[Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua;

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] 

Born: 1815.

Died: 1836.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

Brothers: Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II); and Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu].

Great grandparents: Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II)

Summary of Life of Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena:

· Princess as daughter of King Kamehameha I and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

· Educated as a child by American missionaries.

· Wavered between the Protestant faith and traditional Hawaiian beliefs.

· Excommunicated by Protestants in May of 1835.

· Married in 1835 to the high chief Leleiōhoku; their son died at birth.

· Nāahi‘ena‘ena means “The burning fires.”[iv]

· Died at the age of 21.

(For more information about Nāhi‘ena‘ena, see 1778; 1795.


Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani

Biographical Sketch: Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani (1826—1883):

Born: 1826.

Died: 1883.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kalani Pauahi.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuwahine and Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū.

Great grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū).

Husband: William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I).

Children: William Pitt Kīna‘u.

Second Husband: Isaac Young Davis.

Summary of Life of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani:

· Princess as daughter of King Kamehameha I and Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani].

· Mother of Kaeolaokalani, who died at six months old.

· During the 1880 eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano threatening Hilo, Princess Ruth supplicated the volcano goddess Pele with chants and gifts, and the lava flow stopped at edge of town.

(For more information about Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, see 1826; 1831; 1838; 1880.)


Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop 

Born: 1831.

Died: 1884.

Father: Abner Pākī.

Mother: Konia [Laura Konia].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū and Luahine (parents of Konia [Laura Konia]).

Great grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū).

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Summary of Life of Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop:

· Granddaughter and last direct descendant of King Kamehameha I.

· Beginning at the age of eight, Princess Pauahi attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846).

· Married Charles Reed Bishop at the Royal School on June 4, 1850.

· On December 11, 1872, Princess Pauahi declined the deathbed offer of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) to name her as his successor.

· King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] gave Princess Pauahi the Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha in 1875.

· When Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani died in 1883, her will bequeathed to Princess Pauahi her elaborate mansion, Keōua Hale on Emma Street in Honolulu, as well as approximately 353,000 acres of Kamehameha lands, totaling nearly nine percent of the land in the Hawaiian Islands.

· In 1885, Princess Pauahi inherited Haleakalā (near King and Bishop Streets in Honolulu), the former home of her parents, Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]. Charles Reed Bishop and Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop lived at Haleakalā, which was built in 1847 by Abner Pākī.

· Princess Pauahi inherited approximately 25,000 acres of land from Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia], and from Pauahi’s aunt, ‘Akāhi.

· When Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop died in 1884, her will left 434,000 acres (175,634 ha) of land in perpetual trust to assist in the establishment of two schools in the Kamehameha name, and thus the Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate was founded.

· The Kamehameha School for Boys opened in Honolulu on October 4, 1887, and then Kamehameha School for Girls opened on December 19, 1894.

· Today Kamehameha Schools include the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island. The Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006.

In that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands.

The trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children.

(See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

(For more information about Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop, see Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, and Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; also see Timeline: 1808, July 13; 1808; 1822, Jan. 25; 1830, Dec. 11; 1874, Dec.9; 1884; 1887; 1889; 1894; 1902.)


Queen Kapi‘olani 

Biographical Sketch: Kapi‘olani (II) (1834—1899)

Born: 1834.

Died: 1899.

Father: Kūhiō.

Mother: Kinoiki.

Sisters: Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani; Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike.

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kaumuali‘i (ruler of Kaua‘i) and Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] (parents of Kinoiki).

Great grandparents: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei (parents of Kaumuali‘i).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Summary of Life of Queen Kapi‘olani:

· Queen as wife of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], who she married in 1863.

· She was first married to Nāmākēhā, during which time she was the governess of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), the child of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

· Attended the jubilee of Great Britain’s Queen Victoria, and then visited United States President Grover Cleveland.

· Supported charitable causes dedicated to helping Hawaiian girls and women.

· Kapi‘olani means “The arch [of] heaven,” referring to rainbows, which signified the presence of royalty.[v]

(For more information about Kapi‘olani (II), see O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; ‘Iolani Palace; Hawai‘i State Library; Historic Waikīkī; Statue of Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole; Kapi‘olani Park sections, Chapter 2; and Ni‘ihau Shell Lei sections, Chapter 3; also see Timeline: 1781; 1836, Nov.16; 1871, Mar.26; 1877; 1879, Dec.31; 1887.)


Queen Emma

Emma Na‘ea Rooke

Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani

Biographical Sketch:

Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani

Born: 1836.

Died: April 25, 1885.

Father: George Na‘ea.

Mother: Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young.

Husband: Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani (King Kamehameha IV).

Grandparents: John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o] (parents of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young).

Great grandparents: Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (the brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]).

Great great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]).

Great grandparent: Kaleipaihala (son of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalaniwahineuli).

Summary of Life of Queen Emma:

· Great-granddaughter of the brother of King Kamehameha I.

· Adopted by her maternal aunt, Grace Kamaikui Young Rooke and her husband Dr. Thomas Charles Byde Rooke, who belonged to the Church of England.

· Emma became queen as wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), who she married in 1856 at Kawaiaha‘o Church.

· Queen Emma was the mother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), born on May 20, 1858. The young prince, a godchild of England’s Queen Victoria, died in 1862 at the age of four.

· Kalanikaumakeamano was Queen Emma’s name given at birth; Kaleleonālani was the name she took after her husband and son died. Kaleleonālani means “Flight of the chiefs.”

· Queen Emma’s grandfather, John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835), was the boatswain left onshore when Simon Metcalfe fled after being attacked by Kame‘eiamoku in revenge for the Olowalu massacre. (See 1790.)

· Queen’s Hospital, named after Queen Emma, was constructed in 1860 at the corner of Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu. Queen Emma and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) originally established the Queen’s Hospital in the late 1850s to help the Hawaiian people, who were being devastated by foreign diseases.

· With King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), raised the initial $30,000 to begin construction of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, which opened in 1867 in Honolulu at Beretania and Queen Emma Streets (Queen Emma Square). The building’s style is Gothic.

Prefabricated sandstone blocks were imported to build the Honolulu cathedral. The king and queen took interest in building an Anglican church in Honolulu after they visited England’s Queen Victoria in 1861 and were impressed by the Church of England.

St. Andrew’s Cathedral was named after the day called St. Andrew’s Feast, which falls on the same day of the year that King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) died in 1863. In 1867 the French Gothic nave was completed, using stone from England. During this time, Episcopalians in the Hawaiian Islands went by the title Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church. (See Chapter 11, Part 3: Timeline of Honolulu’s Historic Buildings: 1867.)

· Queen Emma put forth her claim to the throne in 1874. After David La‘amea Kalākaua was elected king and the results were announced, the courthouse was attacked and ransacked, legislators were beaten, and one delegate was thrown out of a window. The violence left many injured and one dead. American and British warships provide armed marines to restore order.

(For more information about Queen Emma, see Chapter 11: Timeline: 1790; 1834, Feb. 9; 1836, Nov. 16; 1858, May 20; 1860, July 17; 1860; 1862; 1870-1871; 1874, Feb. 12; 1885, April 25; 1889.)


Princess Kamāmalu

Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu

Biographical Sketch:

Princess Kamāmalu [Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu](1838—1866)

Born: 1838.

Died: 1866.

Father: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a.

Mother: Kīna‘u.

Brothers: David Kamehameha (died young); King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); King Kamehameha V. (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); Moses Kekūāiwa (Governor of O‘ahu).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: King Kamehameha I and Kalākua.

Great grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I).

Great grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana] (parents of Kalākua).

Great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]).

Summary of Life of:

Princess Kamāmalu [Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu]:

· Appointed Kuhina Nui (Premier) by King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), succeeding John Young (II) [Keoni Ana]. Princess Kamāmalu was Kuhina Nui from 1854 to 1864.

· Attended the school established by missionaries, called Chiefs’ Children’s School (renamed Royal School in 1846).

· Composed many native chants.

· Victoria Kamāmalu was engaged to Prince Lunalilo, though apparently King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) opposed the union. Kalākaua is also said to have proposed to her, but was declined. She never married.

· Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) wrote about Kamāmalu’s large state funeral. (See Mark Twain in the Sandwich Islands, Chapter 12.)

· Kamāmalu means “The protector.”[vi]


Prince Kūhiō

Biographical Sketch:

Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi](1871—1922)

Born: March 26, 1871.

Father: David Kahelepouli Pi‘ikoi.

Mother: Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (sister of Queen Kapi‘olani).

Brothers: Prince Edward Keali‘ihonui; Prince David Kawānanakoa.

Wife: Elizabeth Kahanu Ka‘auwai (daughter of Kaua‘i chief).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Kūhiō and Kinoiki (parents of Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike).

Great grandparents: Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] and Kaumuali‘i (parents of Kinoiki).

Great great grandparents: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei (parents of Kaumuali‘i).

Great great great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Summary of Life of Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi]:

· Born in the Kōloa region of Kaua‘i’s southern coast near Hō‘ai Bay in a grass house at an ancient fishing village called Kukui‘ula (“Red light”[vii]).

· Nephew and adopted son of Queen Kapi‘olani (sister of Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike).

· Prince Kūhiō was the youngest of three boys, all considered ali‘i (royalty) due to their royal descent from Kaua‘i’s paramount ruler (king) Kaumuali‘i.

One brother, Edward Keali‘ihonui, died in his teens. Jonah Kūhiō and his other brother, David Kawānanakoa, were adopted into the childless royal family of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Kapi‘olani after the boys’ father, David Kahalepouli Pi‘ikoi, died when Kūhiō was ten.

· Kalaniana‘ole, means “The royal chief without measure,”[viii] referring to the prince’s noble heredity, which includes the royal lineage of Kūhiō’s mother, Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike, who was appointed governor of Hawai‘i Island by King Kalākaua.

· When Kūhiō was 13 years old, King Kalākaua declared Jonah and his brother David princes by royal decree with the intent that they would carry on the Kalākaua dynasty. King Kalākaua and Queen Kapi‘olani held an official coronation on February 12, 1883 at ‘Iolani Palace, and the jeweled royal crowns were carried by Prince Kūhiō and his brother David Kawānanakoa.

· Due to his cherubic and handsome looks, Prince Kūhiō was sometimes referred to as Prince Cupid, a name given to him in his youth by his French teacher.

· Prince Kūhiō attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846) and Punahou School on O‘ahu, and then attended St. Matthew’s College in California before enrolling in the Royal Agricultural College in Cirencester, England. He then graduated from an English business school.

· Prince Kūhiō was a master of the traditional Hawaiian art of lua (ancient Hawaiian form of martial arts). He also competed on school teams in the sports of football and track.

· In 1884, Kūhiō was appointed to the Cabinet of the Hawaiian Kingdom by Kalākau to administer the Department of the Interior.

· With the support of King Kalākaua, Prince Kūhiō studied Japanese culture and government for one year in Japan. The king hoped the Prince would find a royal Japanese bride and form a marital alliance between the Hawaiian Islands and Japan.

· Prince Kūhiō was named as presumptive heir to the throne by Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] after she ascended to the throne in 1891, making Kūhiō the last royally-designated heir.

· After he returned to the Hawaiian Islands just before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, Prince Kūhiō worked to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne.

· In 1895 at the age of 24, Prince Kūhiō participated in a royalist uprising (a counter-revolution) against the Republic of Hawai‘i.

· Colonel Samuel Nowlein, an advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani, informed fellow revolutionist Prince Kūhiō on January 3, 1895 that officers of the Republic of Hawai‘i had discovered that they were planning to stage a counter-revolution to restore the rule of Queen Lili‘uokalani, and that the officers knew of the arms and ammunition that were going to be used for this purpose and that these arms were on a ship, the steamer Waimanalo under the command of Captain William Davies, offshore of O‘ahu.

· Prince Kūhiō, with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903) and John Henry Wise (1869—1937), sailed out to the Waimanalo in a canoe at Queen Lili‘uokalani’s Waikīkī boathouse. The weapons had been loaded into two boats. Under the command of Wilcox, the two boats sailed for Moloka‘i until out of sight of the Waimanalo, then headed to Kāhala where the men buried the weapons under the sand.

· Prince Kūhiō was arrested by the Provisional Government, charged with treason, and imprisoned for one year.

· After his release from prison, Prince Kūhiō married Elizabeth Kahanu Ka‘auwai, a full-blooded Hawaiian chiefess who was the daughter of a Maui chief, and they took a trip to Africa.

· Disheartened by the events in the Hawaiian Islands, Prince Kūhiō joined the British Army in South Africa in the Boer War.

· Prince Kūhiō was next in line to ascend to the throne after Princess Ka‘iulani passed away in 1899, but the restoration of the monarchy became more unlikely with each passing year.

· Prince Kūhiō and his wife returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1901. He helped organize the Republican Party in 1902 and that same year he was elected as the Territory of Hawai‘i’s second, non-voting delegate to the United States Congress (after Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903)), serving in the position for a total of 20 years (ten, two-year terms) until he died in 1922.

· Prince Kūhiō helped to found the Order of Kamehameha in 1903 and the Hawaiian Civic Club of Honolulu in 1918. The Civic Club’s tradition of community involvement continues today.

· Due to his political efforts to help Hawaiians and promote self-sufficiency among the native population, Prince Kūhiō was known as Ke Ali‘i Maka‘āinana, which means “Chief of the Commoners,” “Citizen Prince,” or “Prince of the People.”

· Throughout his life, Prince Kūhiō worked to preserve the traditions and culture of native Hawaiians. One of Prince Kūhiō’s legacies was his inspired involvement in the passing of the Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act, which was enacted on July 9, 1921 to provide low-cost homestead and farming land to Hawaiians with at least 50% native Hawaiian ancestry based on blood quantum.

· A total of 203,500 acres (82,354 ha) was designated as “available lands” for the program, but the sugar companies had lobbied to exclude all areas that were not used for sugar, which included most of the best agricultural land in the Hawaiian Islands. No money was available to develop the second-tier parcels and thus most of the lands were not used.

· During the first 70 years after the passage of Hawaiian Homestead Commission Act of 1920, just 3,000 families received lands and many people who were on the original list of applications passed away before receiving land.

· Of his political efforts, Prince Kūhiō stated, “The legislation proposed seeks to place the Hawaiian back on the soil, so that the valuable and sturdy traits of that race, peculiarly adapted to the islands, shall be preserved to posterity.”[ix]

· Prince Kūhiō’s home was called Pualeilani, which means “Flower from the wreath of heaven.” The home was located across Kalākaua Avenue from Kūhiō Beach Park.

· Prince Kūhiō passed away due to heart disease on January 7, 1922 at the age of 50. He was given the last state funeral held for a Hawaiian ali‘i (royalty), and was laid to rest at the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[x]).

· Prince Kūhiō Park is located near the Prince Kūhiō’s birthplace on Kaua‘i’s southern shore west of Kōloa. The park features a pond and terraced stone walls, Hō‘ai Heiau, and a statue of the prince that was unveiled on June 17, 1928 with about 10,000 people in attendance.

· Prince Kūhiō’s life is celebrated with an annual state holiday each year on Prince Kūhiō Day, the prince’s birthday, March 26. Prince Kūhiō Day is traditionally a day of canoe races and other local events, including a ceremony at Prince Kūhiō Park on Kaua‘i.

· Kūhiō Beach Park in Waikīkī is named after Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi] (1871-1922), whose home fronting the beach was torn down in 1936.

(See Kūhiō Beach Park; and Statue of Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Prince Kūhiō Park / Hō‘ai Heiau in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)


Princess Ka‘iulani

Biographical Sketch: Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani

Born: October 16, 1875. 

Died: 1899. 

Father: Archibald Scott Cleghorn. 

Mother: Miriam Likelike (sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]). 

On mother’s side: 

Grandparents: Keohokālole and Caesar Kapa‘akea (parents of Miriam Likelike). 

Great grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e (parents of Keohokālole). 

Great great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka). 

Great great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani). 

Great grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki (parents of Caesar Kapa‘akea). 

Great great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)). 

Great great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani) 

Summary of Life of Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani:

· Princess Ka‘iulani was proclaimed heir apparent to the Hawaiian Kingdom when Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] ascended to the throne in 1891.

· Attended boarding school in England under the guardianship of Theophilus Harris Davies (1833—1898), who had been a friend of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), and was a prominent Honolulu businessman and founder of the “Big Five” firm of Theo H. Davies & Co.

· When Princess Ka‘iulani departed for England, author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894) ,who had visited her in Waikīkī, wrote a celebrated poem:

Forth from her land to mine she goes,

The island maid, the island rose,

Light of heart and bright of face

The daughter of a double race.

Her islands here in Southern sun

Shall mourn their Kaiulani gone.

And I, in her dear banyan’s shade,

Look vainly for my little maid.

But our Scots Islands far away

Shall glitter with unwanted day,

And cast for once their tempest by

To smile in Kaiulani’s eye.

Robert Louis Stevenson, 1889

· After the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893, the 17-year-old Princess Ka‘iulani (who was in England at the time) went to Washington D.C. with her guardian Theophilus Harris Davies to appeal to President Grover Cleveland for the restoration of the monarchy. Cleveland eventually ordered the monarchy restored, though this never occurred.

· Princess Ka‘iulani was a talented artist, musician, horseback rider, and swimmer, and was also active in many charitable causes.

· Princess Ka‘iulani had many peacocks (also known by the Hawaiian word pīkake), and she was referred to by some as the “Princess of the Peacocks.”

The birds roamed the gardens of fragrant, white Arabian jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac) at Princess Ka‘iulani’s spacious Waikīkī estate known as ‘Āinahau, which was built by her father, Archibald Scott Cleghorn, the Governor of O‘ahu.

The blossom of the white Arabian jasmine flower was a favorite of Princess Ka‘iulani. From its association with the young princess, the Arabian jasmine flower later also became known by the Hawaiian term pīkake.

· On March 6, 1899, at the age of 23, Princess Ka‘iulani died at ‘Āinahau, where her favored flowers grew and where her peacocks roamed. The princess had become ill after going horseback riding in a rainstorm, and her death was attributed to a fever. Many believe, however, that she died of a broken heart, as the last Hawaiian princess and heiress to a vanished throne.

· On the night Princess Ka‘iulani died, her pīkake (peacocks) are said to have made extremely loud vocal displays of their grief.

(For more information about Princess Ka‘iulani, see 1899; also see Statue of Princess Ka‘iulani in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Pīkake in Lei Flowers section, Chapter 3.)


Princess Likelike

Biographical Sketch: Princess Likelike (Miriam Kapili Likelike)

Born: 1851.

Died: 1887.

Father: Caesar Kapa‘akea.

Mother: Keohokālole.

Brothers: David La‘amea Kalākaua [King Kalākaua], William Pitt Leleōhoku (II).

Sister: Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani].

Husband: Archibald Scott Cleghorn (married September 22, 1870).

Daughter: Princess Ka‘iulani [Victoria Kawēkiu Ka‘iulani].

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e.

Great grandparents: Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka).

Great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki.

Great grandparents: Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)).

Great great grandparents: Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

Summary of Life of:

Princess Likelike [Miriam Kapili Likelike]:

· Declared a princess on February 14, 1874, along with Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]), by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], who also declared that when he was no longer king, his successor would be his younger brother William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)].

· Married Archibald Scott Cleghorn on September 22, 1870, and they give birth to Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani (1875—1899). (See 1875, October 16.)



[i] p. 40, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ii] p. 59, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[iii] p. 161, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[iv] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[v] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vi] p. 80, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert, Samuel H., and Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[viii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ix] p. 182. Seiden, Allan. Hawai‘i: The Royal Legacy. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1992.

[x] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.