Part 1 Glossary (A-J)

Glossary of Important Persons

of Hawaiian History

from Ancient Times to the Present Day

Part 1:

Biographical and Genealogical Information of Hawaiian Ali‘i (Royalty), Chiefs, and other Important Persons

of Early Hawaiian History

Native Hawaiians of Pre-Contact Times through the Hawaiian Monarchy Period

* = See Biographical Sketch in Timeline at year of birth in Timeline (Chapter 11). 

Eia ua lani a Hāloa i pili ai ka hanu i ke kapu.

Here is a chief descended from Hāloa,

whose kapu makes one hold his breath in dread.

A compliment to a chief. To be able to trace descent from Hāloa, an ancient chief, was to be of very high rank from remote antiquity.

(Pukui: 308-38) 


 

 

Adams, John—See Kuakini.

Adams, JohnSee Kuakini.

AhaulaSee ‘Ahu‘ula.

Ahia—Puna high chief; joined funeral journey of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; in Battle of Moku‘ōhai, turned against Kamehameha and joined forces of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]; known as a brave warrior, very tall and strong; led Puna warriors of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, where he was bound in lua hold and killed by Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe; body offered on the lele (altar) at the heiau of Hikau; said to be grandfather of missionary Reverend Ahia.[i]

AhikiKonohiki (“headman of an ahupua‘a land division under the chief.”[ii]) of Kawainui and Ka‘elepulu ponds near Kailua, O‘ahu.

Akahi‘ilikapuDaughter of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; half-sister of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]).

AhukiniSon of La‘amai-Kahiki.

‘Ahu‘oleChief under Kame‘eiamoku.

‘Ahu‘ula [Ahaula]Son of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe]; brother of Kaolohaka-a-Keawe; father of Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana].

‘AihakokoDaughter of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] and Pi‘ikea; granddaughter of Līloa and Akahiakuleana (parents of ‘Umi-a-Līloa); great granddaughter of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea (parents of Līloa); great great granddaughter of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great great granddaughter of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great great granddaughter of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[iii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great great granddaughter of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

AikanakaSon of Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa; grandson of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); father of Keohokālole with Kama‘e; grandfather of Miriam Likelike, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)], and King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] (children of Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole); great grandfather of Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani (daughter of Archibald Scott Cleghorn and Miriam Likelike).

‘Akāhi—Aunt of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884).

‘AkahiakuleanaMother of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] with Līloa.

AkaleleA canoe paddler of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

AlaikauakokoWife of Kanipahu; mother of Kalapana with Kanipahu.

Alapa‘iSee Alapa‘inui.

 

Alapa‘iChiefess; wife of John Young (II) [Keoni Ana]; companion of Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani] (daughter of King Kamehameha I).

Alapa‘imaloiki—Son of Kūma‘aikū and Keawepoepoe; brother of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Kaulunae; Maui chief.

Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i]—Son of Kauaua-a-Mahi and Kalanikauleleiaiwinui [Kalanikauleleiaiwi]; paramount chief of Hawai‘i Island; makua kāne hoahānau of Kamehameha I on the side of Kamehameha’s mother, Keku‘iapoiwa (II); father of Keawe‘ōpala; brother of Hā‘ae; led armies of Hawai‘i Island and Moloka‘i (c.1736) against the invading armies of O‘ahu; after five days of fighting at Kawela (“The heat”) in southern Moloka‘i, the O‘ahu chief Kapi‘iohookalani (“The head curls of the royal chief”) was killed and his O‘ahu army was defeated;[iv] defeated Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s warriors in battle; said to have poisoned Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] (father of Kamehameha I); wives included Keaka, Kamaka‘imokou, and Kamaua; children included Keawe‘opala (son with Keaka), Manona (daughter with Kamaka‘imoku), and Kauwa‘a and Mahiua (daughter and son with Kamaua).

 

Alapa‘iwahineMother of Kamanawa (II) with Kepo‘okalani; grandmother of Caesar Kapa‘akea (son of Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki); great grandmother of Miriam Likelike, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)], and King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] (children of Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole); great great grandmother of Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani (daughter of Archibald Scott Cleghorn and Miriam Likelike).

Albert (Prince Albert Edward Kauikeaouli)See Kauikeaouli.

Asa Kā‘eoGranddaughter of Manoua; great granddaughter of Manoua.

‘AwiliSon of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] and Kane‘alai; brother of Ha‘o, Kumukoa [Kumuhea], and Kaliloamoku [Kalilaumoku].

*Bishop, Bernice Pauahi Pākī (1831, Dec.19—1884, Oct.16)—Princess as granddaughter of King Kamehameha I; daughter of Konia [Laura Konia] (mother) and Abner Pākī (father); wife of Charles Reed Bishop (1822—1915); endowed Kamehameha Schools. On her mother’s side, Princess Pauahi was the granddaughter of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū (father of Konia [Laura Konia]) and Luahine, and the great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘oleiokū), and Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I). Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop was the last direct descendant of King Kamehameha I; beginning at the age of eight, attended the Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846); married Charles Reed Bishop at the Royal School on June 4, 1850; declined the December 11, 1872 deathbed offer of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) to name her as his successor; given the Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha in 1875 by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; when Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani died in 1883, her will bequeathed to Princess Pauahi her elaborate mansion, Keōua Hale (on Emma Street in Honolulu) and approximately 353,000 acres (143,000 ha) of Kamehameha lands, totaling nearly nine percent of the land in the Hawaiian Islands; inherited Haleakalā (near King and Bishop Streets in Honolulu), the former home of her parents, Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]; with Charles Reed Bishop, lived at Haleakalā, which was built in 1847 by Abner Pākī; inherited approximately 25,000 acres (10,000 ha) of land from Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia], and Pauahi’s aunt, ‘Akāhi; laid to rest at the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[v]); when Princess Pauahi died in 1884, her will left 434,000 acres (175,634 ha) of land in perpetual trust to assist in the establishment of two schools in the Kamehameha name, and thus the Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate was founded; the Kamehameha School for Boys opened in Honolulu on October 4, 1887, and then Kamehameha School for Girls opened on December 19, 1894; today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

BokiSee Kamā‘ule‘ule.

EhuKona chief (c.1540); junior son of Kūāiwa and Kamanawa; grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa); appointed as a supervisor by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]; as a result, Kona was known as “Kona, kai malino a Ehu (Kona, calm seas of Ehu).”[vi]

Eianinui [Elani]Instructed by Kaukoko in warrior skills and martial arts of ancient times.

ElaniSee Eianinui.

‘Ele‘eleWarrior.

‘EleuliSon of Keawemauhili.

Emma (Queen Emma)—See Rooke, Emma Na‘ea

Hā‘aeSon of Kauaua-a-Mahi and Kalanikauleleiaiwinui [Kalanikauleleiaiwi]; father of Ha‘alo‘u; grandfather of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]; Kekuamanohā, Kekuapo‘i, and Kamohomoho (children of Ha‘alo‘u and Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]; brother of Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i].

Ha‘alo‘u [Kekaiha‘akūloulaniokahiki]—Mother of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana], Kekuamanohā, Kekuapo‘i, and Kamohomoho with Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]; grandmother of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] and Kamā‘ule‘ule (Boki) (children of Kekuamanohā and Kemakahukilani); great grandmother of William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I) (son of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] and Kiliwehi); great great grandmother of William Pitt Kīna‘u (son of William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] and Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani); grandmother of Kalākua, Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams], Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox], and Ka‘ahumanu (children of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]); great grandmother of Kīna‘u and Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (children of King Kamehameha I and Kalākua); great grandmother of Ka‘ua‘umokuokamānele [Kamānele] (daughter of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]); great great grandmother of Moses Kekūāiwa, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

Ha‘awenuiWarrior; known for his skill at using slingstones; fought in battle at ‘Īao.

Ha‘inakoloVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands.

HākauHawai‘i Island ruler (c.1610); son of Līloa and Pinea; grandson of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea; great grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[vii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa); brother of Kapukini; brother of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; grandson of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea (parents of Līloa); great grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[viii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa); son and heir of Līloa; became embittered because his brother ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] was given the care of the war god Kūkā‘ilimoku; reviled ruler; killed by warriors of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi].

HākauRuler around A.D. 1600.

Hākau [Hākauwahine]Chiefess; daughter of Heulu and Moana; wife of Kalani‘opu‘u; mother of Kawelookalaninui with Kalani‘ōpu‘u; wife of Keohulu.

HakaukalalapuakeaGranddaughter of Hākau; cousin of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]; one of five high-ranking wives of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui].

Hala‘eaA chief.

Hale, IsaacPuna resident killed in action in Korea; Hale Beach Park in the Puna district of Hawai‘i Island was named after him in 1951[ix]; Hale means “house.”

Haleole, S. N.Beginning in 1834, attended Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; wrote a fictional novel later translated by Martha W. Beckwith and published as: The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai (Washington: Bureau of American Ethnology, 1919)

 

HanakahiHilo chief said to be a “symbol of profound peace”; the town of Hilo is sometimes called Hilo Hanakahi in his honor.[x]

Ha‘oSon of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] and Kane‘alai; brother of ‘Awili, Kumukoa [Kumuhea], and Kaliloamoku [Kalilaumoku].

HaokalaniFrom Ehu family of Kona or Kalona-iki family of O‘ahu; one of five high-ranking wives of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]; mother of Lonoikamakahiki with Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui].

Haulaninui-ai-ākeaVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands.

Hawai‘iloa [Hawai‘i loa; Ke Kowa-i-Hawai‘i]Chief; fisherman; renowned navigator.

Hawa‘ikuauliSon of Kūkahau‘ula and Lilinoe; had famous, sacred battle adze that was called by Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) the “kingdom-conquering adze ‘Olopū (Ke Ko‘i Na‘i Aupuni ‘Olupū).”[xi]

 

HeleluheChief.

 

HenahenaWife of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]

 

HeuluSon of ‘Umi‘ulaika‘ahumanumanu and Kapahiahuakane; father of Hākau; father of Kalaniwahineuli with Kahikiokalani.

HewahewaDescendant of Pā‘ao; nephew of Hewahewanui; kahuna nui of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) during time of restoration of the heiau of Pu‘ukoholā (“Whale hill”); warrior of Hunalele army; advised on burial of Pai‘ea Kamehameha; also served as an adviser for King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); passed away in 1837; said to be the last kahuna nui (high priest) under the kapu system.

Hewahewanui—Uncle of Hewahewa; warrior of Hunalele army; accompanied Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s funeral journey at sea from Waio‘ahukini to Hōnaunau; guardian of Kaumuali‘i.

 

Hīkapoloa [Hikapoloa[xii]]—Hawai‘i Island ruler; approximately 20-year reign likely occurred sometime between A.D. 1240 and 1320; ruler of Niuli‘i (“Small Coconut”[xiii]) and north Kohala; led warriors of Niuli‘i to victory over warriors of Kukuipahu in a battle at Kapa‘au at Hinakahua; victory led to a unification of north Kohala; married a woman from Kona; lived at Pu‘upea; possibly chief of Pu‘upea; home located on Pu‘uiki above Kukuipahu; grandfather of Lu‘ukia; a proverb states: “Kaiko‘eka a ka hāuna ‘ino. (Brothers-in-law who smite severely.) Hikapoloa, a Kohala chief, treated his brothers-in-law with severe cruelty and later was destroyed by them.”[xiv]

Hilo-HāmākuaHawai‘i Island district high chief of Hilo; son of Kulukulu‘a; supported Kūka‘ilani as heir of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; defeated in battle by warriors supporting Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui], with the last conflict occurring at Pu‘umaneo in Kohala; Hilo-Hāmākua and the other district chiefs were then killed in battle or afterwards, and the bones of these slain chiefs were bundled and kept by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and then his heirs, including Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; the bones were “plaited with feathers and fastened together by netting”[xv] and each chief’s bones were honored with a chant; the chant honoring Palahalala was: “That is Hilo! That is Hilo!, That is Hilo of the incessant rains, The increasing rains, The ceaseless rains of Hilo, That is Hamakua of the steep cliffs, The ti leaf of Kamae is tramped down, Hamakua is indeed withered.” [xvi]

HinaopioMother of Ho‘olana with Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha].

Hoapili—See Ulumāheihei.

 

Holau—Mother of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] with Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]; grandmother of Kaumuali‘i (son of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei); great grandmother of Kinoiki (daughter of Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] and Kaumuali‘i); great great grandmother of Queen Kapi‘olani, Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani, and Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (children of Kūhiō and Kinoiki).

Holo‘ae—Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s chief kahuna (priest); oracle kahuna; kahuna nui; father in law of Kekūhaupi‘o, whose wife was the daughter of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; revered for his skills in the profession of kuhikuhipu‘uone (seeing and advising); conducted certain rituals at the sacrifice of ‘Īmakakoloa [Imakaloa]; issued prophecies before important battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) and provided important advice that was heeded by Kamehameha in his military efforts. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

Holoholoku—Waimea chief.

 

Honoli‘i—Renowned warrior of Makalawena in North Kohala; māmakakaua ali‘i koa (warrior general) of Kamehameha’s Ona Hema army, known for their proficiency at hand-to-hand combat and their skill at whirling spears.

Ho‘ohi‘olo‘oloSon of Kaukahiakua and Ho‘onohoka‘ie‘ie; some accounts say it was Ho‘ohi‘olo‘olo and not Kekūhaupi‘o who killed the renowned warrior Kaihe in a battle of Hawai‘i Island warriors against Maui warriors at Hakalau. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

Ho‘okamali‘iVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands.

Ho‘olanaSon of Hinaopio and Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]; half-brother of Līloa, Makaoku, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula; grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xvii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

Ho‘olehuaChief; husband of ‘Īloli; father of Hikauhi with ‘Īloli. Ho‘olehua means “Acting the expert.”[xviii]

Ho‘oleiali‘iMother of Kua‘ana-a-I. (See Palena.)

Ho‘olulu—Helped Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] hide the bones of King Kamehameha I after the ruler’s death; grandfather of Beckley family; grandfather of Mrs. Mary Ailaumā.

Ho‘onohoka‘ie‘ieMother of Ho‘ohi‘olo‘olo with Kaukahiakua.

Ho‘opiliahaePossibly a Maui chief; possible of Kohala’s Pae line; one of five high-ranking wives of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui].

HuaMoloka‘i war leader.

Hua‘āPuna chief; a proverb states: “He ‘oi wale aku no o Hua‘ā. (Great indeed was Hua‘ā.) A sarcasm. Hua‘ā was a chief of Puna on Hawai‘i. When the chief of another district threatened to war against him he hastily sent word to Kamehameha for protection. The latter ordered the war-minded chief to cease his threats.”[xix]

HuaimanonoikalaPriest; from Hāna, Maui; provided advice during the last illness of King Kamehameha I.

HualaniDescendant of Māweke (famous O‘ahu chief); mother of Kalahuimoku and three other children with Kanipahu.

HukulaniKohala chief; junior son of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xx]]; brother of Kahoukapu and Manauea; grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

HuluHusband of Lonoma‘aikanaka; father of Kauhiokeka with Lonoma‘aikanaka.

HumuVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands.

I‘aukea, Curtis Pi‘ehuEnvoy of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] in 1883 when he attended coronation of the emperor and empress of Russian; attended the jubilee of Queen Victoria in London, England in 1887 with Queen Kapi‘olani; chamberlain of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; as private secretary to the queen and in accordance with traditional royal custom, issued formal announcement of her death on November 11, 1917; administrator of Queen Lili‘uokalani’s estate.

‘Ī‘ī, John Papa (1800—1870)—Personal attendant of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (the future King Kamehameha II); served as a childhood guardian of Princess Victoria Kamāmalu; language advisor to missionary Hiram Bingham (17891869); appointed to the House of Nobles and Privy Council under King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); helped draft the Hawai‘i Constitution of 1852; served as a justice on Hawai‘i’s Supreme Court from 1852 to 1864; wrote articles for the newspaper Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a from 1866 to 1870; uncle of John ‘Ī‘ī and Daniel ‘Ī‘ī; a translation of John Papa ‘Ī‘ī’s writings by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i was entitled Fragments of Hawaiian History, edited by Dorothy Barrère and published by Bishop Museum Press in 1959. (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

‘Ī‘ī, JohnNephew of John Papa ‘Ī‘ī.

‘Ī‘ī, DanielNephew of John Papa ‘Ī‘ī.

‘ĪloliWife of Ho‘olehua; mother of Hikauhi with Ho‘olehua; later wife of Pākaka [Pāka‘a] and ‘Īloli.

ImaikalaniKa‘ū chief killed by Pi‘imaiwa‘a.

‘Īmakakoloa [Imakaloa]—Puna high chief during reign of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; fought on side of Kalani‘ōpu‘u during second (failed) Maui invasion; revolted against Kalani‘ōpu‘u; captured in 1780 by Hawai‘i Island ruler Kalani‘ōpu‘u to be used as a human sacrifice in a ceremony to consolidate Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s chiefdom; taken to the Ka‘ū luakini heiau (where human sacrifices were performed) called Hālauwilua in Kamā‘oa in the ahupua‘a of Pākini; Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s son Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] initiated the sacrificial ceremony, and Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) boldly stepped in and finished the ritual, placing ‘Īmakakoloa on the altar; this action caused controversy and led to a rift between Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and the rising young warrior Kamehameha. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

InainaWife of Nāhi‘ōle‘a.

Inamo‘o (?—1794)Kaua‘i chief; served as Regent of Kaua‘i after Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] for the young Kaumuali‘i; was seen by George Vancouver (1758—1798) on each of his three annual visits (1792—1794); died in 1794.

IwikauikauaHusband of Keakamahana; son of Makakauali‘i.



[i] According to Desha, Reverend Ahia served in Micronesia for the Hawai‘i Board of Foreign Missions, and was said to be the grandson of Mrs. Hussey, “formerly of Kohala, living at Kawaiaha‘o Church at present [early 1900s].” [p. 147, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.]

[ii] p. 166, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[iii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[iv] p. 99, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[v] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vi] p. 163, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[viii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[ix] p. 36, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[x] p. 40, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xi] p. 243, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xii] The spelling Hīkapoloa is given in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; the spelling Hikapoloa is given in: Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

[xiii] p. 166, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xiv] p. 152, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983; Proverb 1401.

[xv] Fornander (1880:111), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #5, page 397).

[xvi] Fornander (1917, 4(2): 316-317), cited on page 222 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #8, page 397).

[xvii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xviii] p. 52, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xix] p. 93, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983; Proverb 857.

[xx] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]