Part 1 Glossary (L-Z)

La‘akapuWife of Kahoukapu; mother of Kauholanuimahu with La‘akapu; grandmother of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] (son of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha); great grandmother of Līloa (son of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea); great grandmother of Makaoku, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula (children of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and (probably) Waiolea; great great grandmother of Hākau and Kapukini (children of Līloa and Pinea; great great grandmother of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] (son of Līloa and Akahiakuleana); grandmother of Ho‘olana (son of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Hinaopio).

La‘amaikahiki [La‘amai-Kahiki]Voyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands from Tahiti; said to have brought the pahu kā‘eke (drum); father of Ahukini; a proverb states: “Na pahu kapu a La‘amaikahiki, ‘Ōpuku lāua o Hāwea. (The sacred drums of La‘amaikahiki‘Ōpuku and Hāwea.) These were the drums brought by La‘amaikahiki from the South Sea.”[i]

La‘amea—First instructor of the renowned warrior Kekūhaupi‘o, the war instructor and most trusted general of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I); famous for teaching body-strengthening in preparation for battles; born in Ke‘ei close to Nāpo‘opo‘o.

La‘anui—Son of Nuhi; father of chiefess Keka‘anī‘au; with group of warriors that attacked Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe at Battle of Moku‘ōhai.

Leleiōhoku (I), [William Pitt] (1826—1848)—Son of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] and Kilihewi; named for the night on which Kamehameha passed away, which was the night of Hoku;[ii] husband of Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena; Harriet Keōpūolani]; they were married on November 25, 1835 (their son died at birth); served as governor of Hawai‘i Island beginning in 1846; after Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena passed away in 1836, Leleiōhoku (I) married Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani, and with her gave birth to William Pitt Kīna‘u (1842—1859); passed away during the 1848 measles epidemic.

Leleiōhoku, William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa

[Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] (1835—1877)—Youngest son of Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole; brother of Miriam Likelike, Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; on his mother’s side, William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] was the grandson of ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e, and great grandson of Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e), and great great grandson of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); on his father’s side, William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] was the grandson of Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki, and great grandson of Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)), and great great grandson of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); adopted by Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani at birth, and named after her first husband; heir to estate of Princess Ruth; musician and poet; in 1876 founded a choral society, the glee club called Hui Kawaihau (“The ice water” [iii] Club); the glee club was named in honor of an American missionary woman who preferred to drink only ice water while other members of the club imbibed in libations[iv]); named by King Kalākaua as successor to the throne, but died of pneumonia on April 9, 1877, and Lili‘uokalani became the new heir apparent.

Liholiho—See Kamehameha II.

Liholiho, Alexander—See Kamehameha IV.

Likelike, Miriam Kapili (1851—1887)—Daughter of Caesar Kapa‘akea and Keohokālole; sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua], Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and William Pitt Leleōhoku (II); married Archibald Scott Cleghorn on September 22, 1870; mother of Princess Ka‘iulani; on her mother’s side, Miriam Kapili Likelike was the granddaughter of ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e, and great granddaughter of Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka), and great great granddaughter of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); on her father’s side, Miriam Kapili Likelike was the granddaughter of Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki, and great granddaughter of Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)), and great great granddaughter of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani).

Likoa—High chiefess of Hāmakua; entertained the young warrior chief Kamehameha at Hakalau before a major battle there.

LilelehuaHawai‘i Island district high chief of Puna; supported Kūka‘ilani as heir of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; defeated in battle by warriors supporting Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui], with the last conflict occurring at Pu‘umaneo in Kohala; Lilelehua and the other district chiefs were then killed in battle or afterwards, and the bones of these slain chiefs were bundled and kept by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and then his heirs, including Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; the bones were “plaited with feathers and fastened together by netting”[v] and each chief’s bones were honored with a chant.

Liliha (?—1842)Wife of Boki [Kamā‘ule‘ule].

Lilinoe—Chiefess; wife of Kūkaha‘ula [Kūkahau‘ula]; extremely kapu (sacred) ali‘i wahine (woman of royal blood); from Kahalu‘u in North Kohala; distinguished by the ancient saying “Ihi ke kua, meha ke alo”[vi]; said to have been raised in remote cave called Kahikipaialewa and bathed in a kapu (sacred) spring called Pilihua [Poli‘ahu]; Desha wrote of Lilinoe: “The rearing of this chiefess, famous for her beauty, in complete solitude was the reason that Keku‘iapoiwa called her son Kamehameha. He had also been reared in solitude like the one of that famous saying: “Ihi ke kua, a meha ho‘i ke alo”...the reason that Kamehameha was called that famous name was because of that solitary, very kapu, rearing of Lilinoe.”[vii]

*Lili‘uokalani (1838—1917)

Queen Lili‘uokalani [Full Name: Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] (September 2, 1838—November 11, 1917)—Reigned from January 29, 1891 to January 17, 1893; daughter of Keohokālole and Caesar Kapa‘akea; hānai daughter of Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]; sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; Miriam Likelike, and William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)]; on her mother’s side, Queen Lili‘uokalani was the granddaughter of ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e, and great granddaughter of Kepo‘okalani and Keohohiwa (parents of ‘Aikanaka and Kama‘e), and great great granddaughter of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); on her father’s side, Queen Lili‘uokalani was the granddaughter of Kamanawa (II) and Kamokuiki, and great granddaughter of Alapa‘iwahine and Kepo‘okalani (parents of Kamanawa (II)), and great great granddaughter of Kamakaeheikuli and Kame‘eiamoku (parents of Kepo‘okalani); Lili‘uokalani married John Owen Dominis on September 16, 1862; married John Owen Dominis in 1862; attended Chiefs’ Childrens’ School beginning at age four ; [the Chiefs’ Children’s School was renamed Royal School in 1846; all five future rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom attended the school, from King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) to Queen Lili‘uokalani, and also educated at Royal School were Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] and the future Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]]; from age ten she was taught by various private tutors; became accomplished pianist and also played ‘ukulele, organ, zither, and guitar; could sight read music at early age; was said to have perfect pitch; singer, musician, and songwriter, utilizing a blend of Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian themes and techniques; on February 14, 1874, King Kalākaua declared that, when he was no longer king, his successor would be his younger brother William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)]; two new princesses were also designated—Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis (the future Queen Lili‘uokalani) and Princess Likelike; after William Pitt Kalaho‘olewa Leleiōhoku [Prince Leleiōhoku; Leleiōhoku (II)] died of pneumonia on April 9, 1877, King Kalākaua declared Princess Kamaka‘eha Dominis heir apparent to the throne as Princess Lili‘uokalani on April 11, 1877; wrote the song Aloha ‘Oe in 1878; [Aloha ‘Oe; Proudly sweeps the rain clouded by the cliffs; As onward it glides through the trees; It seems to be following the liko; The ‘āhihi lehua of the vale; (Chorus) Farewell to thee, farewell to thee; Thou charming one who dwells among the bowers; One fond embrace before I now depart; Until we meet again]; on January 14, 1888, the Hawaiian League attempted to get Princess Lili‘uokalani Kamaka‘eha Dominis, to take the throne from King Kalākaua; she refused out of loyalty to King Kalākaua; in 1890, King Kalākaua took a trip to the United States, appointing Princess Lili‘uokalani as sole Regent in his absence; on January 20, 1891, King Kalākaua (1836-1891) died in San Francisco, California; his sister came to the throne as Queen Lili‘uokalani on January 29, 1891; the Cabinet Ministers waited for Queen Lili‘uokalani at ‘Iolani Palace to have her swear allegiance to the Bayonet Constitution (see Timeline: 1887), which had taken away much of King Kalākaua’s power; from 1891 to 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani attempted to reassert royal power; opposed by resident pro-business, pro-annexation Americans, and this conflict led to a series of events in the middle of January 1893, during which time the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown; in January of 1893, an insurrection against Queen Lili‘uokalani was led by a small group of United States sugar planters and businessmen backed by 162 United States marines from the U.S.S. Boston; they deposed the queen, abrogated the monarchy, and declared a Provisional Government (with the goal of annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States); Hawai‘i’s previous 98 years of rule, under eight different monarchs, was effectively ended. Following is more specific details about the events involving Queen Lili‘uokalani that led to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; on January 14, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani informed her Cabinet members that she planned to proclaim a new constitution at the request of a majority of the Hawaiian people; she instructed her Cabinet Ministers to go to ‘Iolani Palace to sign the new constitution (which they had helped prepare), after the prorogation (closing) of the Legislature at Ali‘iōlani Hale; when the Cabinet Ministers refused to sign the new constitution, Queen Lili‘uokalani decided to defer any action, and gave a speech from the lānai of ‘Iolani Palace, telling the many people outside (who were gathered there in anticipation of a new constitution being announced) to go home peacefully because she would not be able to declare a new constitution; a group of annexation supporters then held a meeting and formed the “Committee of Public Safety”; they declared Queen Lili‘uokalani’s actions treasonous, and made plans for a Provisional Government with the goal of eventually annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; on January 15, 1893, in consultation with United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens, the Committee of Public Safety was assured that Stevens would land troops from the U.S.S. Boston if any danger was posed to American lives or property; the Committee of Public Safety called a meeting for the following day for all supporters of annexation; supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani also called for a meeting on the same day; on January 16, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani declared in an official proclamation that changes to the constitution would only be made with the consent of the Legislature; the two mass meetings were held, one by supporters of annexation and the other by supporters of Queen Lili‘uokalani; U. Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, ordered the troops from the U.S.S. Boston ashore in Honolulu, saying the action was necessary to protect American lives and property; Stevens claimed the Americans were in danger and had no protection; troops from the U.S.S. Boston came ashore at 5 p.m. on January 16, 1893; marching down King Street past Ali‘iōlani Hale and ‘Iolani Palace, the troops stationed themselves at Arion Hall, across from ‘Iolani Palace. Meanwhile, the Committee of Public Safety met to further their plans for a Provisional Government; on January 17, 1893, Queen Lili‘uokalani requested assistance from the United States Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens, but Stevens refused; the Honolulu Rifles, an armed volunteer group, assembled in Ali‘iōlani Hale in opposition to the loyalist guard across the street at ‘Iolani Palace; at 2:30 p.m., January 17, on the rear veranda of Ali‘iōlani Hale, a Provisional Government was proclaimed, and was recognized by John L. Stevens as Hawai‘i’s lawful government; at 6 p.m. that same day, Queen Lili‘uokalani yielded not to the Provisional Government but to the United States government, “...until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands”[viii]; Queen Lili‘uokalani later stated that she resigned her throne to avoid bloodshed, fearing the bombing of ‘Iolani Palace and loss of lives; the Committee of Public Safety met at 8 p.m., January 17, to finalize the Provisional Government’s officers and Cabinet; Sanford Ballard Dole was asked to be President of the Provisional Government; that evening, about 100 armed men gathered around Ali‘iōlani Hale in support of the annexationists; guards were posted around Ali‘iōlani Hale, the new headquarters of the Provisional Government, and drills were held on King Street in front of ‘Iolani Palace; Martial Law was declared, and troops from the U.S.S. Boston remained nearby; at this point the Hawaiian monarchy was essentially overthrown; on October 18, 1893, the Blount Report (see 1893, March 9) was given to President Cleveland, and blamed the overthrow of the monarchy on United States Minister to Hawai‘i, John L. Stevens; the report suggested restoring the Hawaiian government; Cleveland denounced the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts”; by November 4, 1893, orders were given by President Cleveland to restore the power of Queen Lili‘uokalani; President Cleveland also sent word that he regretted the “unauthorized intervention” that had taken away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty; the Provisional Government refused to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict would force them to give up power; though President Cleveland did not support annexation, he was reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans and their (mostly American) supporters; on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani, attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; hundreds of men were arrested, including Robert W. Wilcox, who was condemned to death; Wilcox’s sentence was lessened, and within a few months he was pardoned; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; on January 16, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace; on January 24, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani signed a formal abdication, which called for the recognition of the Republic of Hawai‘i as the lawful government; Queen Lili‘uokalani later claimed that this abdication was invalid due to coercion, and had been agreed to only to spare the lives of her supporters; on February 1, 1893, the United States Minister to Hawai‘i, John Leavitt Stevens recognized the new Provisional Government and raised the United States flag over the Hawaiian Islands; troops from the U.S.S. Boston took over as official guards of Ali‘iōlani Hale, the headquarters of the Provisional Government; on February 5, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was arraigned before the military commission for treason, a charge that was later changed to misprision of treason, which involves knowing of treason (the attempted counter-revolution) but not disclosing it; on February 27, 1895, Queen Lili‘uokalani was found guilty of misprision of treason and sentenced to a fine of $5,000 and imprisonment with hard labor for five years; though Queen Lili‘uokalani was not forced to do hard labor, she was imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace for seven months; Queen Lili‘uokalani was released from confinement on September 6, 1895, and then confined to Washington Place until February 6, 1896, and then island-restricted until October 6, 1896; her freedom was restricted for 21 months in all, from Jan. 16, 1895 until October 6 1896; one of the things Queen Lili‘uokalani wrote while imprisoned in ‘Iolani Palace was “The Queen’s Prayer”: ‘O kou aloha nō, Aia I ka lani, A ‘o kou oiā‘i‘o, He hemolele ho‘i, Ko‘u noho mihi‘ana, A pa‘ahao ‘ia, O‘oe ku‘u lama, Kou nani, ko‘u ko‘o, Mai nānā ‘ino‘ino, Nā hewa o kānaka, Akā, e huikala, A ma‘ema‘e nō, No laila e ka Haku, Ma lalo o kou ‘ēheu, Kō makou maluhia, A mau loa aku nō; Translation: Your loving mercy, Is as high as Heaven, And your truth, So perfect, I live in sorrow, Imprisoned, You are my light, Your glory, my support, Behold not with malevolence, The sins of man, But forgive, And cleanse, And so, o Lord, Protect us beneath your wings, And let peace be our portion, Now and forever more[ix]; in 1897, Queen Lili‘uokalani visited Washington D.C. and petitioned President McKinley to restore the rights of the Hawaiian people; at this time there were an estimated 9,500 voters of Hawaiian birth and nationality, with a total population in the Hawaiian Islands of more than 109,000 people; Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition was not acted upon; the Provisional Government also sent a petition to Washington D.C., and that petition (unlike Queen Lili‘uokalani’s petition) was acted upon; at this time, the revolutionists of the missionary party consisted of about 637 voters; President McKinley sent the annexation treaty to the Senate on June 16, 1897; Queen Lili‘uokalani submitted a formal protest, but it was ineffective; the United States Senate later claimed that President McKinley’s act of sending the bill to the United States Senate amounted to a recognition of Hawai‘i’s Provisional Government; while acknowledging that the native monarchy was overthrown, they claimed that McKinley’s recognition of the Provisional Government meant the facts would not be reviewed further by the United States; in November of 1899, the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani, Hawai‘i’s last monarch, left the Hawaiian Islands on a boat to San Francisco, and from there traveled to Washington D.C.; her goal was to appeal (again) for the rights of the Hawaiian people and for a settlement on crown lands; between 1900 and 1909, the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani made five more trips to the United States to appeal for a settlement of the disputed crown lands and fair treatment for the Hawaiian people; Queen Lili‘uokalani established a Deed of Trust in 1909 directing that all of her assets be used “for the benefit of orphan and other destitute children in the Hawaiian Islands, the preference to be given to Hawaiian children of pure or part aboriginal blood”; on November 11, 1917, Queen Lili‘uokalani suffered a stroke in Honolulu and passed away at the age of 79; the Queen Lili‘uokalani Trust, through the Queen Lili‘uokalani Children’s Center, continues to provide social services to orphans and other needy children and their families in the State of Hawai‘i.

LīloaHawai‘i Island paramount ruler (c.1590); son of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea; brother (or half-brother) of Makaoku, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula; grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[x]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa); husband of Pinea; father of Hākau and Kapukini with Pinea; husband of Akahiakuleana; father of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] with Akahiakuleana; father of Hākau; considered one of the most renowned of the “Pili” kings to rule Hawai‘i Island; established tradition of ‘aha‘ula; lived at Waipi‘o.

 

Lohi‘auKapulena, Hāmakua chief.

LoialeO‘ahu chief.

Lono a Pi‘ilaniSon of Maui ruler Pi‘ilani; overthrown by ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] and Hawai‘i Island warriors supporting Kiha a Pi‘ilani as Maui ruler.

Lonoikaha‘upuHusband of Kalanikauleleiaiwi; father of Keawepoepoe with Kalanikauleleiaiwi.

Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]Hawai‘i Island ruler (c.1650); son of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]; although Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] had older sons, Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] was the highest ranking son, and favored to become successor to the rule of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]; older brother of Pūpūkea; great grand-uncle of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe]; younger half-brother of Kanaloakua‘ana; was placed in the care of Kanaloakua‘ana (the grandson of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]), who serves as Regent (Prime Minister) until Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] was able to pass certain tests upon which time he would become ruler, and this apparently occurred in just one to two years; when he became ruler, two of his principal advisors were Kanaloakua‘ana and Kaikilani-Ali‘i-Wahine-o-Puna [Kaikilani]; killed Kanaloanuiokeakawaiea in battle; the forces of Lonoikamakahiki [Lono] battled rebel chiefs on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, and Moloka‘i; husband of Kaikilani-Ali‘i-Wahine-o-Puna [Kaikilani]; half-brother of ‘Umiokalani; constructed heiau called Hikiau.

Lonoma‘aikanaka Senior (chief) wife of Keawei‘kekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe]; of the ‘Ī family; daughter of Ahua-a-‘Ī; and Pi‘ilaniwahine (this marriage helped repair a rift with the Hilo family of ‘Ī and a split between the western and eastern parts of Hawai‘i Island); mother of Kalaninui‘īamamao [Kalaninui-‘Ī-a-mamao] with Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe]; grandmother of Keawemauhili (son of Kekaulikekawēkiuokalani [Kekaulikeikawēkiuokalani; Kekaulikeikawēkiuonālaniali‘i; Kekaulikeikawēkiuonāmoku] and Kalaninui‘īamamao [Kalaninui-‘Ī-a-mamao]); great grandmother of Keaweokahikona (son of Keawemauhili and Ululani); of the Ī line.

LononuiākeaAli‘i watchman of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I); killed, while stationed at Laupāhoehoe, by two of Keawemauhili’s chiefs, Pīna‘au and Kauwehanehane; the killing of Lononuiākea by the warriors of the Hilo ruler Keawemauhili was considered an act of war against Kamehameha, who had previously gained control of Laupāhoehoe in a battle against the warriors of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha—See Kamehameha V.

Luahine (?—1873)—Mother of Konia [Laura Konia] with Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū; grandmother of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (daughter of Abner Pākī and Konia [Laura Konia]).

LuahiwaSon of Pualinui; high chief of Lahaina, Maui.

*Lunalilo, William Charles

King Lunalilo [William Charles Lunalilo] (January 31, 1835—February 3, 1874)—Reigned from January 8, 1873 to February 3, 1874; son of Charles Kana‘ina and Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea]; grandson of Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū] and Kalākua (parents of Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea]); great grandson of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kamakaeheikuli (parents of Kala‘imāmahu [Kala‘imamahū]); educated at Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846); engaged to Princess Victoria Kamāmalu (though apparently King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) opposed the union); elected king by a vote of the Legislature after King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) died without naming a successor; amended the Constitution of 1864, ending the property qualification for voting; when the Household Troops rebelled on September 7, 1873, King Lunalilo convinced them to lay down their arms, and subsequently the army was disbanded; known as the Citizen King, the People’s King, and Ke Ali‘i Lokomaika‘i (“The Kind-Hearted Chief”); suffered from tuberculosis, and was given to heavy drinking, resulting in poor health; chose not to be buried in the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[xi]) with other royalty; when he died only about one year after being elected king, he was buried just inside the main entrance to Kawaiaha‘o Church (where the grave still remains); created, in his will, the Lunalilo Home for sick and poor Hawaiians, particularly older Hawaiians.

LupuaChiefess; the resting place Ahu-a-Lupua (“Pile of Lupua”), located at Mahai‘ula and Ka‘elehuluhulu by the sea, was named after her.[xii]

Lu‘ukiaVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands; granddaughter of Hīkapoloa; originally from Kohala; wife of ‘Olopana; sister of Kaumaili‘ula; renowned Nana‘ulu chief of Kohala.

Maheha KapulikolikoChiefess.

Mahiaee [Mahiua I]—Kona chief.

 

Mahiua I—See Mahiaee. 

 

Mahi‘ololīChief.

MahiuaSon of Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i] and Kamaua.

MahuieSeer in the court of Pai‘ea Kamehameha [King Kamehameha I].

Maka‘aluaWife of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; mother of Nohowa‘a a ‘Umi with ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi].

Makakauali‘iChief; father of Iwikauikaua; brother of Kaikilani; ancestor of Makoa.

MakakuikalaniMaui general; high chief; nephew of Kamalālāwalu; in a battle between the Maui and Hawai‘i Island forces between Hōkū‘ula and Pu‘uoaoaka, fought the high chief Pupuakea, each using only a war club; Makakuikalani was killed in this fight and then the Maui forces were routed and Kamalālāwalu was also killed.

Makali‘inuikuakawaieaChief who brought the royal birthstone known as the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone) from near a heiau by the rivermouth of the Wailua River to Hilo where it was the symbol of the chiefly naha line (a class of chiefs who are descended from unions between half-brothers and half-sisters); the birthstone came from Kaua‘i near a heiau by the mouth of the Wailua River; brought the royal birthstone to Hawai‘i Island sometime around the 12th century; high-ranking chiefesses who gave birth to a son placed the child upon the stone as a kahuna (priest) prayed to the gods; if the child did not begin to cry until after the completion of the kahuna’s prayer then this child would be brave, and of the naha royal line.

MakaokuSon of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and (probably) Waiolea; brother (or half-brother) of Līloa, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula; grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xiii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

MakekauJudge.

MakoaDescendant of Kalanienoho; chief; swift runner; sent by Keawemauhili to carry live fish to Kamehameha; sent by Kamehameha to Laupāhoehoe; fought with chiefs at Laupāhoehoe. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

Makoleokalani, KaluaDescendant of Maui ali‘i (royalty); wife of Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903).

MakuaSon of Kumalae; husband of daughter of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and Kamolanui-a-‘Umi (this daughter of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] was the founder of the ‘Ī line (the mother of ‘Ī).

MakuahualeiakeaKona chiefess; from ‘Ehu family; wife of Pi‘ilani; later wife of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi].

Malo, David (c.17931853)Student at Maui’s Lahainaluna Seminary, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; helped Lahainaluna’s Reverend Sheldon Dibble develop historical reports about the pre-contact past of the Hawaiian Islands; collected and documented many legends, genealogies, and chants as well as specific details of historical events of pre-contact times; extensive writings were originally published in Hawaiian language newspapers in the 1860s and 1870s; Malo’s writings were dated around 1840, but were not published in English until Nathaniel Emerson’s translation entitled Hawaiian Antiquities (Ka Moolele Hawaii), published by the Hawaiian Gazette Company in 1903.

MāmalaChiefess; known to love to surf, play the game kōnane, and drink ‘awa (Piper methysticum, kava).[xiv]

ManaueaChild of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xv]]; grandchild of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

ManohiliChief who helped to capture the Fair American; [in 1790, Simon Metcalfe, was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured native Hawaiians in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this became known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas; all of the Fair American’s crew (including Thomas) were killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake ) (1758—1810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe sailed away, leaving his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749—1835) onshore; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha].

ManokalanipōKaua‘i chief in ancient times; Manokalanipō means “The innumerable dark heavens” [xvi]; an epithet for the island of Kaua‘i is Kaua‘i o Manokalanipō (“Kaua‘i of Manokalanipō”[xvii]).

ManonaSon of Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i] and Kamaka‘īmoku.

ManonoikauakāpekulaniLed an army of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

ManouaDaughter of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Muolehua; grandmother of Asa Kā‘eo; great grandmother of Peter Kā‘eo Kekuaokalani and Albert K. Kūnuiākea.

ManuhoaChief who helped to capture the Fair American; [in 1790, Simon Metcalfe, was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured native Hawaiians in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this became known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas; all of the Fair American’s crew (including Thomas) were killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake ) (1758—1810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe sailed away, leaving his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749—1835) onshore; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha].

MāwekeFamous O‘ahu chief; one of his descendants is Hualani.

MoanaDaughter of Kaleiheana and Keakealani; wife of Kukalohe [Kulaohe]; mother of Kekupuohi with Kukalohe [Kulaohe]; kahuna (priest) chiefess; mother of Hākau with Heulu; wife of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; mother of Hākauwahine.

MoihalaHawai‘i Island district high chief of Kona; supported Kūka‘ilani as heir of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; defeated in battle by warriors supporting Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui], with the last conflict occurring at Pu‘umaneo in Kohala; Moihala and the other district chiefs were then killed in battle or afterwards, and the bones of these slain chiefs were bundled and kept by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and then his heirs, including Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; the bones were “plaited with feathers and fastened together by netting”[xviii] and each chief’s bones were honored with a chant.

Mo‘ikehaVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands; O‘ahu chief; younger brother of ‘Olopana; the Kaua‘i prince Kila was his “castaway son” [xix]; became ruler of Kaua‘i through marriage.

MokuahualeiakeaWife of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; mother of Akahi‘ilikapu with ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; grandmother of Ko‘ihalawai (daughter of Akahi‘ilikapu.

MokulaniFather of Ululani (his heir); head of ‘Ī family (c.1740); Hāmākua chief; slain by Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i].

Mo‘oWarrior who killed Keawemauhili.

Mo‘opu‘ukaneServed as the marshal of a Makahiki procession.

Moses KekūāiwaSee Kekūāiwa, Moses.

Muli‘eleali‘iFather of ‘Olopana (junior son); (possibly) nominal O‘ahu ruler.

MuliheleChief; served as attendant to Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani].

MuolehuaDaughter of Ka‘aloa‘api‘ilani and Kāneikaheilani; wife of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; mother of Manoua with Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

Nā‘ahi‘ena‘enaSee Nāhi‘ena‘ena, Harriet Keōpūolani.

Na‘ea, Emma (Queen Emma)—See Rooke, Emma Na‘ea. 

 

Na‘ea, George—Father of Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani].

NaehunapalaiAncestor of Makoa; chief.

Nae‘ole—Kohala chief; māmakakaua (warrior) of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; said by some historians to be the person who took the newborn Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) to safety (other accounts say it was Nāihe) at ‘Āwini, Kohala; foster-father of Kamehameha I; joined funeral procession of canoes on the sea journey to take the bones of Kalani‘ōpu‘u from Waio‘ahukini to Haleokeawe at Hōnaunau; Nae‘ole means “Without gasping.”[xx] [Note: Historians such as Kamakau, Fornander, and more recently Cordy,[xxi] say the person who took the newborn Pai‘ea Kamehameha to safety was Nae‘ole. Stephen Langhern Desha Sr., however, names Nāihe, a North Kohala chief who was the husband of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui], as the person who kept the young ali‘i chief Kamehameha safe and reared him.[xxii]]

Nāhaku‘elupua [Nāhaku‘elua Pua]Mother of Keali‘imahi‘ai; Nāhaku‘elupua means “The weaving [of] two flowers.”[xxiii]

Nāhekukui [Kukui]—Grandfather of wife of Stephen Langhern Desha Sr. (1859—1934); father of Kekumano.

Nāhekukui—Father of Queen Kalama [Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama [Kamālama]].

 

*Nāhi‘ena‘ena, Harriet Keōpūolani [Nāhi‘ena‘enaikekapuewela‘aikapēkapuokeakua; Nā‘ahi‘ena‘ena; Nahienaena] (1815—1836)—Princess as daughter of King Kamehameha I and Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama]; on her mother’s side, Harriet Keōpūolani Nāhi‘ena‘ena was granddaughter of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu], and great granddaughter of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalola (parents of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]), and Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Kalola (parents of Keku‘iapoiwa Liliha [Kaniu]), and great great granddaughter of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui] (parents of Kalola); on her father’s side, Harriet Keōpūolani Nāhi‘ena‘ena was granddaughter of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II); sister of Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho (King Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III); married on November 25, 1835 to the high chief Leleiōhoku (their son died at birth); wavered between Protestant faith and traditional Hawaiian beliefs; excommunicated by Protestants in May of 1835; died at the age of 21; Nāahi‘ena‘ena means “The burning fires.”[xxiv]

 

Nāhi‘ōle‘aHusband of Inaina; cousin and hoahānau of Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]; leader of the Pi‘ipi‘i Army; defected from the forces of Pai‘ea Kamehameha and joined Kalanikūpule; killed early in the Battle of Nu‘uanu.

NāhuaChiefess; owned land between Halekūlani and Royal Hawaiian Hotel; Nāhua means “The fruits.”[xxv]

Nāihe—Husband of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui]; North Kohala chief; secretly took newborn Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I to safety [Note: Historians such as Kamakau, Fornander, and more recently Cordy,[xxvi] say the person who took the newborn Pai‘ea Kamehameha to safety was Nae‘ole. Stephen Langhern Desha Sr., however, names Nāihe, a North Kohala chief who was the husband of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui], as the person who kept the young ali‘i chief Kamehameha safe and reared him.[xxvii]]; announced, with Kalanimāloku, the arrival of the young warrior Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) during a visit to Ululani at Pi‘opi‘o in Hilo.

Nāihekukui [Kekukui]—Grandfather of wife of Stephen L. Desha.

 

Nā‘iliWai‘anae chief; brother of wife of Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i]; sent by Peleiōhōlani (O‘ahu Regent) to negotiate a truce with Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i]; this was successful and a meeting was arranged between Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i] and Peleiōhōlani.

Nakaikua‘anaChief under Keawemauhili.

NakuieluaCanoe paddler of Pai‘ea Kamehameha [King Kamehameha I].

NāluhiChief who helped to capture the Fair American; [in 1790, Simon Metcalfe, was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured native Hawaiians in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this became known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas; all of the Fair American’s crew (including Thomas) were killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake ) (1758—1810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe sailed away, leaving his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749—1835) onshore; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha].

Nāmāhana [Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani]—Daughter of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u; sister of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]; wife of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe; mother of Queen Ka‘ahumanu, Kalākua, Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox], and Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]; grandmother of Kīna‘u and Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (children of King Kamehameha I and Kalākua); grandmother of Ka‘ua‘umokuokamānele [Kamānele] (daughter of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]); great grandmother of Moses Kekūāiwa, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), and King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) (children of Mataio Kekūanaō‘a and Kīna‘u); great great grandmother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) (son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]); husband to Kamehamehanui.

Nāmakaehā—Cousin of Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]; defeated by Kamehameha I at Kaipalaoa (“Whale sea”[xxviii]).

NāmakaheluFamous chanter; grandson of Kahaukomo, died at age 83 in 1940.[xxix]

Nāmākēhā, BennettFirst husband of Queen Kapi‘olani.

Nanuekaleiōpū—Hāmākua chief; son and māmakakaua (warrior) of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; leader of Kīpu‘upu‘u Army.

NaonaoainaSee Nāono‘āina.

Nāono‘āina [Naonaoaina][xxx]—Kahuna (priest); cousin of Nu‘uanukapahu [Nu‘uanupā‘ahu]; failed to find water for Kalani‘ōpu‘u at Mōlīlele and Kā‘iliki‘i, and for this he was hung on the scaffolding that had been built to float on the sea near the cliff where they dug for water, a place that came to be known as the “Hanging Water (Liwai) of Kalani‘ōpu‘u.”[xxxi]

Nape‘ahiFamily descended from Ka‘elemakule.

NapunanahunuiDaughter of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] and Kulamea; granddaughter of Līloa and Akahiakuleana (parents of ‘Umi-a-Līloa); great granddaughter of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea (parents of Līloa); great great granddaughter of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great great granddaughter of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great great granddaughter of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xxxii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great great granddaughter of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

NaukiChief who helped capture the Fair American; [in 1790, Simon Metcalfe, was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured native Hawaiians in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this became known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas; all of the Fair American’s crew (including Thomas) were killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake ) (1758—1810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe sailed away, leaving his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749—1835) onshore; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha].

NeulaokihaSister of Waiolea; wife of Kauholanuimahu; mother of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] with Neulaokiha; grandmother of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] (son of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha); great grandmother of Līloa (son of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great grandmother of Makaoku, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula (children of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and (probably) Waiolea); great great grandmother of Hākau and Kapukini (children of Līloa and Pinea); great great grandmother of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] (son of Līloa and Akahiakuleana); grandmother of Ho‘olana (son of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Hinaopio).

Nohowa‘a a ‘UmiDaughter of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi] and Maka‘alua; granddaughter of Līloa and Akahiakuleana (parents of ‘Umi-a-Līloa); great granddaughter of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea (parents of Līloa); great great granddaughter of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great great granddaughter of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great great granddaughter of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[xxxiii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great great granddaughter of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa).

Nuhi—Waimea chief; father of La‘anui; grandfather of chiefess Keka‘anī‘au; initially a supporter of Kamehameha; later abandoned Kamehameha’s side in battle and fought on the side of Keawemauhili; one of a group of warriors of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] that attacked Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe in the Battle of Moku‘ōhai.

Nu‘uanu—Nā‘ālehu chief; ally of Kalani‘ōpu‘u against Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i]; māmakakaua (warrior) of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; in a battle close to Pana‘ewa he escaped death along with Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

Nu‘uanukapahu [Nu‘uanupā‘ahu]—Ka‘ū high chief during reign of Kalani‘ōpu‘u; kahuna (priest); cousin of kahuna Nāono‘āina [Naonaoaina][xxxiv]; from Nā‘ālehu; accompanied Kamehameha on visit to ship of Captain Cook; fought with Hawai‘i Island warriors during an invasion of Maui (Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s second failed attempt); allegedly involved in revolt against Kalani‘ōpu‘u; killed after rebelling against Kalani‘ōpu‘u because he was unhappy with his land allotment; captured and killed by Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s warriors and sacrificed at Mo‘okini heiau in North Kohala; or, according to Fornander and Kamakau,[xxxv] Nu‘uanukapahu [Nu‘uanupā‘ahu] was killed while fighting off a shark at Pololū, North Kohala where he was surfing near Hala‘ula.

Nu‘uanupā‘ahuSee Nu‘uanukapahu.

Obookiah, HenrySee ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia, Henry.

‘OleHawai‘i Island ruler (c.1360-1370); possibly a brother or a son of Pili.

‘OlopanaVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands; O‘ahu chief (c.1300) and Hawai‘i Island ruler (c.1350); Hāmākua ruler based in Waipi‘o; said to have built the heiau of Kawa‘ewa‘e in Kāne‘ohe on O‘ahu; husband of Lu‘ukia; junior son of Muli‘eleali‘i; older brother of Mo‘ikeha; said to have left Waipi‘o after extreme flooding occurred, travelling to Kahiki.

‘Oma‘okamauHigh chief; close friend of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi].

OpaiA Kauaian who became the first native Hawaiian to visit the United States, traveling aboard the Columbia Rediviva under the command of Robert Gray in August of 1789; the Columbia Rediviva was an armed ship sailing out of Boston, and was the first American ship to visit the Hawaiian Islands, and later became the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe; Opai returned to the Islands on the vessel Hope, under the command of Joseph Ingraham in 1791.

‘Ōpūkaha‘ia, Henry [Obookiah, Henry] (1792—1818)—Parents and brother killed at Kaipalaoa on Hawai‘i Island in Nāmakaehā’s rebellion; raised in Nāpō‘opo‘o (“The holes”[xxxvi]) on Kealakekua Bay, Hawai‘i Island, by his kahuna (priest) uncle; left the Hawaiian Islands for New England (Connecticut) in 1809 on the ship Triumph; influenced by students of Andover Seminary and Yale College, ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia became a Christian, taking the name Henry Obookiah; considered the first Hawaiian convert to Christianity; began translating the Bible into Hawaiian and had plans to travel back to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries, but died of typhus fever in Cornwall, Connecticut on February 17, 1818, at the age of 26; ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s death inspired the first American Christian mission to the Hawaiian Islands; from the 1820s to the 1860s, a steady stream of missionaries arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then known as the Sandwich Islands), first converting ali‘i (chiefs) and then maka‘āinana (commoners) to Christianity; the First Company of American missionaries arrived on March 31, 1820 on the brig Thaddeus, which left Boston for the Hawaiian Islands on August 31, 1819 under the command of Andrew Blanchard, arriving at Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin their congregational mission work; on February 26, 1848, under Captain Hollis, the Twelfth (and final) Company of American missionaries arrived on the bark Samoset. (See The Twelve Companies of American Missionaries, Chapter 12); the remains of Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia (1792-1818), which had been buried in Connecticut since 1818, were returned to the Hawaiian Islands on July 26, 1993; on August 15, 1993 the remains were reburied on the island of Hawai‘i, at Kahikolu Cemetery in Nāpō‘opo‘o, South Kona.

‘OuluWarrior of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]; when the Maui warriors of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu and the O‘ahu warriors of Kahāhana defeated the Hawai‘i Island warriors of Kalani‘opu‘u in a battle near Wailuku, ‘Oulu was sent after the fleeing Hawai‘i Island army; famous for his skill at hurling stones, ‘Oulu hurled his ‘alā o ka ma‘a (slingstone)[xxxvii] at Kekūhaupi‘o but missed intentionally due to the high status of his opponent; this was considered a hana kohu (noble action).

Pā‘aoTahitian kahuna (priest); according to tradition, sometime before the year A.D. 1200, he founded a high priest line, known as kahuna nui; returned to Tahiti and brought back a chief named Pili [Kaaiea], who ruled Hawai‘i Island and began a 700-year dynasty, siring the royal line leading to King Kamehameha I; a descendant of Pā‘ao was Zephyrin Kepelino (c.1830—1876). (See Scholars of Hawaiian History, Chapter 12.)

Pai‘ea Kamehameha—See Kamehameha I.

Pākaka [Pāka‘a]Skilled seer and navigator; husband of ‘Īloli; father of Kūa-Pāka‘a with ‘Īloli; lived in Kaumanamana (“Place branching out”[xxxviii]), in southern Moloka‘i.

Pākī, Abner (1808—1855, July 13)—Great grandson of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]; son of Kalanihelemai‘iluna (father) and Kuho‘oheiheipahu (mother); husband of Konia [Laura Konia]; father of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884); born at Kainalu in south Moloka‘i; foster father of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha Pākī Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; captain of Honolulu fort in 1880; member of National Council; Supreme Court judge; member of House of Nobles; joined Christian church; acting Governor of O‘ahu; Privy Councillor and Chamberlain of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); built large house in Honolulu for his daughter, Princess Pauahi.

PalahalalaHawai‘i Island district high chief of Kohala; son of Wohilani; supported Kūka‘ilani as heir of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; defeated in battle by warriors supporting Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui], with the last conflict occurring at Pu‘umaneo in Kohala; Palahalala and the other district chiefs were then killed in battle or afterwards, and the bones of these slain chiefs were bundled and kept by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and then his heirs, including Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; the bones were “plaited with feathers and fastened together by netting”[xxxix] and each chief’s bones were honored with a chant; the chant honoring Palahalala was: “Level indeed, Lies Kohala, Face down, The fragrance is wafted to me, Of the flower of Koolau, of Moolau, Low indeed lies Puakea, With Kukuipahu by its side.”[xl]

PalenaKohala chief; a proverb states: “E akahele i ka mamo a I, o kolo mai ka mole uaua. (Beware the descendant of I, lest the rough roots crawl forth.) A warning uttered by Palena, a chief of Kohala, who saw Kua‘ana-a-I cruelly treated by the chiefs of Kona. Kua‘ana later went to see the people of his mother, Ho‘oleiali‘i, in Hāna, and to help the chiefs of Hilo in fighting those of Kona.”[xli]

PauahiChiefess in the court of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (King Kamehameha I).

Pauahi, BerniceSee Bishop, Bernice Pauahi.

 

Pauahi, KalaniDaughter of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū and Keōuawahine; granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and Kānekapolei (parents of Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū); great granddaughter of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of King Kamehameha I); mother of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani with Mataio Kekūanaō‘a; grandmother of William Pitt Kīna‘u (son of William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I) and Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani); namesake of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884).

Pauli Ka‘ōleiokū—See Ka‘ōleiokū, Pauli.

PaumakuaVoyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands.

PaumakualaniHigh chief who brought to the Hawaiian Islands the famous kāhuna Kaleopu‘upu‘u and his brother Ka‘ōpulupulu, who were from the class of kahuna (priests) of Ka‘eka‘e, Maliu, and Malela; these renowned kāhuna were brought to the Hawaiian Islands from the lands of “Kahiki Kū and Kahiki Moe [foreign lands].”[xlii]

Pe‘ape‘aWarrior with the forces of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

Pe‘eChief that participated in the capture of the Fair American; [in 1790, Simon Metcalfe, was in command of the snow Eleanora in the Hawaiian Islands when one of his skiffs was stolen by the chief Ka‘ōpūiki; to exact revenge, Metcalfe lured native Hawaiians in canoes to his ship to trade, and then opened cannon fire on them, killing more than 100 Hawaiians (this became known as the Olowalu Massacre); off the coast of Hawai‘i Island, Metcalfe then punished Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) by whipping him; some weeks later, Kame‘eiamoku attacked the Fair American, which was under the command of Metcalfe’s 18-year-old son, Thomas; all of the Fair American’s crew (including Thomas) were killed, except for Isaac Davis (later known as ‘Aikake ) (1758—1810), who was tied to a canoe and left half blind and nearly dead; it is said that Davis’ life was spared because of his brave fighting; Simon Metcalfe sailed away, leaving his boatswain John Young (I) (later known as ‘Olohana) (c.1749—1835) onshore; the Fair American was taken over by Kamehameha].

Peleioholani, S. L.Historian of ancient times in the Hawaiian Islands; descendant of Keawemauhili; his writings were utilized by Stephen Langhern Desha Sr. (1859—1934) as a significant source for articles he wrote that were originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924, and later translated by Frances N. Frazier and published as Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. (Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000).

Peleiōhōlani—Paramount ruler (king) of O‘ahu during time of war between Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Maui ruler Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (c.1740-1779); sent the kahuna (priest) Kaleopu‘upu‘u to Maui from O‘ahu at the request of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], who was preparing for war.

Peleuli—Chiefess in the court of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (King Kamehameha I). 

 

Pelio—Grandson of Kahunanui. 

 

Pi‘i—Chief. 

 

Pi‘ikeaDaughter of Pi‘ilani; wife of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; mother of ‘Aihakoko and Kumulae with ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi].

Pi‘ikoi, David Kahalepouli—Husband of Princess Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (granddaughter of Kaumuali‘i); father of Edward Keali‘ihonui, David Kawānanakoa, and Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi.

Pi‘ikoi, Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘oleSee Kūhiō.

Pi‘ilani—Paramount chief of Maui in ancient times (c.1500); also ruled Kaho‘olawe, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i; father of Pi‘ikea.

Pi‘ilaniBorn in Kekaha, Kaua‘i in 1864; childhood sweetheart of Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau]; Pi‘ilani and Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] were married and had one son, named Kaleimanu; in 1892; Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] contracted Hansen’s disease (leprosy), a disease that, at the time, had no treatment or cure; was told he must go to Kalaupapa, the isolated leper colony on the island of Moloka‘i, and his beloved wife and child would not be allowed to accompany him; Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] and Pi‘ilani vowed to each other that they would never be separated; they left their Kekaha home for the remote valley of Kalalau on Kaua‘i’s western coast; with their young child, Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] and Pi‘ilani rode horses from their home in Kekaha to the top of Waimea Canyon, and then to the ridgetop above the Nāpali Coastline; descending on foot down the precipitous trail into Kalalau Valley, they joined other leprosy victims who had also sought refuge from authorities; in 1893, all the people in Kalalau with leprosy were rounded up and sent to Kalaupapa, but Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] refused to go; Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] let it be known that anyone seeking to force him to go to Kalaupapa would be doing so at the peril of their life; Deputy Sheriff Louis Herbert Stoltz, who was the son-in-law of Reverend George B. Rowell of Waimea, pursued Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] in Kalalau Valley, intending to capture him dead or alive; Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] was a well respected paniolo (cowboy) in the Waimea region, and was known as an expert marksman; Stoltz, with his gun cocked, approached Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] and his family, and was shot and killed by Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau]; the news of Stoltz’s death quickly reached Kaua‘i’s acting sheriff, George Norton Wilcox, who then sent the armed forces of Hawai‘i’s Provisional Government to capture or kill the rebellious Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau]; when the soldiers arrived, Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] and Pi‘ilani and their son retreated to a well-protected cave, known as Waimakemake, beneath an overhanging cliff; by this time, Kaleimanu had also begun to show signs of leprosy; as the first soldier approached Waimakemake, he was shot dead by Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau]; the next day another soldier pursuing Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] was also shot dead; the soldiers then left the area to get reinforcements and better weapons, finally allowing Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] and his family to move to a higher location in the valley; they had endured four days without food and water; the Provisional Government soldiers soon returned to Kalalau and proceeded to fire powerful artillery guns at Waimakemake, blasting the location for several days until they believed their intended targets had been killed; the soldiers were from Company A, Hawaiian National Guard Auxiliary, and they used a mounted B. L. Krupp gun; the soldiers left Kalalau Valley without discovering that Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau], Pi‘ilani and Kaleimanu were still alive and living in the highlands of Kalalau; for the next two years, Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau], Pi‘ilani, and Kaleimanu lived in the highlands of Kalalau; then the young Kaleimanu passed away due to the leprosy; the distraught parents continued their remote existence in Kalalau Valley for another year before Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] also fell prey to the terrible ravages of the disease in 1896; the grieving Pi‘ilani used a small knife to dig a hole in the earth and bury her beloved husband along with his rifle; more than three years had passed since they first went into hiding at Kalalau; during this whole time they had not talked to anyone, except two brief encounters with Kalalau residents just a short time before Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] died; after the death of her husband, Pi‘ilani remained living in isolation in Kalalau Valley for about two more months; then she climbed to the to the top of the Nāpali ridge and walked back to her home in Kekaha, where she was reunited with her family and friends who she had left behind more than three years earlier; after her return to Kekaha, government authorities questioned Pi‘ilani and decided not to prosecute her for being with Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau] when he shot Deputy Sheriff Stoltz and the soldiers; Pi‘ilani lived out her days in Kekaha, passing away in 1914[xliii]; she wrote the story of these events in the Hawaiian language, and a translation by Frances N. Frazier, titled The True Story of Kaluaikoolau as Told by his Wife, Piilani, [xliv] was published by the Kaua‘i Historical Society in 2001; the story of Kaluaiko‘olau [Ko‘olau], Pi‘ilani and Kaleimanu was also the inspiration for renowned author Jack London’s Koolau the Leper.

Pi‘ilaniwahineDaughter of Maui rule; parent of Lonoma‘aikanaka with Ahua-a-‘Ī.

Pi‘imaiwa‘aHigh chief; close friend of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; killed Ka‘ū chief Imaikalani; an ancient saying states “Ke uwē nei ka ‘ohi‘a o Kealakona” (“The ‘ōhi‘a wood of Kealakona weeps [for you]”), which was “...uttered as a taunt by Mahihelelima, powerful warrior of Maui, when he sent his slingshots toward the warriors of Hawai‘i under Pi‘imaiwa‘a. ‘Ōhi‘a logs from Kealakona were used for the fortress on Ka‘uiki, where the Maui warriors fought the invaders. Later used to mean, ‘We are prepared to defend ourselves and we are sorry for you if you try to fight us’.”[xlv]

 

Pi‘imaiwa‘aSon of Keawemauhili and Kalola; warrior who served directly under Kamehameha.

PikoileleAncestor of Makoa; chief.

Pili [Kaaiea]Voyager who came to the Hawaiian Islands; Hawai‘i Island ruler; ruler of North Kohala (c.13201400); [according to tradition, sometime before the year A.D. 1200, the Tahitian kahuna (priest) by the name of Pā‘ao founded a high priest line, known as kahuna nui; Pā‘ao returned to Tahiti and brought back the chief Pili, who ruled Hawai‘i Island and began a 700-year dynasty, siring the royal line leading to King Kamehameha I].

Pīna‘auChief of Keawemauhili who, with Kauwehanehane, killed Lononuiākea, the watchman of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) at Laupāhoehoe, and this is considered an act of war against Kamehameha; Kamehameha sends a message with Makoa to Pīna‘au, who is greatly angered and says insulting things about Kamehameha; in response to these insults, Makoa tells Pīna‘au that he will eat his words; Pīna‘au and Kauwehanehane suddenly attack Makoa, who responds with a swift kick that breaks Pīna‘au’s neck; another kick by Makoa causes Kauwehanehane to fall to the ground, and then is quickly killed by Makoa who uses his leiomano (shark’s tooth dagger) to finish off the fallen warrior. Makoa tries to leave and is attacked by one of Pīna‘au’s ali‘i, who is then also killed by the leiomano-wielding Makoa, who then runs speedily back to Kamehameha and reports what took place at Laupāhoehoe; the deaths of Kauwehanehane, Pīna‘au, and Pīna‘au’s ali‘i are considered moepu‘u (death companions) for Kamehameha’s ali‘i who were killed by the warriors of Keawemauhili; Kamehameha then quickly readies his Kohala and Waimea warriors in order to initiate a war against Keawemauhili’s Hilo warriors. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)

Pine—Daughter of Holo‘ae; prophetess; skilled female seer; advisor of Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I); warned Kamehameha not to go to battle with Keawemauhili and Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua]; [Pine has sometimes been mentioned as the wife, of Holo‘ae instead of the daughter, but this is likely an error].

PineaWife of Līloa; mother of Hākau and Kapukini with Līloa.

Pitt, WilliamSee Leleiōhoku (I).

Po‘omahoe—Subject of Kamehameha killed by Keōuaku‘ahu‘ula’s warriors near Ke‘ei and taken to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at Hōnaunau and offered at the heiau.

Po‘omahoeWarrior of Kamehameha; owner of grove of niu (coconut palms, Cocos nucifera) at Keomo chopped down by Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], who was angered about being denied land by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]; killed at Ke‘ei by warriors of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula; body taken to Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] at Hōnaunau; offered at heiau of Haleokeawe at Hōnaunau by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli], thus signaling Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]’s alliance with Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula and resulting in their war against Kamehameha at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai; the offering of Po‘omahoe’s body at the heiau was considered moepu‘u (victim slain to accompany a dead chiefKalani‘ōpu‘u).

Po‘omaikelani, Virginia Kapo‘oloku—Sister of Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike and Queen Kapi‘olani; daughter of Kūhiō and Kinoiki; granddaughter of Kaumuali‘i (ruler of Kaua‘i) and Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] (parents of Kinoiki); great granddaughter of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kamakahelei (parents of Kaumuali‘i); great great granddaughter of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Po‘opaluWarrior under Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua].

PualinuiDaughter of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kamakolunuiokalani; mother of Luahiwa.

Pūku‘i, Mary Kawena (1895—1986)—Born in 1985 in Ka‘ū; grew up on Hawai‘i Island; the lineage of her mother, a native Hawaiian, contained respected medical kāhuna, and her grandfather (on her father’s side) was a 17th century poet; raised by her maternal grandmother and studied hula, chants, and legends while speaking only Hawaiian; after the death of her grandmother she lived with her parents speaking English as well as Hawaiian; grew up during a time when the mass immigration of sugar plantation laborers threatened to overwhelm the Hawaiian culture; collected Hawaiian stories to preserve that which was being lost to the influx of foreigners; in 1957, Mary Kawena Pūku‘i and Samuel H. Elbert published the first edition of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary,[xlvi] and then in 1986 a revised and enlarged edition was completed; containing more than 26,000 Hawaiian word, the Pūku‘i and Elbert dictionary is considered the definitive source for Hawaiian word spellings (e.g., diacritical marks), meanings, and pronunciation; the Hawaiian-English Dictionary[xlvii] fueled the Hawaiian language movement that was an integral part of the Hawaiian Renaissance (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1963.); two other prominent works by Mary Kawena Pūku‘i are Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition,[xlviii] published in 1974, and ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings,[xlix] published in 1983; a widely-respected kumu hula, Pūku‘i composed more than 150 chants and songs, and her early works included three papers on hula; joined the staff of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in 1837, where she became an associate emeritus in Hawaiian culture and worked there for more than a quarter century; one of Hawai‘i’s most revered scholars of Hawaiian culture, literature, and language; died in 1986 at the age of 91 in Honolulu; as the author or co-author of more than 50 books, Mary Kawena Pūku‘i is perhaps the most influential Hawaiian scholar of modern times; several of her books are now the primary reference tools used by Hawaiian scholars; her legacy is the continuing and pervasive use by modern scholars of the comprehensive resources she developed during her prolific lifetime.

 

PumaiaHawai‘i Island district high chief of Hāmākua; supported Kūka‘ilani as heir of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; defeated in battle by warriors supporting Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui], with the last conflict occurring at Pu‘umaneo in Kohala; Pumaia and the other district chiefs were then killed in battle or afterwards, and the bones of these slain chiefs were bundled and kept by Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and then his heirs, including Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; the bones were “plaited with feathers and fastened together by netting”[l] and each chief’s bones were honored with a chant.

PunaKahu (attendant) of Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

PuniawaHighly skilled warrior from Makahanaloa near Hakalau; māmakakaua ali‘i koa (warrior general) of Kamehameha’s Huelokū army.

 

PupuakeaHigh chief; in a battle between the Maui and Hawai‘i Island forces between Hōkū‘ula and Pu‘uoaoaka, fought the high chief Makakuikalani, each using only a war club; Makakuikalani was killed in this fight and then the Maui forces were routed and Kamalālāwalu was also killed.

 

Pūpūkea—Younger brother of Lonoikamakahiki [Lono]; famous warrior of legend; high chief of Ka‘ū, noted as having fought with fencing staff.

Rooke, Emma Na‘ea

(Queen Emma) [Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836—1885) Kalanikaumakeamano is the name given to her at birth; Kaleleonālani (“Flight of the chiefs”) is the name she took after her husband and son died; queen as wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), who she married in 1856 at Kawaiaha‘o Church; Queen Emma was the mother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862), born on May 20, 1858; the young prince, a godchild of England’s Queen Victoria, died in 1862 at the age of four; daughter of George Na‘ea and Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young; granddaughter of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o] (parents of Fanny Keku‘iapoiwa Kekelaokalani Young); great granddaughter of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]); great great granddaughter of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]); great granddaughter of Kaleipaihala (son of Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kalaniwahineuli); Adopted by her maternal aunt, Grace Kamaikui Young Rooke and her husband Dr. Thomas Charles Byde Rooke, who belonged to the Church of England; Queen Emma’s grandfather, John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.17491835) was the boatswain left onshore when Simon Metcalfe fled after being attacked by Kame‘eiamoku in revenge for the Olowalu massacre; Queen’s Hospital, named after Queen Emma, was constructed in 1860 at the corner of Punchbowl and Beretania Streets in Honolulu; Queen Emma and King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) originally established the Queen’s Hospital in the late 1850s to help the Hawaiian people, who were being devastated by foreign diseases; with King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani), raised the initial $30,000 to begin construction of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, which opened in 1867 in Honolulu at Beretania and Queen Emma Streets (Queen Emma Square); the building’s style is Gothic; prefabricated sandstone blocks were imported to build the Honolulu cathedral. The king and queen took interest in building an Anglican church in Honolulu after they visited England’s Queen Victoria in 1861 and were impressed by the Church of England; St. Andrew’s Cathedral was named after the day called St. Andrew’s Feast, which falls on the same day of the year that King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) died in 1863; in 1867 the French Gothic nave was completed, using stone from England; during this time, Episcopalians in the Hawaiian Islands went by the title Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church (see Chapter 11, Part 3: Timeline of Honolulu’s Historic Buildings: 1867); put forth her claim to the throne in 1874; David La‘amea Kalākaua was elected king, and when the results were announced, the courthouse was attacked and ransacked, legislators were beaten, and one delegate was thrown out of a window; the violence left many injured and one dead; American and British warships provide armed marines to restore order; died April 25, 1885.

Rooke, Grace Kama‘iku‘i (Young)—Wife of Thomas Charles Byde Rooke; daughter of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]; granddaughter of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (the brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]); great granddaughter of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]).

UhaiKa‘ū high chief; orator and adviser of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua]; accompanied Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua]’s warriors to Keomo after Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] was angered by being denied land by Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli]; on this journey, Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula’s warriors cut down coconut trees on the lands of people loyal to Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I), and this is considered a declaration of war; warned Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) not to land at Kawaihae.

UianuAncient warrior, noted as having fought with fencing staffs.

Ululani [Ululani-a-Moku]—Wife of Keawemauhili; mother of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui] and Keaweokahikona; daughter and heir of Mokulani; senior head of ‘Ī family; possessed the naha kapu (the naha chiefly line is a class of chiefs who are descended from unions between half-brothers and half-sisters); high-ranking Hilo Hanakahi chiefess; high chiefess of Hilo-Hāmākua-eastern Puna district (‘Ī family lands); lived in house named Kahale‘iole‘ole (“House without rats”) at Kaipalaoa in Hilo; wed to Keawemauhili by Alapa‘inui [Alapa‘i] (her uncle) so Alapa‘inui could meld his own junior lines with the ‘Ī family; witnessed Kamehameha moving the Pōhaku Naha (Naha Stone); after Kamehameha’s warriors were victorious at the Battle of Moku‘ōhai, Kekūhaupi‘o ordered his warriors to capture the escaping troops on the side of Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli and kill anyone who resisted; Keawemauhili was taken captive along with his wife Ululani and their infant child Kapi‘olani; all three captives were taken to Nāpo‘opo‘o and held at a place called Piele; Kamehameha later sent Kanuha to Ke‘ei to ask Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe what should be the fate of Keawemauhili; when Kanuha returned, Kamehameha gathered his chief in Kealakekua at the heiau of Hikiau, which was a luakini (where human sacrifices were performed); at this ‘aha‘ula (conference of chiefs), Kamehameha appointed Kanuha to be the ilāmuku (marshal) with the power of life or death over the captive Keawemauhili; Kanuha informed the gathering of chiefs that Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe’s decision was that Keawemauhili would die; Kamehameha and his chiefs were saddened at this news proclaiming the imminent death of the father of Keaweokahikona because Kamehameha considered Keaweokahikona a valiant warrior and close kinsman; Kamehameha later informed Keaweokahikona that his father may indeed live despite the wishes of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe; Kamehameha asked the weakened warrior Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe what should be the fate of Keawemauhili, and Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe replied once again that Keawemauhili should be killed; meanwhile, the ilāmuku (marshal) Kanuha allowed Keawemauhili and his wife and daughter to escape by canoe in North Kona; Kanuha instructed Kaleipaihala to take Keawemauhili and his wife and daughter to Kaumalumalu in Kona where Keawemauhili and his wife and child climbed up a forested mountain trail in the dark of night; the trail followed by Keawemauhili went between the volcanoes Mauna Kea (“White Mountain”[li]) and Hualālai and toward their destination of Hilo; two kahu (attendants), Kuaele and Keliilelepa, cared for the infant child; as dawn arrived, some warriors on Kamehameha’s side heard the crying child Kapi‘olani; the leader of the warrior group, thinking he recognized Keawemauhili as a person of royal stature, called out to him and asked him if he was Keawemauhili of Hilo[lii]; Keawemauhili, who had placed some grass debris in his eye socket, told the warriors that he was not Keawemauhili but was instead Keawe‘ōpala, another chief who was missing an eye and known to put such material there; the warriors believed Keawemauhili, and they left thinking they had done wrong by their questioning of such an important person; the infant child continued to cry, and Keawemauhili told Ululani they must leave their child in the forest; they laid the child in the ‘ama‘u fern (Sadleria), and then Ululani removed from her own neck a lei palaoa (shark’s tooth necklace) that was a symbol of her high rank; Ululani placed the lei palaoa around the neck of the infant Kapi‘olani so that whoever found the child would know of her importance; the two attendants were instructed to secretly watch over the child and see who took her; not long after the infant Kapi‘olani was left in the ‘ama‘u fern, a group of warriors led by a Kahalu‘u chief found the crying child and noticed the lei palaoa around the baby’s neck; the two kahu of Keawemauhili followed Kapi‘olani as she was taken to a house in Kahalu‘u; Keawemauhili became ruling chief of Hilo; supported Kamehameha I in his invasion of Maui, angering Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua], whose forces attacked him, killing Keawemauhili inland north of Hilo Bay. (See The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17).

UlulaniWife of John T. Baker; called Liwai.

*Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] (1776—1840)—Son of Kame‘eiamoku (one of the sacred royal twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]) and Keali‘iokahekili; close friend of King Kamehameha I (Hoapili means “Close personal friend”); entrusted with hiding the bones of King Kamehameha I after the king’s death; governor of Lāna‘i, Maui and Moloka‘i from 1836 to 1840; married Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] (sacred wife of King Kamehameha I); later married Kalākua (daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]) in a Christian ceremony.

‘Umi—See ‘Umi-a-Līloa. 

 

‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]—Hawai‘i Island ruler (c.1610); son of Līloa and Akahiakuleana; half-brother of Hākau and Kapukini (children of Līloa and Pinea); grandson of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha] and Waiolea (parents of Līloa); great grandson of Kauholanuimahu and Neulaokiha (parents of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]); great great grandson of Kahoukapu and La‘akapu (parents of Kauholanuimahu); great great great grandson of Kūāiwa and Kainuleilani [or Kamuleilani[liii]] (parents of Kahoukapu); great great great great grandson of Kalaunuiohua and Kaheka (parents of Kūāiwa); born on Hawai‘i Island at Kealakaha (“The turning road”[liv]); later lived at Waipunalei (“Lei spring water”[lv]) on Hawai‘i Island where he “lived incognito and in poverty” [lvi]; husband of Pi‘ikea; husband of Kapukini; father of Kapulani, Keali‘iokāloa [Keli‘iokāloa] and Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] with Kapukini; grandfather of Kūka‘ilani (son of Keali‘iokāloa [Keli‘iokāloa]); great grandfather of Makakauali‘i and Kaikilani-Ali‘i-Wahine-o-Puna [Kaikilani] (children of Kūka‘ilani); great great grandfather of Iwikauikaua (son of Makakauali‘i); great great great grandfather of Keakealaniwahine (daughter of Iwikauikaua and Keakamahana) great great great great grandfather of Keaweikekahiali‘iokamoku [Keawe] (son of Kanaloaikaiwilewa [Kanaloakapulehu]) and Keākealaniwahine; grandfather of Lonoikamakahiki (son of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and Haokalani); grandfather of Kanaloakua‘ana, Kanaloakuakawaiea, Kanaloaikaiwilewa [Kanaloakapulehu], and Keakalaulani; great grandfather of Keakealanikāne, Keali‘iokalani, and Kalani-o-‘Umi (children of Kaikilani-Ali‘i-Wahine-o-Puna [Kaikilani] and Kanaloakua‘ana); great great grandfather of Keakamahana (daughter of Keakealanikāne and Keali‘iokalani); great great great grandfather of Kāneikaiwilani [Kāneikauaiwilani] (son of Keakamahana and Kauakahikua‘anaauakāne); great great great great grandfather of Kalanikauleleiaiwi (daughter of Keākealaniwahine and Kāneīkaiwilani [Kāneikauaiwilani]); grandfather of ‘Umiokalani (son of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui] and Ho‘opiliahae; grandfather of Pupuakea [Puapuakea] (son of Keawenui-a-‘Umi [Keawenui]); husband of Kulamea; father of Napunanahunui-a-‘Umi; husband of Maka‘alua; father of Nohowa‘a-a-‘Umi with Maka‘alua; husband of Pi‘ikea; father of ‘Aihakoko and Kumulae with Pi‘ikea; husband of Mokuahualeiakea; father of Akahi‘ilikapu with Mokuahualeiakea; husband of Henahena; father of Kamolanui-a-‘Umi with Henahena.

 

‘UmiokalaniYoungest son of ‘Umi-a-Līloa [‘Umi]; half-brother of Lonoikamakahiki [Lono].

‘Umi‘ulaika‘ahumanumanuMother of Heulu with Kapahiahuakane.

UnimokuWife of Kalani‘ōpu‘u.

Wailuanuihoano—High-ranking daughter of Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] and Kaiolani.

WaheakalaniChief from Kawaihaeuka.

WaioleaPrincipal wife of Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]; sister of Neulaokiha [Neulaokiha]; mother of Līloa; (probably) the mother of Makaoku, Kaunuamoa, and Kepailiula with Kihanuilūlūmoku [Kiha]; grandmother of Hākau and Kapukini (children of Līloa and Pinea).

WaipaSkilled carpenter that repaired the ship Keoua off Lāna‘i with King Kamehameha I aboard.

WaoMother of Kamakolunuiokalani with Kalanikamaha‘o; from Lahaina and renowned Watercourse of Wao.

Wilcox, Theresa Owana (Kaohelelani)Princess; direct descendant of the Kona high chief Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui],[lvii] the father of King Kamehameha I; second wife of Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903).

WohilaniParent of Palahalala.

Young, Fanny Keku‘iapoiwaKekelaokalani (?—1880)High chiefess; wife of George Na‘ea; mother of Emma Na‘ea [Queen Emma; Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]; grandmother of the Crown Prince Albert [Albert Edward Kauikeaouli Leiopapa o Kamehameha] (1858—1862) (son of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) and Queen Emma); daughter of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] and Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]; granddaughter of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani] (brother of King Kamehameha I) and Kaliko‘okalani (parents of Ka‘o‘ana‘eha [Melie Kuamo‘o]); great granddaughter of Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II) (parents of Keli‘imaika‘i [Keali‘imaka‘i; Kalanimālokuloku; Kalanimāloku; Kalanimālokulokuikepo‘okalani; Kalanimālokulokuikapo‘okalani]); passes away on September 4, 1880 at the age of 76.

 

Young, Grace Kama‘iku‘i [Grace Kama‘iku‘i Young Rooke]—See Kama‘iku‘i, Grace.



[i] p. 249, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983; Proverb 2283.

[ii] p. 486, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[iii] p. 98, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[iv] p. 98, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[v] Fornander (1880:111), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #5, page 397).

[vi] p. 243, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[vii] p. 243, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[viii] The Apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kapolei, Hawai‘i: Ka‘imi Pono Press, 1994.

[ix] p. AA-6, Monarchy to Annexation: Queen Lili‘uokalani. The Honolulu Advertiser, 7/02/2006.

[x] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xii] p. 9, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xiii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xiv] p. 106, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xv] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xvi] p. 91, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xvii] p. 91, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xviii] Fornander (1880:111), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #5, page 397).

[xix] p. 141, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004

[xx] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxi] Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004

[xxii] Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxiii] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxiv] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxv] p. 160, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxvi] Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004

[xxvii] Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxviii] p. 70, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxix] p. 63, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxx] The spelling Nāono‘āina is found on page 68, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974; the spelling Naonaoaina is found on page 95, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxxi] p. 95, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxxii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xxxiii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[xxxiv] The spelling Nāono‘āina is found on page 68, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974; the spelling Naonaoaina is found on page 95, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xxxv] Kamakau (1961: 106); Fornander (1969:200-01).

[xxxvi] Nāpō‘opo‘o is said to be “named because persons in canoes in the bay looking ashore saw people peering out of holes that served as doors in the grass houses.” [p. 163, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.]

[xxxvii] ‘Alā are “dense waterworn volcanic” stones. [Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.]

[xxxviii] p. 94, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xxxix] Fornander (1880:111), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #5, page 397).

[xl] Fornander (1917, 4(2): 314:315), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #7, page 397).

[xli] p. 31, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983; Proverb 253.

[xlii] p. 33, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[xliii] Frazier, Frances N. The True Story of Kaluaikoolau as Told by his Wife, Piilani. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 2001.

[xliv] Frazier, Frances N. The True Story of Kaluaikoolau as Told by his Wife, Piilani. Kaua‘i Historical Society, 2001.

[xlv] p. 192, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1784.

[xlvi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[xlvii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Dictionary: Revised and Enlarged Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

[xlviii] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[xlix] Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983.

[l] Fornander (1880:111), cited on page 221 in: Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004 (Chapter 8, note #5, page 397).

[li] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lii] p. 153, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[liii] Kainuleilani according to Kamakau (1961:14); Kamuleilani according to Fornander (1880: 39). [p. 392, Cordy, Ross. Exalted Sits the Chief: The Ancient History of Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2004; footnotes 2 and 5.]

[liv] p. 101, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lv] p. 228, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lvi] p. 228, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[lvii] Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Keōua [Keōuakupuapāikalaninui; Keōua].