Part 2 Glossary (A-C)

Glossary of Important Persons

of Hawaiian History

from Ancient Times to the Present Day

Part 2: [i]

Biographical Information of Important Persons

of Hawaiian History

from the Post-Contact Era to the Present Day

Extending from the Hawaiian Monarchy Period to the Present Day

Adams, Alexander (1780—1870)—Born in Forfarshire, Scotland; served in the Royal Navy until 1810 when he first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands aboard the Albatross; with the support of John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835), Alexander was placed in charge of several ships owned by King Kamehameha I; in 1816, sailed King Kamehameha II (Kauikeaouli) to Kaua‘i on the brig Kaahumanu so the monarch could deal with a usurping of authority by Georg Anton Schäffer (1779-1836), who was originally sent by the Russian-American Company but overstepped his authority; believed to be the one who placed the Union Jack at the upper left corner of the flag, inspiring today’s Hawaiian flag [before the Hawaiian flag was originated, the Hawaiian people had not used flags in the manner of other nations; the Hawaiians did have the kāhili (royal feather standard), and the puela (triangular kapa strip), which was often carried on canoes; they also had the pūlo‘ulo‘u (kapa-covered stick) which was carried in front of the chiefs to signal kapu (sacredness)]; a letter to the editor of the Hawaiian newspaper Ka Nupepa Kū‘oko‘a on January 1, 1862 stated: “The Hawaiian flag was designed for King Kamehameha I in the year 1816. As the King desired to send a vessel to China, to sell a cargo of sandal wood, he in company of John Young, Isaac Davis (the younger, known as Aikake [‘Aikake]) and Captain Alexander Adams, (the latter now living at Kalihi, near Honolulu, and aged about eight years), made this flag for the ship, which was a war vessel called the Forester, carrying 16 guns, and was owned by King Kamehameha I. The flag having been made, the vessel sailed for Macao, China where the flag was not credited nor recognized as a government flag...[ii]; as commander of the sandalwood trading fleet of King Kamehameha I, Adams sailed to China in 1817 with a load of sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi) but was refused entry into the harbor at Macao because the flag flown by the ship was not recognized; this was the first time Hawai‘i’s flag was flown on a ship sailing to a foreign port (see The Hawaiian Flag, Chapter 3); it remains uncertain whether the flag flown on the Forester (Kaahumanu) contained the diagonal cross of St. Patrick, which was not part of the British flag until 1801, and so likely was not on the original flag given to Kamehameha by Vancouver, but was added later, after it was put on the British flag; when King Kamehameha II (Kauikeaouli) sailed to England in 1823, Adams was asked to serve as Honolulu’s pilot of the port, and served at the post for about 30 years; retired in Kalihi, O‘ahu on lands granted to him by King Kamehameha I; Adams’ three marriages included two to harbor pilot John Harbottle’s daughters, who had been raised by Kuhina Ni (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu (the former queen as wife of King Kamehameha I) at the royal court.

 

Adams, Henry (1838—1918)—Toured the Pacific region in 1890 in company of painter and author John LaFarge; traveled around O‘ahu and Hawai‘i Island, including Kīlauea Volcano; met King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; accounts of his travels were published in: Letters of Henry Adams (1858-1891), ed. W. D. Ford (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1930).

 

Ahakuelo, BenOf Hawaiian ancestry; tried for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thomas and Thalia attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; she told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

‘AikakeSee Davis, Isaac.

Aikau, EddieSon of Solomon “Pops” Aikau and his wife Henrietta, and the third of six children; born May 4, 1946 in Kahului, Maui, Edward Ryan Aikau was a full-blooded Hawaiian; Eddie’s father took the family surfing frequently during Eddie’s childhood, allowing him to improve his surfing skills with a classic 75-pound (34-kg) surfboard; in 1967, Eddie surfed 15-foot (4.6-m) Sunset Beach waves, and on November 19 of that year he startled Hawai‘i’s top surfers by taking off on an estimated 40-foot (12-m) set wave at Waimea Bay; also in 1967, Eddie took sixth place in his first major surf contest, the Duke Kahanamoku Classic; in 1968, Eddie became Waimea Bay’s first lifeguard, and went on to save the lives of many people who otherwise might have drowned in the rough ocean waters of the Hawaiian Islands; Eddie was a North Shore lifeguard during the 1960s and 1970s, and was voted Lifeguard of the Year in 1971; later appeared in surf movies; a talented musician, Eddie also wrote songs and was proficient at slack-key guitar; in 1978, Eddie was chosen to be one of the 16-member crew invited to sail on the Hōkūle‘a, a 62-foot (18.9-m) Polynesian voyaging canoe to Tahiti; the Hōkūle‘a had no modern navigation or communication equipment, and was built to reenact the ancient voyages of the Polynesians who first settled the Hawaiian Islands; on the night of March 16, 1978 the Hōkūle‘a capsized in large swells and gale-force winds about 12 miles (19 km) off the island of Lāna‘i in the Kaiwi Channel, forcing the 15 crew members to cling to the voyaging canoe’s overturned hull; Eddie Aikau volunteered to paddle his twelve-foot tandem surfboard toward Lāna‘i for help; as Eddie stroked away from the capsized Hōkūle‘a, he stopped and tossed off his life preserver, which was hampering his paddling; then as he rose to the peak of a swell, Eddie turned and gave the crew a final wave goodbye and paddled into the distance; Eddie Aikau was never seen again; a Hawaiian Airlines plane later saw a flare shot up by the Hōkūle‘a, and soon a Coast Guard helicopter arrived and tossed a metal cage down to the stranded crew; an intensive air-sea search and rescue effort was launched to find Eddie, but after five days the search was called off; in 1987, a surf contest was initiated in honor of Eddie Aikau; the In Memory of Eddie Aikau Big Wave Invitational is known locally as “The Eddie,” and matches the world’s best big wave surfers against each other in the biggest of waves; the surfing contest only commences if the waves reach the heights considered worthy of the Aikau name, which is at least 40 foot (12 m) faces, locally referred to as at least 20 to 30 foot (6 to 9 m) waves, measuring by the back of the waves; the first Eddie was won on February 21, 1987 by Clyde Aikau, the brother of Eddie Aikau; other past winners of the Eddie include: Keone Downing (January 21, 1990); Noah Johnson (January 1, 1999); Ross Clarke-Jones (January 14, 2001); Kelly Slater (January 7, 2002); and Bruce Irons (Dec. 15, 2005); Eddie Aikau was known for his humility, and for never seeking thanks or praise for his many heroic deeds; today the saying “Eddie Would Go” recalls Eddie Aikau’s selflessness and bravery, and the phrase is frequently seen on local bumper stickers and heard throughout the Islands.

Aiona, James “Duke” (Jr.)Lieutenant Governor (Republican) of Hawai‘i from 2002 to present.

Akaka, Daniel KahikinaBorn in Honolulu on September 11, 1924; the youngest of seven children; graduated from Kamehameha School in 1942, served in World War II in the United States Army Corps of Engineers from 1945-47; in 1948, Akaka married Mary Mildred “Millie” Chong and they would have five children; graduated from the University of Hawai‘i in 1952 and worked as a teacher from 1953-60; vice-principal from 1960-63 and a principal from 1963-68, receiving his masters in 1966; at the urging of Governor George Ariyoshi, Akaka ran for the U.S. House in 1976 and won; the first United States House member and the first United States Senator of Native Hawaiian ancestry; elected as a Congressman in 1976 and served in that capacity from 1977 to 1990, winning seven consecutive elections; served in that position until April of 1990 when he was appointed to the United States Senate after the death of Spark (Sparky) Masayuki Matsunaga (1916—1990); in a special election to complete Matsunaga’s unexpired four-year term; in 1994, elected to a six-year term and then re-elected in 2000 with more than 70% of the vote; currently the only Chinese-American Senator; serves on numerous Senate committees including the Armed Services Committee, and the Energy and Natural Resources Committee; concerned with reconciling the relationship between Native Hawaiians and the Federal Government, and chairs the Hawai‘i Congressional Task Force on Native Hawaiian Issues; authored Public Law 103-150 (the Apology Bill), an apology to native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i in 1893, acknowledging the 100th anniversary of the overthrow; the bill was written as a Joint Resolution of Congress and signed by President Clinton on November 23, 1993. (See The U.S. Apology to the Native Hawaiians, Chapter 12); sponsored the Native Hawaiian Reorganization Act (Akaka Bill), which sought to protect Hawaiian entitlements and provide federal recognition to native Hawaiians; the Akaka Bill was passed by the United States House in 2000 but then refused a vote in the Senate; the bill was blocked by the Senate again in 2002, and then approved by the Senate Indian Affairs Committee in 2003 before being blocked by Republicans; in 2004, the House Resources Committee passed the Akaka Bill; then it was dropped in exchange for a promise that it would be put to a floor vote of the Senate the following year; in 2005, however, a vote on the bill was blocked by a group of Republican senators; the Akaka Bill apparently met its final demise in 2006, although new approaches are being developed to deal with a variety of issues affecting native Hawaiians; on June 23, 2006 the Office of Hawaiian Affairs approved a plan of action called Ho‘oulu Lāhui Aloha (“To Raise a Beloved Nation”) to develop a Native Hawaiian registry known as Kau Inoa (kau means “to place”; inoa means “name”), which will serve as the voting base in forming a new entity that will seek self-government rights, including the right to form a “nation-within-a-nation,” Hawaiians-only government, that will then attempt to negotiate with the state and federal governments over money, land, and other assets; as of April, 2007, more than 61,000 were registered. (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 2006, June 23.)

AkebonoSee Rowan, Chad.

Akua, Mercy K.Married William Haehae Heen (1883—1973) and they would have five children.

Aldrich, A. W.On August 17, 1858, with Charles Reed Bishop, founded the firm Aldrich & Bishop, Hawai‘i’s first permanent, locally-owned bank, which was later renamed Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd, and is known today as the First Hawaiian Bank.

Aldrin, Edwin E. “Buzz”United States astronaut; picked up by the carrier USS Hornet and brought to Pearl Harbor on July 26, 1969 along with Michael Collins and Neil A. Armstrong after their Apollo 11 Columbia 3 space capsule splashed down in the Pacific Ocean upon its return from the first human visit to the moon; they were greeted by an estimated 25,000 people after the historic lunar mission; the astronauts were able to see the crowds only through the windows of their isolation trailer, and then were kept at Pearl Harbor’s Ford Island for three days before being flown to Houston with the space capsule.

Alexander, Abigail Charlotte (Baldwin)Daughter of Reverend Dwight Baldwin (1798—1886); married Alexander, William DeWitt (1833—1913) in 1860 and they would have three sons and three daughters.

Alexander Henry MartinFourth son of William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and Mary Ann (McKinney) Alexander.

Alexander, JamesKentucky Presbyterian elder; father of William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884).

Alexander, James McKinneySecond son of William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and Mary Ann (McKinney) Alexander.

Alexander, LouiseBorn in 1840; daughter of William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and Mary Ann (McKinney) Alexander.

Alexander, Martha Eliza (Cooke)Daughter of Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871); married Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904) and they would have five children.

Alexander, Mary Ann (McKinney)Married William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) in October of 1831, and they would have nine children, including William DeWitt Alexander (1833—1913) and Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; the voyage took 173 days; the Alexanders, with Reverend Whitney and Reverend Tinker, sailed to Tahiti and the Marquesas; after a failed attempt to establish a mission in the Marquesas with Reverend Benjamin Parker and Reverend Richard Armstrong, returned to the Hawaiian Islands; arrived at Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay on July 15, 1834 with her husband William Patterson Alexander and their young son William DeWitt; during William and Mary Ann’s journey to the Hawaiian Islands, their son William DeWitt was just 17 months old, and he took his first steps during the voyage; on the night of August 21, 1834 the Alexanders left Waimea in a double-hulled canoe belonging to Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa; they sailed for 8½ hours along the Nāpali coast by night, arriving the next morning at the mouth of Wai‘oli Stream in Hanalei Bay; William Alexander, his wife Mary Ann, and their son William DeWitt were among the first “outsiders” to settle in the Wai‘oli area; in anticipation of the Alexanders’ arrival, the native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had built a 50- by 20-foot, (15- by 6-m) grass-thatched dwelling; the native-built structure served as the Alexanders’ residence for about three years before a more suitable building was constructed; Mary Ann Alexander was a teacher and a skilled singer; spent 51 years in the Hawaiian Islands; sailed to San Francisco in May of 1884 with her husband due to his health issues; after her husband passed away in Oakland, California in August of 1844, returned to the Hawaiian Islands; passed away in 1888 in Ha‘ikū, Maui. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Alexander, Samuel Thomas (1836—1904)Third Son of William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and Mary Ann (McKinney) Alexander; born on Kaua‘i in Hanalei at Wai‘oli; attended Punahou School on O‘ahu; attended normal school in Westfield, Massachusetts, and then Williams College; married Martha Eliza Cooke in 1864, and they would have five children; managed Maui’s Waihee [Waihe‘e] Plantation beginning in 1863; started Maui’s Haiku [Ha‘ikū] Sugar Company in 1869 in partnership with Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911); Alexander and Baldwin had purchased 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land for $110 a year in 1869 in Makawao, Maui for the purpose of growing sugarcane; in 1876, the firm began the construction of the 17-mile (27-km) -long Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū irrigation ditch to carry water from Haleakalā to East Maui through mountainous country, and the project was finished that same year; Henry’s daily efforts to lower himself down into the gorge of Māliko on ropes, despite having only one arm (he had lost an arm in a factory accident), set an example for his workers when they refused to descend the gorge; the success of the Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū ditch construction led to the establishment, with Henry Perrine Baldwin, of the firm of Alexander & Baldwin; Baldwin took charge of the business when Alexander moved to California with his family in 1883; the Hawaiian Sugar Company was established by Alexander & Baldwin in 1889 in Makaweli, Kaua‘i, beginning its own sugar agency in San Francisco, California in 1894, and establishing a branch in Honolulu in 1897; in 1899, established the Hawaiian Sugar Company on Kaua‘i; the firm incorporated in the Hawaiian Islands in 1900 as Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd. with Baldwin serving as president; in 1902, Alexander & Baldwin took control of Pu‘unēnē, Maui’s Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company (previously owned by Claus Spreckels (1828—1908)); Alexander & Baldwin became involved in shipping, initially running a fleet of sailing vessels between the Hawaiian Islands and the United States Mainland, later running steamers (the American-Hawaiian Line) and then the freighter of Matson Navigation Company (a subsidiary of Alexander & Baldwin); constructed in 1929 was the Alexander & Baldwin Building at 822 Bishop Street in downtown Honolulu; the architects were Charles William Dickey (1871—1942) and Hart Wood (1880—1957); the building is notable for its recessed entry with mosaic murals; Alexander & Baldwin was one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies, which included Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke; with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom [in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12); today the firm of Alexander & Baldwin is worth more than $900 million, and owns Matson Navigation as well as commercial properties on the United States Mainland, and significant amounts of land in the Hawaiian Islands; the sugarcane days are relived at Central Maui’s Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, which features exhibits about the production of sugarcane (including a scale model of a cane crusher) as well as displays about immigrants and plantation life; also told is the story of Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904) and Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911), including their ambitious irrigation ditch construction projects (e.g., the Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū ditch), and their battles with Claus Spreckels over Upcountry water; the Sugar Museum is located across from the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company sugar mill, which began operating in 1902, and at one time was the world’s largest sugar mill; workers and plantation families lived in Pu‘unēnē, which was home to as many as 10,000 workers in 1930; [Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, 808-871-8058, 3957 Hansen Road (at Pu‘unēnē Avenue), Pu‘unēnē, 9:30-4:30, Monday—Saturday (open Sundays during the summer), www.sugarmuseum.com.]. (See Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum in Maui section, Chapter 2.)

 

Alexander, William DeWitt (1833—1913)—Born in Honolulu to William Patterson Alexander (1805—1884) and Mary Ann (McKinney) Alexander; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with his parents on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; arrived at Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay on July 15, 1834; his parents had just finished serving in the Marquesas Islands (engaged in an unsuccessful effort to establish a mission station); during this journey to the Hawaiian Islands, William DeWitt was just 17 months old, and he took his first steps during the voyage; on the night of August 21, 1834 the Alexanders left Waimea in a double-hulled canoe belonging to Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa; they sailed for 8½ hours along the Nāpali coast by night, arriving the next morning at the mouth of Wai‘oli Stream in Hanalei Bay; William Alexander, his wife Mary Ann, and their son William DeWitt were among the first “outsiders” to settle in the Wai‘oli area; in anticipation of the Alexanders’ arrival, the native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had built a 50- by 20-foot, (15- by 6-m) grass-thatched dwelling; this thatched mission house was located closer to the shore than the present Wai‘oli mission house; the native-built structure served as the Alexanders’ residence for about three years before a more suitable building was constructed (see Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2); graduated from Yale University (1855); in 1887, began teaching Greek at Punahou School; after six years as a professor, he became principal at Punahou School for seven years; he was in charge of the Bureau of Government Survey; married Abigail Charlotte Baldwin in 1860 and they would have three sons and three daughters; member of the Privy Council of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; served as Territory of Hawai‘i’s surveyor-general and worked on the geodetic survey; published the elementary text A Brief History of the Hawaiian People (New York: American Book Co, 1891) and The Later Years of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Revolution of 1893 (Honolulu Gazette Co., 1896)

Alexander, William Patterson (1805—1884)—Born in Kentucky; son of James Alexander, a Kentucky Presbyterian elder; attended Kentucky’s Centre College and then Princeton Theological Seminary; ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1831; married Mary Ann McKinney in October of 1831, and they would have nine children, including Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904) and William DeWitt Alexander (1833—1913); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; the voyage took 173 days; with Reverend Whitney and Reverend Tinker, sailed to Tahiti and the Marquesas; after a failed attempt to establish a mission in the Marquesas with Reverend Benjamin Parker and Reverend Richard Armstrong, returned to the Hawaiian Islands; arrived at Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay on July 15, 1834 with his wife Mary Ann and their young son William DeWitt; during William and Mary Ann’s journey to the Hawaiian Islands, their son William DeWitt was just 17 months old, and he took his first steps during the voyage; on July 19, 1834, William Alexander traveled from Waimea to Hanalei in anticipation of establishing the Wai‘oli mission station, first permanent mission station on Kaua‘i’s north shore; on the night of August 21, 1834 the Alexanders left Waimea in a double-hulled canoe belonging to Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa; they sailed for 8½ hours along the Nāpali coast by night, arriving the next morning at the mouth of Wai‘oli Stream in Hanalei Bay; on the journey from Waimea to Wai‘oli, the Alexanders were accompanied by about 75 people, including Davida Papohaku (David Stone-wall) [also Popohaku] from the church of Father Samuel Whitney at Waimea; the party camped at the mouth of the Wai‘oli River in a small village that previous visiting missionaries and their followers referred to as Kalema, Bethlehem; two years earlier, in 1832, native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had erected a pole-and-thatch meetinghouse for use by missionaries during their visits to the area; William Alexander, his wife Mary Ann, and their son William DeWitt were among the first “outsiders” to settle in the Wai‘oli area; in anticipation of the Alexanders’ arrival, the native Hawaiians at Wai‘oli had built a 50- by 20-foot, (15- by 6-m) grass-thatched dwelling; the native-built structure served as the Alexanders’ residence for about three years before a more suitable building was constructed; the Wai‘oli Mission House was originally built from 1834 to 1837 by William Patterson Alexander along with hired carpenters including Frederick Barlow, a native American named Isaac, William Randall, and Joseph Hicks (from New Bedford); [one of Kaua‘i’s first Western style frame houses, the Wai‘oli Mission House later became the residence of missionaries Abner and Lucy Wilcox, who served the Hanalei area from 1846 to 1869]; in 1840, William Patterson Alexander added a dining room and pantry to the Wai‘oli Mission House, connecting the structure to the cookhouse that had been built in 1834; a lease for the Wai‘oli mission lands was signed by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and William Patterson Alexander in 1841 (see Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2); after serving at the Wai‘oli mission from 1834 to 1843, Alexander served from 1843 to 1856 at Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; after serving at Lahainaluna, William Patterson Alexander managed Ulupalakua [‘Ulupalakua] Ranch while continuing to spend time doing church work (without pay) and also working on Saturdays at Lahainaluna; [‘Ulupalakua means “Breadfruit ripening [on] back [of carriers]”[iii]]; also served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); founded a Theological School at the church at Wailuku, Maui where he served as pastor; translated many Hawaiian writings and also worked as a land surveyor; due to his health, sailed to San Francisco in May of 1884 with his wife; passed away in Oakland, California in August of 1844. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Allen, Anthony (?1835)Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1810 after being held as a black slave in Schenectady, New York; in the following decades, Allen built up a prosperous ranch on O‘ahu; married a Hawaiian; welcomed the First Company of American missionaries, which left Boston on August 31, 1819 on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard, arriving in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820 and reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin their congregational mission work; Allen prepared a feast for the arriving missionaries and then continued to supply them with fruits and vegetables; operated a farm near Waikīkī with Hewahewa; sold goat’s milk and ran a seaman’s boardinghouse.

Allen, Elisha Hunt (18041883)American consul in Honolulu; in 1853 appointed Minister of Finance in the Cabinet of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); in 1887, became Minister to the United States from Hawai‘i.

Allen, JosephIn command of the Nantucket whaling ship Maro when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) in 1820, becoming the first whaling ship to enter Honolulu Harbor; later discovered rich whaling waters off Japan.

 

Allerton, RobertChicago industrialist; philanthropist and arts patron; in 1937, paid $50,000 for the 125-acre (51-acre) McBryde estate on Kaua‘i’s Lāwa‘i Bay; the ahupua‘a (natural watershed land division) of Lāwa‘i had been purchased by Elizabeth McBryde for $5,000 in 1886, after the former owner, Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani], passed away in 1885; Queen Emma had visited her 4,200-acre (1,700-ha) Lāwa‘i estate in 1870—1871 with an entourage of about 100 retainers and servants; they stayed at the estate, which had been deeded to Queen Emma by her aunt, Hikoni; the estate encompassed the entire ahupua‘a of Lāwa‘i; during Queen Emma’s 1870 visit to Kaua‘i, she journeyed up to the highlands forests of Kōke‘e and the Alaka‘i Swamp with her sizable retinue including hula dancers and musicians, venturing as far as the Kilohana Lookout (see Kōke‘e State Park in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2); in honor of her journey, the Queen renamed her Lāwa‘i, Kaua‘i estate Mauna Kilohana; Queen Emma’s large frame house had a thatched roof, and was situated on a hill on the Kōloa side of the valley overlooking Lāwa‘i Bay; the estate also included several outbuildings, and stone walls enclosed the entire area; after Queen Emma passed away the Lāwa‘i land was used for the production of sugarcane; the Lāwa‘i estate, known as Mauna Kilohana, had earlier been leased by Queen Emma to Duncan McBryde, a Scot, who was also the district court judge; Alexander McBryde (the son of Duncan and Elizabeth McBryde) lowered cut-up portions of the Mauna Kilohana house, originally built in 1869, down the pali (cliff) into Lāwa‘i Valley (Lāwa‘i Kai) where it became known as Queen Emma’s Cottage; after Allerton purchased the estate in 1937, he built a new house on Lāwa‘i Bay; the house was designed by architect John Gregg and furnished with antiques and expensive art; Allerton, 64 at the time, also expanded the estate’s gardens; Allerton and Gregg moved to Kaua‘i permanently in 1938, and began the detailed planning and designing of the property’s landscape, including planting many tropical, exotic and rare plants and trees; the 100-acre (40-ha) Allerton Garden includes sculptures, fountains, and pools as well as prodigious landscaping and many notable plant specimens; chartered by the United States government in 1964, the National Tropical Botanical Garden acquired the site in 1971; the 252-acre (102-ha) McBryde Garden includes perhaps the largest collection of federally listed endangered plant species found anywhere; research is ongoing, and the Garden’s expert botanists and researchers have developed propagation techniques that are helping to preserve these many unique plants; the herbarium at the site includes more than 27,000 dried plant specimens, while the research library houses about 8,000 volumes and serials; the preserve encompasses 186 acres (75 ha), with another 100 acres (40 ha) near the coast; the coastal area is known as Allerton Garden; tours depart from the Visitor Center to both the Allerton Garden and the McBryde Garden; a bus brings visitors along an old railroad grade to the Lāwa‘i Bay and the Gardens; tours of Allerton Garden include a walk through the estate, while tours of the McBryde Garden include bus rides between different areas of the property [National Tropical Botanical Garden, 808-332-7361, 3530 Pāpālina Road, Kalāheo, open daily 8-5; Visitor Center, 808-742-2623, Lāwa‘i Beach Road, Po‘ipū; Allerton Garden Tour, Tuesday to Saturday (4 times per day), 2½ hour tour. McBryde Garden Tour, Mondays only (2 tours), http://www.ntbg.org/; Directions: take Kaumuali‘i Highway (Highway 50) to Kōloa Road (Hwy. 530), near Mile Marker 11, to Po‘ipū Road, go right, and then take right fork, Lāwa‘i Road; Garden entrance is located across from Spouting Horn.] (See National Tropical Botanical Garden—McBryde Garden / Allerton Garden in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Aluli, EmmettOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Aluli, KimoOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Anderson, EileenMayor of City and County of Honolulu; term began January 2, 1982.

Anderson, PeterFought on the side of the warrior Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) against the warriors of Kalanikūpule and Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] in the 1795 invasion of O‘ahu, manning the cannons in the Battle of Nu‘uanu along with Isaac Davis [‘Aikake] and John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835).

Andrews, Anne Seward (Gilson)Married Claudius Buchanan Andrews (1817—1877), an American Protestant missionary in the Hawaiian Islands, when he was visiting the United States Mainland (1849—1851); they both served at the mission station at Kalua‘aha (“The gathering pit”[iv]) (1852—1856); and then again at Lahainaluna (1856—1860); they had seven children; moved to Makawao where the climate was favorable for her health; before she passed away in 1862, she requested that, after she passed, her husband Claudius should marry her own sister, Samantha Washburn Gilson, which he did.

Andrews, Claudius Buchanan (1817—1877)—Born in Ohio; graduated from Western Reserve College (1840) and Ohio’s Lane Seminary (1843); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 15, 1844, with the Eleventh Company of American missionaries on the brig Globe under the command of Captain Doane; served at Moloka‘i’s Kalua‘aha mission station (1844—1848), which was established in 1832; served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School (1848—1849), which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; married Anne Seward Gilson during a visit to the United States Mainland (1849—1851); Claudius and Anne both served at Kalua‘aha mission station (1852—1856), and then again at Lahainaluna (1856—1860); they had seven children; Claudius retired from mission work in 1860 and moved to Makawao; bought land above Makawao in 1861, and there he established the East Maui Female Seminary (later called Maunaolo [Mauna‘olo] Seminary; after his wife passed away in 1862, Claudius married his wife’s sister, Samantha Washburn Gilson (his wife had requested this union before her passing); remained at Makawao and also worked at Lahainaluna until 1876 when he visited the United States with his wife; passed away en route back to the Hawaiian Islands.

 

Andrews, Lorrin (17951868)American Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823); head of Maui’s Lahainaluna Seminary, which was founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; in 1836, published the first significant Hawaiian-English dictionary (some earlier lists were published—see Hawaiian Language, Chapter 3), which included about 5,700 words and was entitled Vocabulary of Words in the Hawaiian Language; in 1865, published a Hawaiian-English Dictionary containing about 15,000 words; edited four-page Hawaiian language weekly, Ka Lama Hawaii (The Hawaiian Luminary), published by the Lahainaluna Seminary beginning on February 14, 1834; it was the first periodical printed in the North Pacific region (west of the Rockies); the periodical included woodcut illustrations and listed Lahaina ship arrivals.

Andrews, Samantha Washburn GilsonSister of Anne Seward (Gilson) Andrews; married Claudius Buchanan Andrews (1817—1877) after his first wife, Anne Seward (Gilson) Andrews, passed away in 1862 (she had requested this union before her passing); they lived at Makawao; traveled with her husband to the United States in 1876, and he passed away en route back to the Hawaiian Islands.

Andrews, Seth L.American Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kailua mission station (which was established in 1820).

Apana, ChangBecame a member of the Honolulu Police Department in 1898; his skill and determination in solving cases, and his Asian ancestry, inspired the creation of the character “Charlie Chan.”

Arago, Jacques (17901855)Draftsman on board the French corvette L’Uranie when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) under the command of Louis Claude Desaulces de Freycinet (1779—1842) on August 8, 1819, becoming one of the first French vessels to reach the Hawaiian Islands; wrote an account of the visit including numerous illustrations depicting Hawaiian life at the time; one account of his journey was entitled Promenade autor du monde (Paris: Leblanc, 1822), and an English translation was published as Narrative of a Voyage Around the World (London: Treuttel & Wurtz, 1823; New York; Da Capo, 1971); another account (untranslated) was entitled Souvenirs d’ un aveugle; voyage autour du monde (Paris: Grayet et Lebrun, 1838, 1840).

Ariyoshi, George R.After working as an attorney, Ariyoshi was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1954; served as John Burns’ lieutenant governor (Democrat) from 1970 to 1973; became acting governor when Burns became ill in 1973; began term as Governor of the State of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in 1974; first United States governor of Japanese-American ancestry; elected for a second term as governor in 1978, serving until 1986.

Armand, AbrahamRoman Catholic missionary; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; also on board were Roman Catholic missionaries Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Armstrong, Clarissa Chapman—With her husband, Richard Armstrong (1805—1860), arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; served at Marquesas Islands mission for one year before returning to the Hawaiian Islands; Clarissa and Richard Armstrong had ten children, including Samuel Chapman Armstrong (1839—1929).

Armstrong, Neil A.United States astronaut; picked up by the carrier USS Hornet and brought to Pearl Harbor on July 26, 1969 along with Michael Collins and Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin after their Apollo 11 Columbia 3 space capsule splashed down in the Pacific Ocean upon its return from the first human visit to the moon; they were greeted by an estimated 25,000 people after the historic lunar mission; the astronauts were able to see the crowds only through the windows of their isolation trailer, and then were kept at Pearl Harbor’s Ford Island for three days before being flown to Houston with the space capsule.

Armstrong, Richard (1805—1860)Born in Pennsylvania; attended Princeton Theological Seminary; with his wife, Clarissa Chapman Armstrong, arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries; served at Marquesas Islands mission for one year; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); and Moloka‘i’s Kalua‘aha mission station (which was established in 1832), and Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); presided over the dedication of Kawaiaha‘o Church on July 21, 1842 in Honolulu at the corner of South King and Punchbowl Streets; [construction on Kawaiaha‘o Church began in 1837 following plans drawn by missionary Reverend Hiram Bingham (1789—1869); the cornerstone of Kawaiaha‘o Church was laid on June 8, 1839, and the church was built in the New England style with Gothic influences; Armstrong presided over the dedication because Bingham had left due to poor health]; built a church on Maui; pastor of Honolulu’s Kawaiaha‘o Church (1840—1848); became Minister of Public Instruction in 1848 (due to the death of William Richards in 1847; served on Privy Council, in House of Nobles, and as royal chaplain; president of Board of Education, which he helped set up in 1855; Richard and Clarissa Armstrong had ten children, including Samuel Chapman Armstrong (1839—1929).

Armstrong, Samuel Chapman (1839—1929)Son of Reverend Richard Armstrong (1805—1860) and Clarissa Chapman Armstrong (who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832 on the whale ship Averick under Captain Swain with the Fifth Company of American missionaries); Union brigadier general in the American Civil War; founded Virginia’s Hampton Institute in 1868; died in an accident while riding on a horse; named after him was Fort Armstrong, built in 1907 on Honolulu’s Ka‘akaukukui Reef near Kalehuawehe, a place known for its healing, cleansing baths. (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

 

Arnold, Charles N.Mayor of City and County of Honolulu from January 2, 1927 to January 2, 1929.

Ashley, JamesBored the first artesian well in the Hawaiian Islands for James Campbell (1826—1900) on July 1, 1879 near Campbell’s ranch in Honouliuli, O‘ahu; more wells were soon bored to provide water for the cultivation of sugarcane on thousands of acres of ‘Ewa, O‘ahu.

Atcheson, George (Jr.)Ranking United States diplomat to Japan on August 16, 1947 when he was in an Army B-17 that crashed into the ocean about 45 miles (72 km) off Barbers Point, O‘ahu, killing him and nine others (three on board survived); the plane had been scheduled to land at Hickam Air Force Base about 35 minutes after the crash occurred.

 

Atherton, Julia Montague CookeHelped to establish, in the Hawaiian Islands, the Free Kindergarten Association, with Francis Williams Damon (1852—1915) and Mary R. (Happar) Damon.

Auld, WilliamOne of four Hawaiians (the other three were David Kalauokalani, James Kaulia, and John Richardson) who traveled to Washington D.C. in 1897 to present petitions to the United States government opposing annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; [James Keauiluna Kaulia was the president of Aloha ‘Āina, and David Kalauokalani was the president of Hui Kala‘āina, two native Hawaiian groups opposing annexation; the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition against annexation was titled “Palapala Hoopii Kue Hoohui Aina a Ka Lahui” (“Petition of the Nation Protesting Annexation,”) and contained 21,269 signatures (the population of the native Hawaiians at this time was about 40,000); the Hui Kalai‘āina petition contained 17,000 signatures, and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy; these signed documents are known as the Kū‘ē Petitions (kū‘ē means “to oppose, or protest”); agreeing that the main goal was preventing annexation, group leaders decided to present only the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition to the United States government in order to avoid showing a division of opinion; in December of 1897 in Washington D.C., Kaulia and Kalauokalani consulted with Queen Lili‘uokalani before presenting the petitions to Senators Hoar and Pettigrew]; the 566 pages of signatures were sent to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and then discussed on the Senate floor in front of the whole Senate (Note: The anti-annexation petitions, 556 pages in all, are now in the National Archives of the United States on the Mall in Washington D.C.); Queen Lili‘uokalani also presented an Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation on June 17, 1897; the protest states, in part, “I declare such a treaty to be an act of wrong toward the native and part-native people of Hawaii, an invasion of the rights of the ruling chiefs, in violation of international rights both toward my people and toward friendly nations with whom they have made treaties, the perpetuation oft he fraud whereby the constitutional government was overthrown, and, finally, an act of gross injustice to me”[v]; by the time the native Hawaiian representatives left Washington D.C. in February, 1898, they had succeeded in persuading numerous pro-annexation senators to change their minds, leaving the Senate twelve votes short of passing the treaty (a 2/3 majority was required for ratification) and successfully stalling the political process of annexation; some Senators pushed for a vote among the residents of the Hawaiian Islands, but pro-annexation Senators opposed this as they knew a vote would doom their cause; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Pacific’s Spanish Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important as a coaling base for the United States fleet; on July 6, 1898, a simple majority passed a Joint Resolution of Congress approving annexation; known as the Newlands Resolution (after Congressman Frances Newlands), it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; the Hawaiian flag at ‘Iolani Palace was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i, with Sanford Ballard Dole as the first governor; about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian Crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government as a result of annexation. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, Chapter 12.)

 

Bachelot, John Alexius (Alexis) AugustineRoman Catholic missionary; apostolic prefect and leader; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism; Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Bachman, Paul S.Served as President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1955—1957); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Bailey, Caroline (Hubbard)Married Edward Bailey (1814—1903); Edward and Caroline arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on April 9, 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner; the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days; the couple served first at Kāhala and then beginning in 1839, at Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; the couple also served with Maui’s Wailuku mission (which was established in 1832); with Edward, founded Wailuku Female Seminary, Maui’s first Hawaiian girls’ school, which trained girls in the “feminine arts”; the Seminary (located on Main Street across from Ka‘ahumanu Church) was built in 1837, and home to the Wailuku Female Seminary until about 1847, and then served as the Bailey’s house until 1888; the structure is now plastered over, and is known as the Bailey House Museum, and also known as Hale-Hō‘ike‘ike (House of Display), operated by the Maui Historical Society; on display is art by Edward Bailey as well as ancient Hawaiian weaponry, kapa (tapa) barkcloth, and other culturally significant items [Bailey House Museum, 808-244-3326, 2375-A Main St., Wailuku, www.mauimuseum.org, open 10-4, Monday through Saturday] (See Bailey House Museum in Maui section, Chapter 2); Edward and Caroline had five children; the Baileys moved to California in 1885.

Bailey, Edward (1814—1903)—Born in Massachusetts; attended Amherst College; married Caroline Hubbard; Edward and Caroline arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on April 9, 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner; the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days; the couple served first at Kāhala and then beginning in 1839, at Maui’s Lahainaluna School, which was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kohala mission station (which was established in 1837); Edward also planted and milled sugarcane, and was skilled as a builder, musician, writer, and teacher; the couple also served with Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); Edward was head of Wailuku Female Seminary (founded by Edward and Caroline Bailey) from 1841 to 1849; the Seminary (located on Main Street across from Ka‘ahumanu Church) was built in 1837, and later became the home of the Baileys; the structure was built from 1833 to 1850 using lava rock and native woods such as koa (Acacia koa); Edward Bailey supervised the construction of the building which housed the Wailuku Female Seminary, Maui’s first Hawaiian girls’ school, which trained girls in the “feminine arts”; the building was home to the Wailuku Female Seminary until about 1847, and then served as the Bailey’s house until 1888; the structure is now plastered over, and is known as the Bailey House Museum, and also known as Hale-Hō‘ike‘ike (House of Display), operated by the Maui Historical Society; Edward Bailey was also an artist, and some of his oil paintings may now be seen at the museum; also on display is ancient Hawaiian weaponry, kapa (tapa) barkcloth, and other culturally significant items [Bailey House Museum, 808-244-3326, 2375-A Main St., Wailuku, www.mauimuseum.org, open 10-4, Monday through Saturday] (See Bailey House Museum in Maui section, Chapter 2); Edward and Caroline had five children; Edward retired from mission work in 1850 but continued to help the Maunaolo [Mauna‘olo] Girl’s School at Makawao; the Baileys moved to California in 1885; when Edward Bailey died in 1903, he was the last of the American Protestant missionaries of the twelve companies of American missionaries to come to the Hawaiian Islands.

Baker, Elizabeth (Frost)Wife of Ray Jerome Baker (18801972), who she married in 1906; the two came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1908, returning again in 1910.

 

Baker, Ray Jerome (18801972)Born in Rockford, Illinois; attended school in Minnesota, studied photography in Montana; headed a photographic studio in Eureka, California; married Elizabeth Frost in 1906; the two came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1908, returning again in 1910; took photographs throughout Honolulu and around the world; also purchased many photographs, accumulating an extensive collection; showed his Hawaiian photographs on the U. S. Mainland in public displays in the Midwest; created a two-reel feature film for the Hawai‘i Tourist Bureau (their first); donated his own photographs, numbering about 20,000, to the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum; also donated other photographs in his collection as well as his own camera equipment; the Ray Jerome Baker Room, which opened at Bishop Museum in 1976, was named in his honor; published Odyssey of a Cameraman (N.p.,1956?); retired in 1959; died at the age of 91 in Honolulu [today the extensive photograph collection of Bishop Museum contains more than one million images; Bishop Museum Library and Archives; Phone: Library: 808-848-4148 / Archives: 808-848-4182] (See Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Baker, Thomas J.Architect of the Bank of Bishop & Company Building (Bishop Bank Building), which was constructed in 1878 at 63 Merchant Street in Honolulu; the building was constructed of brick and features a corner entry similar to the nearby Royal Saloon; the building’s parapet is said to be fortress-like, and other features include arched doorframes and windows, and a decorative cornice; Bishop Bank moved out in 1925, and the building housed law offices and other business offices; the corner entry and many of the building’s features are now stuccoed over; the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, and today is the only remaining Northern Italian Renaissance Revival style building still standing in Honolulu.

BaldwinFamily that bought the island of Lāna‘i in 1917 for use as a cattle ranch.

Baldwin, Charlotte (Fowler)—Married Dwight Baldwin (1798—1886) and they would have eight children, including Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on June 7, 1831 with the Fourth Company of American missionaries on the New England, which was under the command of Captain Avery F. Parker; they served at Waimea mission station on Hawai‘i Island until 1832, and then served until 1870 at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

Baldwin, Dwight (1798—1886)—Born in Durham, Connecticut; attended Williams College for two years before graduating from Yale College (1821) and then Auburn Theological Seminary (1829); earned a masters degree of science at Harvard University; ordained in 1830; married Charlotte Fowler and they would have eight children, including Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on June 7, 1831 with the Fourth Company of American missionaries on the New England, which was under the command of Captain Avery F. Parker; they served on Hawai‘i Island at the Waimea mission station until 1832, then served until 1870 at Maui’s Lahaina mission (which was established in 1823); started a seamen’s chapel in Lahaina; translated parts of the Bible for an edition of the New Testament; medical doctor; diagnosed and treated the first known case of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) in the Hawaiian Islands in 1845; the disease had been contracted by a high chief in 1840 [during the next three decades the disease killed an estimated 4,000 people in the Hawaiian Islands; Hansen’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a slow-growing bacterium (see Heroes of KalaupapaFather Damien and Mother Marianne, Chapter 12)]; received honorary medical diploma from Dartmouth College in 1859.

 

Baldwin, Emily Whitney (Alexander)Wife of Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911); they had eight children, including Harry Alexander Baldwin (18711946).

 

Baldwin, Ethel Francis (Smith)—Daughter of William Owen Smith; married Harry Alexander Baldwin (18711946) in 1897 and they had one daughter.

Baldwin, Harry Alexander (18711946)Born on Maui; oldest son of Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911); attended Punahou School; graduated from Phillips Andover Academy in Massachusetts, and then Massachusetts Institute of Technology; in 1896, worked for Haiku [Ha‘ikū] Sugar Company as a timekeeper, becoming the manager in 1898; later served as head of several sugar plantations; served five sessions in Territorial Senate; Territorial Delegate to Congress (Republican) from 1922 to 1923 (filled the unexpired term of Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi], after the prince passed away in 1922); in 1897, married Ethel Francis Smith, and they had one daughter.

Baldwin, Henry Perrine (1842—1911)—Fourth son of Reverend Dwight Baldwin (1798—1886); attended Punahou School; worked on a rice plantation and then a sugar plantation; worked for his brother, Dwight Baldwin Jr., in Lahaina; went to work for Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904), then married Samuel’s sister, Emily Whitney Alexander; they had eight children, including Harry Alexander Baldwin (18711946), who was their eldest son; started Maui’s Haiku [Ha‘ikū] Sugar Company in 1869 in partnership with Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904); Alexander and Baldwin had purchased 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land for $110 a year in 1869 in Makawao, Maui for the purpose of growing sugarcane; in 1876, the firm began the construction of the 17-mile (27-km) long Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū irrigation ditch to carry water from Haleakalā to East Maui through mountainous country, and the project was finished that same year; Henry’s daily efforts to lower himself down into the gorge of Māliko on ropes, despite having only one arm (he had lost an arm in a factory accident), set an example for his workers when they refused to descend the gorge; the success of the Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū ditch construction led to the establishment, with Samuel Thomas Alexander, of the firm of Alexander & Baldwin; Baldwin took charge of the business when Alexander moved to California with his family in 1883 for health reasons; served in the Legislature (1887—1903); the Hawaiian Sugar Company was established by Alexander & Baldwin in 1889 in Makaweli, Kaua‘i, beginning its own sugar agency in San Francisco, California in 1894, and establishing a branch in Honolulu in 1897; in 1899, established the Hawaiian Sugar Company on Kaua‘i; the firm incorporated in the Hawaiian Islands in 1900 as Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd. with Baldwin serving as president; in 1902, Alexander & Baldwin took control of Pu‘unēnē, Maui’s Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company (previously owned by Claus Spreckels (1828—1908); Alexander & Baldwin became involved in shipping, initially running a fleet of sailing vessels between the Hawaiian Islands and the United States Mainland, later running steamers (the American-Hawaiian Line) and then the freighter of Matson Navigation Company (a subsidiary of Alexander & Baldwin); Henry Perrine Baldwin was one of two men (the other was Edward D. Tenney) who received the first two automobiles in the Hawaiian Islands on October 8, 1899 in Honolulu; the automobiles were “Wood electrics”; Baldwin was a noted philanthropist; constructed in 1929 was the Alexander & Baldwin Building at 822 Bishop Street in downtown Honolulu; the architects were Charles William Dickey (1871—1942) and Hart Wood (1880—1957); the building is notable for its recessed entry with mosaic murals; Alexander & Baldwin was one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies, which included Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke; with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom [in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; today the firm of Alexander & Baldwin is worth more than $900 million, and owns Matson Navigation as well as commercial properties on the United States Mainland, and significant amounts of land in the Hawaiian Islands; the sugarcane days are relived at Central Maui’s Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, which features exhibits about the production of sugarcane (including a scale model of a cane crusher) as well as displays about immigrants and plantation life; also told is the story of Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836—1904) and Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842—1911), including their ambitious irrigation ditch construction projects (e.g., the Hāmākua—Ha‘ikū ditch), and their battles with Claus Spreckels over Upcountry water; the Sugar Museum is located across from the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company sugar mill, which began operating in 1902, and at one time was the world’s largest sugar mill; workers and plantation families lived in Pu‘unēnē, which was home to as many as 10,000 workers in 1930; [Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, 808-871-8058, 3957 Hansen Road (at Pu‘unēnē Avenue), Pu‘unēnē, 9:30-4:30, Monday—Saturday (open Sundays during the summer), www.sugarmuseum.com.]. (See Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum in Maui section, Chapter 2.)

 

Baldwin, William O.American Protestant missionary; served at the mission station at Hāna, Maui (which was established in 1832).

 

Baranov, Aleksander Andreyevich (1747—1819)—Head (governor), until 1817, of the Russian-American Company, which was founded in 1799 at Sitka, Alaska; controlled Russian activities in Northwestern America; sent German-born Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) Schäffer (1779—1836) to the Hawaiian Islands to retrieve the cargo of the 210-ton, three-masted Behring, which had wrecked on the shores of Kaua‘i’s Waimea Bay early on the morning of January 31, 1815; King Kaumuali‘i, Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler who had ceded Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810, seized the Behring’s cargo and had the valuable pelts taken to his home near Makaweli in west Kaua‘i; the cargo was worth about 20,000 piastries; when the wreck occurred, the Behring was under the command of Captain Bennett; the ship was anchored at Waimea Bay with a load of sealskins (otter pelts) bound for the Russian-American Company’s headquarters at Sitka, Alaska, which at the time was the capital of Russian-America; after Bennett went ashore, southwest winds intensified rapidly and pushed the Behring onto the beach; if Schäffer could not retrieve the cargo on Kaua‘i, he was to seek a fair amount of the native sandalwood as payment for the furs; Schäffer’s seemingly simple mission for Baranov turned into much more as he became carried away by visions of colonial Russian power and delusions of personal grandeur; in his initial adventures on the islands of Hawai‘i and O‘ahu, Schäffer angered American traders and fell out of favor with King Kamehameha’s advisors. Schäffer then traveled to Kaua‘i, and in the spring of 1816 two Russian ships, the Otkrytie and Ilmena, carrying forty Aleuts and several Russians, arrived to support Schäffer’s mission; Schäffer quickly ingratiated himself with the vassal ruler Kaumuali‘i, who had been the last island ruler to surrender to Kamehameha’s control; Schäffer gained favor with Kaumuali‘i when he cured him of dropsy and then cured the fever of Kaumuali‘i’s wife; Kaumuali‘i returned to Schäffer what was left of the shipwrecked Behring’s cargo, and Schäffer soon managed to convince Kaumuali‘i that the strength of Russia could be used to throw off the rule of King Kamehameha. Such an offer, however, had not been authorized by anyone in Russia. (See Schäffer, Georg Anton.)

 

Barber, HenryCaptain of the snow Arthur, a British brig from Bengal that wrecked on October 31, 1796 when it hit a coral shoal on an O‘ahu peninsula now known as Barbers Point; six of the crew of 22 died in their struggle to launch a boat; the vessel was eventually salvaged by John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835); King Kamehameha I took ten cannons from the ship and mounted them in front of his house; after adventures in Alaska, Barber returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1802 and sought the return of his ship’s cargo, which included sea otter skins from America’s Northwest Coast; King Kamehameha refused, and demanded that Barber provide him with gunpowder; Barber complied with Kamehameha’s demands so that he would be able to provision his ship, the Myrtle, in preparation for a journey to Sitka, Alaska.

Barkley, Charles WilliamIn command of the fur-trading British ship Imperial Eagle when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on May 20, 1787 en route to Canton China and flying Australian colors; on board the Imperial Eagle was Mrs. Frances Hornsby Trevor Barkley, thought to be the first European woman to come to the Hawaiian Islands, and John MacKay, a former surgeon’s mate who is thought to have been the first white resident of the Hawaiian Islands, having settled on the Kona Coast in 1790 or earlier); the Imperial Eagle sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands with the first Hawaiian woman to leave the Hawaiian Islands for foreign lands; this woman’s name was said to be “Wynee,” which may be a confused interpretation of wahine, the Hawaiian word for woman; she left the Hawaiian Islands because she was hired to be the maid for Mrs. Barkley.

Barkley, Frances Hornsby TrevorThought to be the first European woman to come to the Hawaiian Islands, arrived on May 20, 1787 on the fur-trading British ship Imperial Eagle, which was under the command of Charles William Barkley; the Imperial Eagle sailed away from the Hawaiian Islands with the first Hawaiian woman to leave the Hawaiian Islands for foreign lands; this woman’s name was said to be “Wynee,” which may be a confused interpretation of wahine, the Hawaiian word for woman; she left the Hawaiian Islands because she was hired to be the maid for Mrs. Barkley.

Beamer, KaponoBrother of Keola Beamer; influential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Beamer, KeolaBrother of Kapono Beamer; influential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist; authored the first slack key instruction book in the early 1970s. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Beckley, Emma K. (Metcalf) [Nakuina, Emma K. (Metcalf)] (18471929)Daughter of Theophilus Metcalf and Kaili Kapuolono; wife of Frederick William K. Beckley; mother of William Frederick Beckley (born in 1874); attended Sacred Hearts Academy, Punahou School, and Mills Seminary in California; Territory of Hawai‘i’s first female judge, serving for 18 years as judge of the Court of Records (and commissioner of private ways and water rights); head of government library (1880s1890s); served as the first curator at the Hawaiian National Museum; [the National Museum was established on September 9, 1874 in Ali‘iōlani Hale with a collection that included many artifacts donated by Hawaiian royalty; the Museum opened on November 8, 1875; the artifacts later became significant early contributions to Bishop Museum (see Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Chapter 2)]; later wife of Reverend Moses Nakuina; published numerous articles on Hawaiiana.

Beckley, Frederick William (1874—?)—Son of Frederick William K. Beckley and Emma K. (Metcalf) Beckley (1847—1929) (who later remarried and was Emma K. (Metcalf) Nakuina); historian and teacher.

Beckley, Frederick William K.Descendant of George Beckley; husband of Emma K. (Metcalf) Beckley [Nakuina, Emma K. (Metcalf) Beckley] (1847—1929); chamberlain for King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; governor of Kaua‘i; father of William Frederick Beckley (born in 1874).

Beckley, GeorgeEnglishman; commandant of the Honolulu fort; father of Frederick William Beckley.

Beckwith, Martha Warren (18711959)Born in Massachusetts; lived in the Hawaiian Islands as a child; grand-niece of Lucy (Goodale) Thurston (1795—1876); Vassar College professor of folklore; worked with Mary Kawena Pūku‘i (1895-1986); translated the fictional novel of S. N. Haleole, published as: The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai (Washington: Bureau of American Ethnology, 1919); translated Kepelino’s Traditions of Hawaii (Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1932), which was the most notable of at least six Hawaiian-language books written in the mid-1800s by Zephyrin Kepelino (c.1830-1876), a descendant of the famous Tahitian priest Pā‘ao; authored Hawaiian Mythology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940); edited The Kumulipo: A Hawaiian Creation Chant (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951);

Bennett, JamesIn command of the 210-ton, three-masted Russian ship Behring when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1815; the Behring was carrying sealskins (otter pelts) bound for the Russian-American Company’s headquarters at Sitka, Alaska, the capital of Russian-America; after the Behring anchored at Waimea Bay and Bennett went ashore, an unexpected southwest wind rapidly intensified and pushed the Behring broadside onto the shore; an estimated 2,000 Kauaians attempted unsuccessfully to save the vessel; King Kaumuali‘i had the valuable pelts on board the ship taken to his home near Makaweli]; as a result, Georg Anton (Egor Nikoloaevich) Schäffer (1779—1836) was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by the Russian-American Company to retrieve or seek appropriate payment for the cargo of the Behring, which had wrecked on Kaua‘i. (See Schäffer, Georg Anton.)

Berger, Charles O.Organized the Hawaiian Bell Telephone Company, which was incorporated on December 30, 1880; soon thereafter, a telephone was installed in ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu.

Berger, Heinrich “Henry” (1844—1929)—Brought from Germany to become leader of the Royal Hawaiian Band, which gave its first concert on June 11, 1872; attended the Berlin Conservatory of Music before he was picked by German leader Wilhelm I, for King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), to become the Hawaiian Kingdom’s bandmaster; a royal proclamation in 1872 by King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha) declared June 11 a Hawaiian national holiday in honor of King Kamehameha I; originally known as Commemoration Day, the holiday later became known as King Kamehameha Day; Berger held the bandmaster post for 43 years, giving more than 9,000 concerts including several United States Mainland tours with the band, increasing the popularity of Hawaiian music; authored the music of Hawai‘i’s State song, Hawai‘i Pono‘ī (Hawai‘i’s Own); the words were written by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] [Hawai‘i Pono‘ī was designated as the national anthem of the Hawaiian Islands in 1876; in 1967 the song was designated as the official anthem of the State of Hawai‘i]; organist at Kawaiaha‘o Church; assisted Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] in the writing of the well-known song, Aloha ‘Oe.

Bernard, JohnFrenchman; along with British subject and sea captain Godfrey Rhodes, obtained a 50-year Government lease of 90 acres (36 ha) of land on the east side of the Hanalei River and 60 acres (24 ha) on the west side of the river; on this Hanalei land, Bernard and Rhodes began the first commercial coffee plantation in the Hawaiian Islands on September 8, 1842; in 18431844, Gottfried Frederick Wundenberg and Archibald Archer leased a portion of the Bernard/Rhodes land and also grew coffee in an area on the east side of Hanalei Valley known as Kuna; Rhodes left for Australia in 1844, selling his interest in the coffee operation to Bernard; the following year, Bernard traveled to Honolulu to deal with his financial troubles; when he left Honolulu to return to Kaua‘i on April 18, 1845, he boarded the schooner Paalua (which he had built) and sailed for Hanalei; tragically, on April 19, 1845 the Paalua sank just a few hundred yards offshore of Hanalei, killing Bernard and several others; on June 16, 1845, Frenchman John Bernard’s estate in Hanalei was bought by John K. Von Pfister and Godfrey Rhodes (see Hanalei History, Chapter 2).

Bille, SteenArrived in the Hawaiian Islands on October 5, 1846 in command of the Danish Navy corvette Galathea; signed a treaty with the Hawaiian government on October 16, 1846.

 

Bingham, Hiram (17891869)With his wife Sybil, left Boston on August 31, 1819 on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard, sailing to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820, reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820 to begin their congregational mission work; leader, with Asa Thurston (17871869) of the First Company of American missionaries; Hiram and Sybil had seven children; served at the Honolulu mission station, which was established in 1820; had seven children; preached his first sermon in the Islands on April 25, 1820, and performed the first Christian marriage on August 11, 1822 when he married the missionary youth Thomas Hopu to his bride Delia; continued preaching and teaching throughout the Islands for the next two decades; was particularly influential among the ali‘i (the ruling class) of the native Hawaiians; helped develop the Hawaiian alphabet; on January 16, 1826, the armed schooner Dolphin, under the command of John Percival (17791862), arrived in Honolulu to become the first American warship to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands; on February 26, 1826 the Dolphin crew along with other sailors who are angry about a missionary-inspired ban on women visiting ships, broke into the home of Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], the kālaimoku (counselor) of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu; Kalanimoku was also the former kālaimoku (counselor) to King Kamehameha I; the angry sailors then broke into the home of Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869), who was known for his strict upholding of religious doctrine; Hawaiians protected Bingham from the assaults of the unruly mob; Bingham assisted in the first translation of the Bible, and was the architect and first pastor of Kawaiaha‘o Church; [originally known as Stone Church, Kawaiaha‘o Church was dedicated on July 21, 1842 in Honolulu at the corner of South King and Punchbowl Streets; construction on Kawaiaha‘o Church began in 1837 following plans drawn by missionary Reverend Hiram Bingham (1789—1869); the cornerstone of Kawaiaha‘o Church was laid on June 8, 1839, and the church was built in the New England style with Gothic influences; presiding over the dedication was Reverend Richard Armstrong (Bingham had left due to poor health; to the left of the front door of the Kawaiaha‘o Church, near the original cornerstone, is a centennial memorial plaque honoring Reverend Hiram Bingham]; the Hawaiian translation of the New Testament was published in 1832, and presented by Bingham to the Kuhina Nui (Premier) and former Queen of Hawai‘i, Ka‘ahumanu, shortly before her death; on February 14, 1837, performed the marriage service for King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Queen Kalama [Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili Kalama [Kamālama]], the adopted daughter of Charles Kana‘ina; in 1841, with Reverend and Mrs. Daniel Dole and Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871) established Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children; the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College; the Binghams moved back to New England in 1840 due to Sybil’s poor health, and she passed away that same year; Hiram Bingham later wrote A Residence of Twenty-One Years in the Sandwich Islands (New York: Sherman Converse; 1847); in 1852, Hiram Bingham married Naomi E. Morse.

Bingham, Naomi E. (Morse)Married Hiram Bingham (17891869) in 1852; his first wife, Sybil, passed away in 1840.

Bingham, SybilWith her husband Hiram, came to the Hawaiian Islands on the brig Thaddeus with the First Company of American missionaries; the Thaddeus was under the command of Andrew Blanchard, and sailed from Boston for Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on August 23, 1819; Hiram and Sybil had seven children; the Binghams moved back to New England in 1840 due to Sybil’s poor health, and she passed away that same year.

 

Bishop, Artemas (17951872)Came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1822 with the Second Company of American missionaries; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kailua mission station (which was established in 1820); served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Kaua‘i’s Waimea mission station (which was established in 1820); visited Kīlauea Volcano with Reverend Asa Thurston (17871868), one of the leaders of the First Company of American missionaries, and William Ellis (17941872), the first person in the Hawaiian Islands to preach a sermon in the Hawaiian language; they were among the first foreigners to visit the summit of Kīlauea Volcano; the men were searching for a suitable site to set up a mission station; served at O‘ahu’s ‘Ewa mission station (which was established in 1834); father of Sereno Edwards Bishop (1827—1909); edited, with J. S. Emerson (1800-1867), the first English-Hawaiian Dictionary, He Hoakakaolelo no na Hualelo Beritania (A Dictionary of English Words) in 1845.

Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and WongFirm that suffered financial collapse in August of 1983 due to the manipulations of Ron Rewald, who deceived a large number of people by purporting to have many local connections, throwing lavish parties, and staging polo matches; Rewald’s activities resulted in a loss of about $20 million by 418 investors; in 1985 Rewald was convicted of 94 counts of tax evasion, perjury, and fraud, and sentenced to 18 years in federal prison; he was released in 1995 due to a back injury.

Bishop, Charles Reed (1822—1915)—Husband of Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] (1831—1884); born in Glen Falls, New York on January 25, 1822; at age 24, sailed around Cape Horn bound for Oregon, but when his ship stopped in the Hawaiian Islands to take on provisions, Bishop stayed, first posting books for the government and then in 1849 becoming Honolulu’s Collector General of Customs; opened a mercantile business with A. W. Aldrich, and in 1858 they formed the firm of Aldrich & Bishop, which later became the Bank of Bishop & Co. Ltd., now known as First Hawaiian Bank; served on the Board of Education under King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha), King Lunalilo, and King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; member of the Privy Council during reign of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; traveled to England in 1876 with his wife Princess Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop, and the royal couple was presented at Queen Victoria’s Court, and later received by Pope Pius IX in Rome; known for his philanthropy, serving on the boards of various charities and contributing generously to many needy causes; after Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop passed away in 1884, Charles Reed Bishop carried out the wishes stated in his wife’s will, including the establishment of Kamehameha Schools, contributing much of his own money to help construct the first school buildings; to honor his wife, Charles Reed Bishop founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in 1889; moved to San Francisco, California in 1894; passed away in 1915, and his ashes were interred next to his wife in the Kamehameha Tomb at the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[vi]); remembered for his many years of service to the Hawaiian Islands as a prominent public official, banker, financier, philanthropist, and husband of the beloved Princess Pauahi; Honolulu’s Bishop Street, named after Charles Reed Bishop, is the business and finance center of the State of Hawai‘i and the entire Pacific region; today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Bishop, Isabella Bird (18321904)Scottish author; began her travels around the Hawaiian Islands on January 25, 1873; wrote about Kīlauea Volcano and the island of Hawai‘i as well as Maui’s Haleakalā and Kaua‘i; in 1875, published an illustrated book, The Hawaiian Archipelago: Six Months Among the Palm Groves, Coral Reefs, and Volcanoes of the Sandwich Islands (London: John Murray, 1875); later became the first female fellow of the Royal Geographic Society. (See Early Publications, Chapter 12.)

Bishop, Cornelia Ann (Sessions)Wife of Sereno Edwards Bishop (1827—1909).

Bishop, Sereno Edwards (1827—1909)—Born in Ka‘awaloa on Hawai‘i Island; son of Reverend Artemas Bishop (17951872); graduated from Amherst College (1846), and Auburn Theological Seminary (1851); served as a chaplain in New York City; married Cornelia Ann Sessions; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823), serving as a chaplain for seamen at Lahaina, Maui (1853—1862); served three years at the mission station at Hāna, Maui (which was established in 1832); served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School (first as a teacher, then as a principal); [Lahainaluna was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity]; worked as a land surveyor in Honolulu beginning in 1877; completed a detailed Kaua‘i map (the first) and did extensive mapping of Nu‘uanu Valley on O‘ahu (including land titles and water rights); editor of The Friend (18871902) [the Reverend Samuel Chenery Damon (1815—1885) founded The Friend in 1843 and served as the editor and publisher of the monthly journal, which continued to be published for more than 100 years]; the halo-like circles that are visible around the sun after a major volcanic eruption are called Bishop’s Rings in his honor (he explained them after the 1883 Krakatoa eruption); wrote for the Washington D.C. Evening Star (as a correspondent); his accounts were published in Reminiscences of Old Hawaii (Honolulu: Gazette, 1916).

Blaisdell, Neal ShawMayor of City and County of Honolulu from January 2, 1955 to January 2, 1969.

Blanchard, AndrewIn command of the Bordeaux Packet in 1817 when the ship arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands); in command of the brig Thaddeus, which sailed from Boston on August 23, 1819 carrying the First Company of American missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands; arriving with the First Company was Massachusetts native James Hunnewell (17941869).

Blanding, DonJournalist and poet who visited the Hawaiian Islands from the United States Mainland and helped popularize the concept of Lei Day, which is now celebrated every May 1 in the Hawaiian Islands, when everyone is encouraged to make, give away, and wear lei; Lei Day became an official holiday of the Territory of Hawai‘i in 1929; some say the holiday has its origins in 1927 when, on May 1 in downtown Honolulu, some lei lovers gathered (See Lei Day—May 1, Chapter 12.)

Blatchely, AbrahamAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820).

Bligh, William (1754—1817)—The first person to map any part of the Hawaiian Islands; served as a sailing master with British Captain James Cook; after Captain Cook was killed at Kealakekua Bay, Bligh commanded a shore party; later renowned as (deposed) captain of the Bounty during a mutiny; later served as an admiral in the Royal Navy.

Blinn, Richard D.—In command of the Parthian when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828 carrying the Third Company of American missionaries; nine more Companies of American missionaries eventually came to the Islands, culminating with the Twelfth Company arriving in 1848; arriving with the Third Company of American missionaries was Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803-1873).

Bliss, IsaacAmerican Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kohala mission station (which was established in 1837).

Blount, James H. (1837-1903)—Sent to the Hawaiian Islands by President Cleveland after Cleveland withdrew the annexation treaty on March 9, 1893; Cleveland sent Blount with a letter to Sanford Ballard Dole; the letter gave Blount “paramount authority” to lead an investigation into the revolution. Blount, a Congressman, and former Colonel in the American Civil War, was authorized to interview all involved parties and conduct an impartial finding of the facts; Blount arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 29, 1893, by order of President Cleveland, to investigate the events leading to the overthrow of the Hawaiian government, and ordered that the American flag be taken down and the Hawaiian flag raised; the United States naval forces were sent back to their ships; on October 18, 1893, the Blount Report blamed the overthrow of the monarchy on United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens, and suggested restoring the Hawaiian government; Cleveland denounced the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts,” and sent word that he regretted the “unauthorized intervention” that took away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty; on November 4, 1893, orders were given by President Cleveland to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani’s power; the Provisional Government refused to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict would force them to give up power; though Cleveland did not support annexation, he was reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans (and their mostly American supporters). (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

Bloxam, Andrew (18011878)English scientist who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1825 as the naturalist of the Blonde, which was under the command of Lord Byron (17891858); his journal was published as Diary of Andrew Bloxam, the Naturalist of the “Blonde” (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Special Publication No. 10, 1925).

Bogart, HumphreyStarred in The Caine Mutiny, which was filmed in the Hawaiian Islands in 1954; the story involved a mutiny aboard the World War II vessel U.S.S. Caine stationed at Pearl Harbor, and the court-martial that followed; Bogart was nominated for an Academy Award in the Best Actor category for his portrayal of Lieutenant Commander Queeg.

Bond, EliasAmerican Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Kohala mission station (which was established in 1837).

Bouchard, Hippolyte [Hypólite] De (1785—1843)—French revolutionary from Buenos Aires; in command of the Argentina—a 44-gun frigate of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata River (later the Argentine Republic)—when the ship arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in September of 1818; Bouchard’s goal was to subdue the South American pirates who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the pirate ship corvette Santa Rosa in May of 1818 and were taking refuge in the Hawaiian Islands; recaptured the Santa Rosa and put it under the command of Peter Corney, and the two ships sailed for California; Bouchard was considered by some to be a pirate himself; both Bouchard and Corney later participated in a political raid on Monterey, the capital of Spanish California.

Bowman, NinaChosen as the first Lei Day Queen in 1928, the same year that Red Hawke penned the song, “May Day is Lei Day in Hawai‘i”; every May 1 in the Hawaiian Islands, everyone is encouraged to make, give away, and wear lei; Lei Day became an official holiday of the Territory of Hawai‘i in 1929; some say the holiday has its origins in 1927 when, on May 1 in downtown Honolulu, some lei lovers gathered; in 1934 the Honolulu city government began sponsoring a celebration of the holiday; most schools celebrate Lei Day with festivals, and there are many events held throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu selects its Lei Day Queen on the first Saturday of March. (See Lei DayMay 1, Chapter 12.)

Boyd, JamesBecame a shipbuilder for King Kamehameha I in 1794; Boyd’s grandson, Robert N. Boyd, was later sent to Italy (with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903)) by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to receive a military education.

Boyd, Robert N.Grandson of James Boyd; sent to Italy (with Robert W. Wilcox (1855—1903)) by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to receive a military education.

Brennan, Colton JamesBorn in Laguna Beach California on August 16, 1983; began playing for the University of Hawai‘i Warriors football team in 2005, and during that season tied or broke eleven school offense records and led the country in touchdowns thrown (35) and total offense yards (4,455); during the 2006 season, led the nation in passing efficiency and scoring, completing 72.15% of his passes; completed 53 touchdown passes during the regular season and five more at the Hawai‘i Bowl, breaking the NCAA Division I-A single-season record for touchdown passes (58), which included 5,549 passing yards; passing efficiency for the 2006 season was the highest in the nation. (See June Jones, Colt Brennan, and the University of Hawai‘i Warriors, Chapter 12.)

Brewer, CharlesBecame a partner in a firm with James Hunnewell in 1836; under the control of Charles Brewer, the company was renamed C. Brewer & Company and specialized in providing supplies for whaling ships; C. Brewer & Company was later involved in sugar and molasses, and became one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies; [the other four were Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke; with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom; in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; in 1850, Hunnewell, Brewer, and Henry Augustus Peirce formed a partnership in a freighting business between Boston and prominent Pacific ports, with C. Brewer & Company as the agent in Honolulu, also serving as the agent for three Maui plantations in 1863.

Brickwood, Pinao G.Married Victor Stewart [Stuart] Kaleoaloha Houston in 1910.

Bridges, HarryNational chief of the International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU) on September 1, 1946 when 28,000 workers from 33 sugar plantations went on a statewide strike against the Hawai‘i Employers Council [in 1940, a strike by longshore plantation workers at Kaua‘i’s Ahukini port had lasted 298 days, the longest to date; by this time the ILWU had become a formidable union under regional director Jack Hall’s leadership; passage of the Hawai‘i Employment Relations Act in 1945 further empowered agricultural workers and allowed the ILWU to begin organizing workers on pineapple and sugar plantations]; the ILWU represented the strikers in the 1946 strike, which became known as the Great Hawai‘i Sugar Strike and lasted 79 days; the union was victorious, and ILWU national chief Harry Bridges stated that Hawai‘i was no longer a feudal colony (see Unions, Chapter 12); on May 1, 1949, the ILWU went on strike against Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies: Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke; with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom [in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; the strike shut down the docks as the union demanded wage parity with workers on the United States Mainland; the ILWU strike lasted more than five months and became known as the Great Hawaiian Dock Strike (see Hall, Jack).

Brinsmade, PeterOrganized Ladd & Company with partners William Northey Hooper and William Ladd; Hooper was appointed as the manager of Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation in southern Kaua‘i; this was the first commercial sugarcane plantation in the Hawaiian Islands; the land for the plantation was originally leased from King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) for $300/year; the initial planting consisted of 25 acres of sugarcane and coffee; the Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation used techniques first developed in China to grind and process their sugarcane; the plantation also invented new methods of grinding, harvesting, and milling sugarcane, serving as the model for sugar plantations throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

Bronster, MargeryState Attorney General on August 9, 1997 when the Honolulu Star-Bulletin published an article titled “Broken Trust,” written by a former Kamehameha Schools principal and three other prominent community members calling for reform; three days later, the governor asked Bronster to investigate the matter; on September 10, 1998, Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry); Lokelani Lindsey was later sentenced to six months in prison for bankruptcy fraud and money laundering, charges unrelated to her Bishop Estate position (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Bronte, EmilyNavigator of the 27-foot (8.2-m) monoplane The City of Oakland (piloted by Ernest Smith) on July 14, 1927, when the plane crash landed on Moloka‘i; with this flight, Bronte and Smith become the first civilians to fly to the Hawaiian Islands from the United States Mainland (Oakland, California); this first trans-Pacific flight by civilians covered about 2,200 miles (3,541 km) and took 26 hours and 36 minutes; they originally intended to fly to Honolulu, but a fuel shortage led to the crash landing. (See Smith and Bronte Landing in Moloka‘i section, Chapter 2; and Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Broughton, WilliamIn command of the British sloop Providence when it arrived in January of 1796, bringing the first grapes to the Hawaiian Islands; lieutenent placed in command of the Chatham, an armed tender that accompanied the Discovery, commanded by George Vancouver (1758—1798); Broughton was replaced in this position by Peter Puget.

Brown, AliceWife of Hermann J. F. Von Holt; they had two daughters and one son.

Brown, LydiaAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Moloka‘i’s Kalua‘aha mission station (which was established in 1832); served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832).

Brown, ThomasMr. and Mrs. Thomas Brown and their four children lived in Wailua on the eastern side of Kaua‘i at their “Wailua Falls Estate” on about 1,000 acres (405 ha) of leased Crown lands, including a grand English-style home (shipped from England) on the hillside above the eastern side of Wailua Falls above the fork in the Wailua River; expert horticulturalist; with Godfrey Rhodes, built a substantial coffee plantation of nearly 1,000 acres in Hanalei Valley, Kaua‘i. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Brown, Thomas (Mrs.)Wife of Thomas Brown; Mr and Mrs. Brown and their four children lived in Wailua on the eastern side of Kaua‘i at their “Wailua Falls Estate” on about 1,000 acres (405 ha) of leased Crown lands, including a grand English-style home (shipped from England) on the hillside above the eastern side of Wailua Falls above the fork in the Wailua River. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

 

Brown, WilliamFirst arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in February of 1793 in command of the British trading ship Butterworth, which is thought to have been the first foreign vessel to enter Honolulu Harbor (which for a time was named Brown’s Harborthe Hawaiian name for Honolulu Harbor is Kou); returned to the Hawaiian Islands in 1794 in command of the Jackal; sold arms to Kalanikūpule; eight foreigners from the Jackal, and from the Prince Lee Boo (under Captain Gordon) fought with Kalanikūpule against Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]; on December 12, 1794, when Kalanikūpule defeated Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (the ruler of Kaua‘i, Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i, near what is now called Pearl Harbor, the victory for Kalanikūpule on O‘ahu was achieved with the assistance of foreigners, including William Brown and John Kendrick (c.17401794); from November 16, 1794 to December 12, 1794, the battle was contested in an area between Kalauao and ‘Aiea Heights, resulting in the death of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]; a victory salute after the battle was accidentally loaded with grapeshot, and it hit the Lady Washington and killed its captain, John Kendrick, and several of his officers; later both Gordon and Brown were killed by the warriors of Kalanikūpule in an attempt to take over their ships.

Burno D’Agostino and Edward R. Aotani & AssociatesArchitects of Aloha Tower Marketplace, built in Honolulu in 1994 on Piers 8, 9, 10, and 11, housing shops, restaurants and live entertainment.

Burns, HenryImprisoned whaler who died, causing thousands of sailors to riot on November 8, 1852; the rioters wet fire to the Honolulu police station. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

Burns, John Anthony (1909—1975)—Born in Montana; attended St. Louis High School and the University of Hawai‘i; married Beatrice Majors Van Fleet in 1931 and they were the parents of a daughter and two sons; worked for Honolulu Police Department from 1934 to 1945; became captain in the Honolulu Police Department in 1941; managed a retail store; from 1951 to 1955 served as administrator of O‘ahu Civil Defense Agency from 1955 to 1962; led Burns & Co. real estate company; chairman of the Democratic County Committee in 1948; Territorial Delegate to Congress (Democrat) from 1957 to 1959; lobbied for statehood (the measure passed the United States Senate on March 11, 1959, and then the United States House of Representatives on March 12, 1959); elected Governor of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in December of 1962 (after being defeated by William Francis Quinn in the 1959 election), allowing the Democrats, for the first time, to control both the executive and legislative branches of the state’s government; Burns election victory was largely due the support he got from veterans and union workers [After World War II ended, a new political movement was led by returning veterans, including Hawai‘i’s Nisei soldiers, the second generation Japanese-Americans who served as distinguished members of the renowned 442nd Regimental Combat Team and 100th Infantry Battalion; forming alliances with other ethnic groups, these returning veterans won important election victories in what became known as the Democratic Revolution of 1954; the Democrats gained a majority in the Territorial House of Representatives and then won both Houses two years later to end the Republican domination; Democrats favored statehood, liberal labor benefits, land reform, and equality in education; Business leaders and large landowners supported the Democrats and encouraged a construction boom that included new airports, hotels, golf courses, and roads. Labor unrest that had come from more than a half century of control by the large sugar companies led to the rise of unions and increased workers’ rights (see The Democratic Revolution, Chapter 12)]; appointed William S. Richardson as Chief Justice of the Hawai‘i Supreme Court in 1966; served as Governor until November of 1974; considered the founder of a Democratic political dynasty in the Hawaiian Islands that lasted until the election of Linda Lingle in 2002; named after him was the John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

Bush, George H.W.United States president on October 22, 1990 when he ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice, and created a congressional commission to work out a return of the island to Hawaiians; in 1993, the United States Navy received a $400 million authorization from the U.S. Congress to clean ordnance from Kaho‘olawe during the following decade; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Bush, George W.Designated the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as a National Monument on June 15, 2006 with the signing of Presidential Proclamation 8031; the boundary of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument begins about 150 miles (241 km) northwest of Kaua‘i and extends about 1,400 miles (2,253 km) in length and 100 miles (161 km) in width; the Monument encompasses all waters within 50 miles (80 km) of any emergent reef or land from 50 miles (80 km) west of Kure Atoll to a point 50 miles (80 km) east of Nihoa; the emergent and submerged lands and water of the Monument total about 139,793 square miles (362,062 sq. km.), and within the region are about 70% of the United States’ coral reefs and more than 7,000 native marine and terrestrial species; the scattered islands, islets, reefs, shoals, atolls, shelves, shallow banks, and seamounts of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands provide the main nesting area for more than 90% of Hawai‘i’s honu (Chelonia mydas, Hawaiian green sea turtles) and the breeding and birthing areas of more than 90% of Hawai‘i’s ‘ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua (Monachus schauinslandi, Hawaiian monk seals); more than 4,500 square miles (11,655 sq. km.) of coral reef are located within the Monument boundaries, and these reefs are inhabited by a multitude of reef fish species, some of which are endemic (unique) to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; the Monument region also supports at least 18 species of seabirds, totalling more than 14 million seabirds (many of them migratory), as well as four species of endangered land birds; more than one-fourth of the native species in the Monument region are endemic (unique) to the Hawaiian Islands. See Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

Byron, George Anson (Lord) (17491858)Cousin of the famous poet; joined the Royal Navy in 1800; captain of the 46-gunfrigate H.M.S. Blonde, sent to the Hawaiian Islands to bring the bodies of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) and Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] back from London, arriving back in the Hawaiian Islands on May 3, 1825; attended a meeting of chiefs on June 6, 1825 and suggested they adopt the trial-by-jury method, which they did; brought a projector and slides to the Hawaiian Islands and used them to produce Hawai‘i’s first magic-lantern show; the ship’s artist on the Blonde was Robert Dampier (18001874); a bay near Hilo (at Waiākea) was called Byron’s Bay in his honor, and a spot on the summit area of Kīlauea Volcano, beneath the Volcano House Hotel, and separating Kīlauea Iki Crater from Kīlauea Crater, became known as Byron’s Ledge; Lord Byron published his accounts in Voyage of H.M.S. “Blonde” to the Sandwich Islands, 1824-25 (London: John Murray, 1826).

Cagney, JamesPlayed the surly captain of the supply ship Reluctant in the movie Mister Roberts, which was filmed in the Hawaiian Islands in 1955; the film was an adaptation of Fonda’s Broadway hit, and starred Henry Fonda as Lieutenant Doug Roberts, the chief cargo officer of the Reluctant during the last few months of World War II; Jack Lemmon played Roberts’ friend, Ensign Frank Pulver.

Calhoun, James C.United States Secretary of State; reaffirmed American recognition of the Hawaiian government in the summer of 1844 in Washington D.C. (the United States had recognized the Kingdom of Hawai‘i as an independent government in 1842).

Campbell, James (1826—1900)—Born in Ireland, ran away at age 13, and was later stranded on a South Sea island after his whaling vessel wrecked; for Campbell, James Ashley bored the first artesian well in the Hawaiian Islands on July 1, 1879, near Campbell’s ranch in Honouliuli, O‘ahu; soon other wells were bored, providing water for the cultivation of sugarcane on thousands of acres of ‘Ewa, O‘ahu; Campbell eventually became an extremely successful businessman, owning much of Lahaina; engaged in many business ventures, and supported the first electric-light and telephone companies in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12.)

Cannon, George Q.Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands from the California gold camps on December 12, 1850 along with nine other Mormons, and they were the first Mormon missionaries in the Hawaiian Islands; in 1855, published a Hawaiian translation of the Book of Mormon, titled Ka Buke a Moramona; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was established in Lā‘ie, O‘ahu, and soon won over large numbers of Hawaiians to their faith; in 1865, the Mormons purchased 6,000 acres (2,428 ha) of land in the Lā‘ie region; in 1919, the Mormons in Lā‘ie use volcanic rocks and crushed coral to build a smaller version of the Mormon temple in Salt Lake City, Utah; constructed at the base of the Ko‘olau Mountains, the temple is dedicated on November 27, 1919, becoming the first Mormon temple built outside of the continental United States; in 1955, Mormons established the Latter Day Saints Church College of Hawai‘i in Lā‘ie, and Mormon President David O. McKay dedicated the College in 1958; by 1971, Church College had about 1,300 students, many of whom came from various Pacific Islands; in 1974 the school became a branch campus of Provo, Utah’s Brigham Young University, a four-year college with an enrollment of about 2,000 undergraduates; the Mormon temple is considered the “cornerstone” of the college; the success of Polynesian shows put on by the college in the 1950s led to the construction of the Polynesian Cultural Center, which opened on October 12, 1963; founded by the Mormon Church, the Polynesian Cultural Center is run by the college and staffed by students; a significant expansion in 1975 made the Lā‘ie site a major O‘ahu attraction. (See Polynesian Cultural Center in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and Mormons in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Captain CookSee Cook, James.

Carnegie, AndrewIndustrialist and philanthropist; in 1898, after annexation, donated $100,000 toward a Hawai‘i State Library building, which was designed by his brother-in-law Henry D. Whitfield and constructed in 1911 on King Street in Honolulu; the structure was built in the Classical Revival style, with a four-story, rectangular main building and a six-story tower at the rear; particularly notable is the library’s entrance, consisting of 20-foot (6.1 m) high “Tuscan” columns and 18-foot (5.5 m) arches; the Hawai‘i State Library is located at 478 South King Street [phone: 808-586-3500; reference services phone: 586-3621; 1-800-390-3611]; the original “Reading Room” opened in 1879 on King Street in Honolulu, and only men were allowed to check out books from the original collection of 5,000 volumes; this was sponsored by the Hawai‘i Workingmen’s Library Association, who were trying to keep rowdy seamen out of trouble; two wings to expand the library were built in 1930, creating the open-air center courtyard; a bust of Andrew Carnegie greets visitors at the entrance. (See Hawai‘i State Library in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2.)

Carter, A. P.Father of Robert George Carter (1866—1933).

Carter, George Robert (1866—1933)—Born in Honolulu; son of Henry A. P. Carter; educated at Phillips Andover Academy in Massachusetts and then Yale University; worked as a cashier for C. Brewer & Company from 1895 to 1898; then as a manager of the Hawaiian Trust Company until 1902 while also serving as the managing director of Hawaiian Fertilizer Company from 1900 to 1902; elected to the Territorial Senate in 1901 and then appointed as Secretary of the Territory in 1902; appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Republican) in 1903 by United States President Theodore Roosevelt, serving until August 15, 1907, succeeding Sanford Ballard Dole.

Carter, JimmyStationed at Pearl Harbor in December of 1948 as a young naval officer with the submarine USS Pourfret; lived near Nimitz Gate with his wife Rosalyn until 1951; later became President of the United States.

Cartwright, Alexander Joy—Organized Honolulu Fire Department, after King Kamehameha II (Kauikeaouli) signed an ordinance on December 27, 1850 authorizing its establishment; this was the first fire department in the Hawaiian Islands; the first steam fire engines arrived in 1879; known as the “Father of Baseball.”

Castle, AlfredSon of Samuel Northrup Castle (1808—1894); provided financial assistance to Benjamin Franklin Dillingham (18441918) for the purchase of the business of Henry Dimond (1808—1895).

 

Castle, J. B.Established Oahu [O‘ahu] Shipping Company in 1913 with Ebenezer Parker (Eben) Low (1864—1954).

 

Castle, Samuel Northrup (1808—1894)—Born in New York; father of Alfred Castle; worked as a bank cashier; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on April 9, 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner; the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days; American Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served as the mission’s assistant superintendent of secular affairs; worked as a cashier in a bank; handled missionary finances and supplies; released from the mission in 1851 and formed the firm of Castle & Cooke with missionary Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871); selling medicine, farm machines, and sewing tools; in 1907 the company became the agent for Matson Navigation and acquired interest in Matson; Castle & Cooke later obtained an interest in the Hawaiian Pineapple Company, which was renamed Dole Company and became part of the food division of Castle & Cooke; the company later became one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies (the other four were: Theo H. Davies & Company, American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; and Alexander & Baldwin) [with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom; in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; owner billionaire David Murdock separated the companies again in the 1990s; under Murdock, Castle & Cooke currently owns much of Lāna‘i (developed as a resort destination) as well as a significant amount of land on O‘ahu (see Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2)]; served as Privy Councillor (20 years); Punahou School Trustee and Treasurer (40 years); served in Legislature (1864—1865); member of the House of Nobles (3 sessions); married Angeline Loraine Tenney in 1836 and they had one daughter; after Angeline passed away he married her sister, Mary (Tenney) Castle (1819—1907), and they would have ten children.

Castle, Angeline Loraine (Tenney)Married Samuel Northrup Castle (1808—1894) in 1836 (his first wife), and they had one daughter.

Castle, Mary (Tenney) (1819—1907)Born in New York; trained teacher who advocated female suffrage; married Samuel Northrup Castle (1808—1894) in 1836 (his second wife, and the sister of Angeline Loraine (Tenney) Castle, Samuel’s first wife), and they would have ten children; helped to found the Henry and Dorothy Castle Memorial Kindergarten; founded the Mary Castle Trust (for education and charities); served on the Women’s Board of Missions; founded the Samuel N. and Mary Castle Foundation.

Cayetano, Benjamin J.Lieutenant Governor (Democrat) of Hawai‘i from 1986 to 1994 under Governor John D. Waihee; elected Governor of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in 1994; first United States governor of Filipino-American descent; served as governor until 2002; the father of Benjamin Cayetano was an immigrant from Urdaneta, Pangasinan.

Chamberlain, DanielAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820).

Chamberlain, Levi (17921849)American Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); constructed in 1831 was the Chamberlain House, which was built in Honolulu of coral blocks, and home to the Levi Chamberlain, who was the Mission’s business agent; the Chamberlain House was also was used to store the considerable amount of supplies of the mission (see The Mission Houses, Chapter 12); Chamberlain had arrived in the Hawaiian Islands as a lay missionary in 1823, and later helped to found O‘ahu’s Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children, which was established in 1841 by Hiram Bingham (17891869) (see Chapter 11, Timeline: 1841); the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend (in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College).

Chang, HenryOf Chinese-Hawaiian ancestry; tried for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thomas and Thalia attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; she told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Chapin, AlonzoAmerican Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Lahaina mission station (which was established in 1823).

Chaplin, CharlieIn 1917, spoke at a luncheon for the Honolulu Ad Club.

Charlton, RichardEnglishman; British Consul for Hawai‘i in Honolulu from 1825 to 1846; on August 27, 1831 secured a 20-year lease from Kaua‘i’s Governor Kaikio‘ewa for a portion of Hanalei from the eastern side of Hanalei Valley to Kalihiwai; with longhorn cattle brought from “Norte California,”[vii] Charlton started one of the first cattle ranches in the Hawaiian Islands, and the first cattle ranch on Kaua‘i; by 1840, Charlton had about 100 head of cattle; Charlton’s fee for use of the land was “560 boards,”[viii] of lumber to be cut by Charlton and used by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to build a house; though apparently the fee was never paid, Charlton retained use of the land until the lease was purchased by Captain Jules Dudoit in 1845. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 12.)

Char, Y. T.Architect of the Wo Fat Restaurant Building, constructed at 115 North Hotel in 1938; Street in Honolulu’s Chinatown district; the building was reconstructed after being damaged by fire twice, including in the devastating Chinatown fire, which was intentionally set on January 20, 1900, in the Chinatown area of Honolulu to rid the area of disease-infected tenement homes harboring the bubonic plague; the fire accidentally got out of control and burned more than 38 acres (15 ha), displacing more than 4,000 residents; the fire was started at the corner of Nu‘uanu and Beretania, and burned for at least 17 days; the style of the reconstructed Wo Fat Restaurant Building is considered “Pidgin-Chinese.”

Chillingworth, SonnyInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist; the slack key style gained wider popularity in the 1960s and 1970s in part due to his inspired talents along with other slack key pioneers. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Ching, Francis M. F.Served as Mayor of Kaua‘i County (19721974).

 

Ching, Hung WaiBrother of Hung Wo Ching; served on Board of Trans-Pacific Airlines, which was renamed Aloha Airlines in 1958 under the direction of the company’s president, Hung Wo Ching (his brother); under their direction, Aloha Airlines begins using a new fleet of Jetprop F-27’s. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Ching, Hung WoPresident of Trans-Pacific Airlines, renamed Aloha Airlines in 1958; brother of Hung Wai Ching, who served on the company’s Board; under the direction of Hung Wo Ching, Aloha Airlines began using a new fleet of Jetprop F-27’s. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Choris, Louis (Ludwig) (1795-1828)Arrived at Kailua-Kona in 1816 as the official artist on board the Russian exploring ship Rurick under Captain Otto von Kotzebue; produced several watercolors and sketches of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as portraits of King Kamehameha I, who insisted on dressing for the portrait in traditional Western sailor’s clothes (blue pants, white shirt, red waistcoat, and a yellow silk necktie); thieves later killed Choris while he was traveling to Mexico City from Vera Cruz on an around-the-world journey.

 

Choy, Patricia SwallieMother of Kaimana and Hoku with Don Ho (1930—2007). (See Don Ho, Chapter 12.)

 

Choy, SamOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

Clapp, NortonFrom Seattle; took over the Halekūlani Hotel in 1967; George Pulsifer and Richard (Kingie) Kimball, had taken over the hotel after their father, Clifford Kimball (1875—1941), passed away in 1941, with Richard in charge of the property until 1962; after Clapp took over, the hotel grew modestly over the years until 1981 when it was rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel.

Clarke, ElishaIn command of the British whale ship John Palmer in October of 1827 when the ship’s sailors fired a cannon at a missionary house in Lahaina, Maui due to a conflict between the sailors and the missionaries. (See The Whaling Era, Chapter 12.)

Clark, Ephraim W.American Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832).

Clark, Ephraim Weston (1779—1878)—Born in New Hampshire; graduated from Dartmouth College (1824) and then earned a masters degree from Dartmouth (1827); graduated from Andover Theological Seminary (1827); married Mary Kittredge in September of 1827; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828, with the Third Company of American missionaries on the Parthian under the command of Richard D. Blinn; initially served (from 1828 to 1834) at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820), then from 1834 to 1843 at Lahainaluna on Maui (Lahainaluna was founded in 1831 by American Protestant missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity); sailed to China in 1839; then served from 1843 to 1848 at Maui’s Wailuku mission (which was established in 1832); served as pastor of Kawaiaha‘o Church (15 years; translated texts into Hawaiian; served at O‘ahu’s Waialua mission station (which was established in 1832); served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); chaired an 1857 committee to revise the Hawaiian Scriptures and oversaw its publication in New York in 1864; the same year he resigned from the American Board; in 1867, became head of Hawaiian printing at New York’s Tract House, translating and printing the Hawaiian Bible Dictionary; Ephraim and Mary had eight children, and after Mary passed away in 1857, Ephraim married Sarah Helen Richards Hall.

 

Clark, Harold M.Major in the Fort Kamehameha Aero Squadron; completed the first interisland flight in the Hawaiian Islands, from Honolulu to Moloka‘i and back, on March 15, 1918. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Clark, Mary (Kittredge)Married Ephraim Weston Clark (1779—1878) in September of 1987; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828, with the Third Company of American missionaries on the Parthian under the command of Richard D. Blinn; initially served from 1828 to 1834 at the Honolulu mission (which was established in 1820); passed away in 1857.

Clark, Sarah Helen Richards (Hall)Married Ephraim Weston Clark (1779—1878) after Ephraim’s first wife, Mary (Kittredge) Clark, passed away in 1857.

Clasby, ReubenIn command of the Thames when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on April 27, 1823 carrying the Second Company of American missionaries.

Cleghorn, Archibald ScottOn September 22, 1879; married Miriam Likelike (1851-1887), the sister of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] and Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; father of Princess Victoria Ka‘iulani with Miriam Likelike.

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne [Mark Twain] (18351910)Missouri-born, California newspaper correspondent and former riverboat pilot; went by the pseudonym Mark Twain; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 18, 1866, aboard the steamer Ajax; sporting a Wild West moustache and auburn hair, Twain was on assignment to write a series of travel letters about the whaling and sugarcane industries in the Islands; wrote about everything from government corruption to social life to volcanoes; called the Hawaiian Islands the “Isles of the Blest”; after returning to California, Mark Twain began a novel about the Hawaiian Islands, which he later abandoned, though it is said the book became a model for A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court; visited Maui’s ‘Īao Needle, (Kūkaemoku), the summit of Haleakalā, the site of Captain Cook’s death at Kealakekua Bay, and Kīlauea Volcano where he stayed at the Volcano House; of the volcano, Twain noted, “Vesuvius is a soupkettle compared to this”; later wrote of the Islands: “No alien land in all the world has any deep strong charm for me but that one; no other land could so longingly and so beseechingly haunt me, sleeping and waking, through half a lifetime, as that one has done”; Twain’s writings about the Hawaiian Islands are included in the travelogue Roughing It as well as the newspaper articles he wrote in 1866 and some speeches, lectures, and personal letters.

Clermont-Tonnerre, M. Le MarquisMinister of the French Navy during the expedition of French Navy captain Louis Claude Desaulces de Freycinet (1779—1842), who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on August 8, 1819 in command of the French corvette L’Uranie, one of the first French vessels to reach the Hawaiian Islands; named after him is the Clermontia plant genus.

 

Cleveland, GroverWithdrew the annexation treaty from the Senate on March 9, 1893,and sent James H. Blount (1837-1903) to the Hawaiian Islands with a letter to Sanford Ballard Dole; the letter gave Blount “paramount authority” to lead an investigation into the revolution and overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; Blount, a Congressman, and former Colonel in the American Civil War, was authorized to interview all involved parties and conduct an impartial finding of the facts; Blount arrived on March 29, 1893 and ordered that the American flag be taken down and the Hawaiian flag raised; the United States naval forces were sent back to their ships; on October 18, 1893, the Blount Report blamed the overthrow of the monarchy on United States Minister to Hawai‘i John Leavitt Stevens, and suggested restoring the Hawaiian government; President Cleveland denounced the overthrow as lawless, and achieved under “false pretexts”; Cleveland also sent word that he regretted the “unauthorized intervention” that took away Queen Lili‘uokalani’s sovereignty; on November 4, 1893, orders were given by President Cleveland to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani’s power; the Provisional Government refused to restore Queen Lili‘uokalani to the throne, saying that only armed conflict would force them to give up power; though Cleveland did not support annexation, he was reluctant to order the use of force against the group of Americans (and their mostly American supporters). (See The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy, Chapter 12.)

Cleveland, HarlanServed as President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1969—1974); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Cleveland, RichardPartner of American trader William Shaler (c.1773—1833).

Clifford, Juliet M. (King)Wife of Kimball Clifford (18751941); they ran the Halekūlani Hotel. 

Clift, MontgomeryIn 1953, starred in the movie From Here to Eternity, along with Frank Sinatra, Burt Lancaster, and Deborah Kerr; filmed on O‘ahu and includes three weeks of filming at Schofield Barracks; the film was based on the novel of the same name by James Jones; From Here to Eternity takes place before the Pearl Harbor attack and involves a private who is punished for not boxing on his unit’s team; meanwhile, his captain’s wife falls in love with the second in command; Sinatra won an Academy Award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his role as the tough Italian Maggio who had strong convictions and refused to be broken; From Here to Eternity received 13 Academy Award nominations, winning eight.

Closson, Henry Whitney (1832—1917)—Brigadier-General; named after him in 1920 was Battery Closson, which had two twelve-inch guns able to fire 975-pound projectiles 17.1 miles (27.5 km); [Fort Kamehameha Military Reservation was established in 1907 at the entrance to Pearl Harbor at Hickam Air Force Base, becoming the only United States fort to be named after a foreign king; soon constructed was a series of coastal artillery batteries, a “Ring of Steel” including long-range guns and mortars to fortify O‘ahu’s harbors; coastal batteries at Fort Kamehameha included Battery Selfridge, Battery Randolph, Battery Jackson, Battery Hawkins, Battery Hasbrouck, and Battery Closson.] (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Coan, Titus (1801—1882)—American Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Hilo mission station (which was established in 1824); led an evangelical crusade from 1838 to 1840; more than 20,000 Hawaiians were converted to Protestantism (and membership in the Congregational Church); this event later became known as the “The Great Revival.”

Cocke, W. A. (Jr.)Designed the glider used in a 16½-hour Army glider plane flight taking off from the Kāne‘ohe experimental grounds; the pilot was Lieutenant John C. Crain. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Cockrane, Robert CrichtonPrincipal heir and nephew of Robert Crichton Wyllie, the owner of Princeville Plantation at Hanalei, Kaua‘i; shortly before Robert Crichton Wyllie passed away in 1865, Robert Crichton Cockrane went to Kaua‘i from Waltham, Illinois to learn the sugarcane business from John Low, the manager of the Princeville Plantation at the time; in early 1866, Cockrane was in Hanalei preparing to welcome his bride-to-be; just eight days before the marriage was to take place, Cockrane was at the home of Princeville Plantation manager John Low, where several men had gathered to listen to a musical performance; Cockrane left the group for a time, and when Low went to look for him he discovered him in the outside privy, where he had cut his own throat with a razor; he was bleeding profusely from the large wound, and fell forward into Low’s arms; Cockrane’s wound was sewed up, and for the next several days he slipped in and out of consciousness, sometimes acting rational but other times becoming delirious; Cockrane wrote and tremulously signed a bloodstained will that gave Princeville Plantation to his fiance and his mother[ix]; according to Elsie Wilcox, “Dr. Smith, the nearest physician, was summoned from Koloa, and made a record-breaking ride with relays of horses, covering the forty-five miles in three hours. Doctors were also sent down from Honolulu, but their skill was of no avail. The young fellow died”[x]; Cockrane was buried in the Wai‘oli Church cemetery in an unmarked grave. (See Hanalei History, Chapter 12.)

Coelho, William JosephSenator; introduced a resolution in the Legislature in 1907 to establish, in downtown Honolulu, the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (renamed College of Hawai‘i in 1911); the College opened on September 15, 1908, and was renamed the University of Hawai‘i in 1920.

Cohen, Joel C.Ran the Orpheum Theatre, which opened in 1906 on Fort Street in Honolulu, becoming the first movie theater the Hawaiian Islands and Honolulu’s pioneer of popular-priced theatricals; in 1910, fire destroyed the Orpheum along with the Orpheum rooming house.

Cole, Dora Jane (Isenberg)Published a cookbook (including photographs and historical information) with Juliet (Rice) Wichman (1901—1987), entitled Early Kauai Hospitality.

Cole, G. W.Captained the Denmark Hill, outfitted by Honolulu merchant Henry A. Peirce in 1832, and was the first whaling ship to sail under the Hawaiian flag; a total of 198 whaling ships stopped in Hawaiian ports in 1832, including 118 in Honolulu and 80 in Lahaina, and the whaling industry continued to grow.

Collins, MichaelUnited States astronaut; picked up by the carrier USS Hornet and brought to Pearl Harbor on July 26, 1969 along with Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin after their Apollo 11 Columbia 3 space capsule splashed down in the Pacific Ocean upon its return from the first human visit to the moon; they are greeted by an estimated 25,000 people after the historic lunar mission; the astronauts are able to see the crowds only through the windows of their isolation trailer, and then are kept at Pearl Harbor’s Ford Island for three days before being flown to Houston with the space capsule.

Colnett, James (c.1755—1806)—In command of the British trading ship The Prince of Wales, which arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on January 2, 1788 along with the ship Princess Royal, under the command of Charles Duncan; both ships remained in Hawaiian waters until March 18, 1788; Archibald Menzies (1754-1842) was a naturalist on the crew of The Prince of Wales; he later returned to the Hawaiian Islands with the expeditions of Captain George Vancouver in 1792, 1793, and 1794, and became the first foreigner to climb to the summit of Mauna Loa on Hawai‘i Island; Menzies brought many seeds to the Hawaiian Islands and dispersed them, and his writings yielded many insights into the agriculture of the time period; in 1789, the Prince of Wales and the merchant ship Argonaut were captured by the Spanish; after the merchant ship Argonaut was returned to Colnett, he came to the Hawaiian Islands in April of 1791; also in the Hawaiian Islands at this time was the Princess Royal, a vessel formerly captained by Colnett and captured by the Spanish in 1789; the Princess Royal, flying Spanish colors, was under the command of Manuel Quimper; Colnett (on the Argonaut) and Quimper (on the Princess Royal) met off the coast of Hawai‘i Island; Colnett saw the Princess Royal under Spanish colors, and thought the Spanish were attempting to take control of the Hawaiian Islands; Colnett came very close to firing a broadside at the ship, which he formerly captained; this later becomes known as the “Nootka Sound controversy”; also in April of 1791, Colnett unloaded a ram and two ewes on Kaua‘i, introducing the first sheep to the Hawaiian Islands.

Conde, Daniel T.American Protestant missionary; served at Maui’s Wailuku mission station (which was established in 1832); served at the mission station at Hāna, Maui (which was established in 1832).

Cooke, Amos Starr (1810—1871)Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on April 9, 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner; the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); in 1839, with his wife Juliette Montague Cooke (a prominent music teacher) took charge of the Chiefs’ Children’s School; [the Chiefs’ Children’s School was renamed Royal School in 1846; all five future rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom attended the school, from King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) to Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and also educated at Royal School were Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] and the future Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]]; in 1841, with his wife Juliette Montague Cooke, Reverend and Mrs. Daniel Dole, and Hiram Bingham (17891869) established Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children; the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College; Amos and Juliette Montague Cooke were considered pioneers of a new educational system in the Hawaiian Islands; Samuel Northrup Castle (1808—1894) and Amos Starr Cooke formed the company Castle & Cooke in 1851, selling medicine, farm machines, and sewing tools; in 1907 the company became the agent for Matson Navigation and acquired interest in Matson; Castle & Cooke later obtained an interest in the Hawaiian Pineapple Company, which was renamed Dole Company and became part of the food division of Castle & Cooke; the company later became one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies (the other four were: Theo H. Davies & Company, American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; and Alexander & Baldwin); [with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom; in 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production totaled more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; owner billionaire David Murdock separated the companies again in the 1990s; under Murdock, Castle & Cooke currently owns much of Lāna‘i (developed as a resort destination) as well as a significant amount of land on O‘ahu (see Lāna‘i section, Chapter 2).

 

Cooke, Anna Charlotte (Rice)—Married Charles Montague Cooke Sr. (1849—1909) and they would have six children, including Clarence Hyde Cooke, Alice (Cooke) Spalding, and Charles Montague Cooke Jr. (1874—1948); Academy of Arts founder; built the Spalding House in 1927; the building was named after her daughter, Alice (Cooke) Spalding, the wife of Philip E. Spalding, after he donated the house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art; the Honolulu Academy of Arts, located in Makiki Heights, is a museum, library and educational facility; Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke’s art objects form the basis of the museum’s collection; Charles and Anna Cooke were instrumental in the establishment of Wakīkī Aquarium and Punahou’s Cooke Library.

Cooke, Charles Montague (Jr.) (1874—1948)—Son of Charles Montague Cooke Sr. (1849—1909) and Anna Charlotte (Rice) Cooke; brother of Clarence Hyde Cooke and Alice (Cooke) Spalding; attended O‘ahu’s Punahou School; graduated from Yale University in 1897, then earned a doctorate from Yale in 1901; married Eliza Lefferts in 1901; traveled to Europe with his wife to engage in scientific research; after returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1902, worked as a malacologist with the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum leading zoological expeditions; gathered the world’s largest collection of Polynesian seashells and land shells (several million, the biggest collection in the world at the time); published books and scientific papers; served as Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum’s President of the Board of Trustees; University of Hawai‘i Regent; the Honolulu Academy of Arts was established by his mother, Anna Charlotte (Rice) Cooke (Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke Sr.), and Charles Jr. served as the institution’s president; [Academy of Arts founder Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke built the Spalding House in 1927, and it was named after her daughter, Alice (Cooke) Spalding, the wife of Philip E. Spalding, after he donated the house and property to the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970 for use as a museum for Oriental Art; the Honolulu Academy of Arts, located in Makiki Heights, is a museum, library and educational facility; Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke’s art objects form the basis of the museum’s collection].

Cooke, Charles Montague (Sr.) (1849—1909)—Born in Honolulu; son (second) of Amos Star Cooke (1810—1871) and Juliette Montague Cooke; educated at Punahou School and Amherst Agricultural College; married Anna Charlotte Rice and they would have six children, including Clarence Hyde Cooke, Alice (Cooke) Spalding, and Charles Montague Cooke Jr. (1874—1948); worked for Castle & Cooke, and then for the lumbering merchants Lewers & Dickson (1877); with Robert Lewers (1836—1924) and Joshua G. Dickson, became partners in his cousin’s firm (after Christopher H. Lewers passed away), the firm became known as Lewers & Cooke after Dickson passed away in 1880, and Charles Montague Cooke Sr. purchased Joshua G. Dickson’s interest in the company, which was renamed Lewers & Cooke; became president of Bank of Hawaii [Hawai‘i], Ltd. in 1898 and the president of C. Brewer & Company in 1899, serving in the position until 1909; trustee of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate; Charles and Anna Cooke were instrumental in the establishment of Wakīkī Aquarium and Punahou’s Cooke Library.

Cooke, Clarence HydeSon of Charles Montague Cooke (Sr.) (1849—1909) and Anna Charlotte (Rice) Cooke; brother of Alice (Cooke) Spalding and Charles Montague Cooke Jr. (1874—1948)

Cooke, Eliza (Lefferts)—From Brooklyn, New York; married Charles Montague Cooke Jr. (1874—1948) in 1901; traveled to Europe with her husband to engage in scientific research; after returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1902, her husband worked as a malacologist with the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum leading zoological expeditions.

Cooke, Juliette MontagueCame to the Hawaiian Islands in 1837 with the Eighth Company of American missionaries; in 1839, with her husband Amos Starr Cooke (1810—1871), took charge of the Chiefs’ Children’s School, which was renamed Royal School in 1846; [all five future rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom attended the Royal School, from King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani) to Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], and also educated at Royal School were Princess Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop] and the future Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani]]; in 1841, Juliette Montague Cooke, along with her husband Amos Starr Cooke, Reverend and Mrs. Daniel Dole, and Hiram Bingham (17891869) established Punahou School for missionary children and chiefs’ children; the school was originally known as Ka-puna-hou (“The new spring”) referring to an ancient legend; in 1843, the school was designated Punahou School and Oahu [O‘ahu] College; Amos and Juliette Montague Cooke were considered pioneers of a new educational system in the Hawaiian Islands.

Cook, James (1728—1779)—Brief summary: British captain; while searching for the elusive “Northwest Passage,” a northern route from the Pacific to the Atlantic, became the first known European to come to the Hawaiian Islands; sailed around the world twice, commanding three major Pacific exploratory expeditions for Great Britain between 1768 and 1779; died in 1779 at Kealakekua Bay when he was attacked on the beach by native Hawaiians who were angry that members of Cook’s crew had killed one of their chiefs; considered by many to be one of the world’s greatest explorers; made many discoveries during his expeditions, collecting a great deal of information about native people as well as native flora and fauna. More detailed biographical information: Born in Yorkshire, Britain in 1728; after sailing the North Sea, achieved the rank of master’s mate in the Royal Navy; served in the French and Indian War in the battle for Quebec; spent four years mapping the coast of Newfoundland; rose to the rank of lieutenant; placed in command of the Endeavour and began his first Pacific voyage; while in Tahiti on June 3, 1768 witnessed Venus passing in front of the sun; spent six months mapping the New Zealand coast and the eastern Australian coast; sailed around the world and returned to England; commanded the Resolution and Adventure on his second Pacific voyage, covering more than 60,000 miles (96,561 km) in three years; during the voyage he was the first person to sail south of the Antarctic Circle; discovered or rediscovered many islands in the Pacific Ocean; returned to England in July of 1775; on Cook’s third Pacific voyage he was in command of the Resolution (the flagship), with the Discovery under Captain Charles Clerke being his consort ship; the voyage began with a revisiting of South Pacific islands and then the first Western discovery of Christmas Island; the two ships, the HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, then headed north, first sighting the Hawaiian Islands of O‘ahu and Kaua‘i in the dawn hours of January 18, 1778; conditions kept them at bay until the next day, by which time they had also sighted Ni‘ihau; when Cook’s ships approached Kaua‘i’s southeast coast on the afternoon of January 19, 1778, natives in canoes paddled out to meet them—and so began Hawai‘i’s contact with Westerners [though some speculative evidence (including a Hawaiian legend) exists that Spanish ships visited the Hawaiian Islands in the 1500s, it remains uncertain; the Hawaiians did have two small pieces of iron when Cook arrived, and claimed it “came from the sea,” perhaps meaning that it floated ashore on ocean debris; at this time the total population of the eight main Hawaiian Islands was about 300,000 (estimates vary from less than 300,000 to more than 700,000); Cook’s men estimated that about 30,000 people lived on Kaua‘i at the time]; Cook’s first encounter with the Hawaiians took place in the waters near Kīpū Kai on Kaua‘i; the Hawaiians traded fish and sweet potatoes for pieces of iron and brass, which were lowered down from the larger ships to the Hawaiians canoes; Cook then sailed along Kaua‘i’s southeastern coast searching for a suitable anchorage; Cook’s ships remained offshore, but Cook allowed a few Hawaiians to come on board on the morning of January 20 before continuing on in search of safe anchorage; on the afternoon of January 20, Cook anchored his ships near the mouth of Kaua‘i’s Waimea River, and went ashore with three boats accompanied by 12 armed marines; as they stepped ashore, Cook and his men were greeted by hundreds of Hawaiians who offered gifts including kapa barkcloth, pua‘a (Sus scrofa, pigs), and mai‘a (Musa species, banana plants); Cook went ashore three times that day, walking inland to where he saw Hawaiian hale (houses), heiau (sacred places of worship), and agriculture; Cook’s crew continued to trade iron and other items to the natives, receiving in return the various food items mentioned above as well as moa (Gallus gallus gallus, chickens) and corms of kalo (Colocasia esculenta, taro); Cook called the archipelago (island group) the Sandwich Islands in honor of the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich, who was Cook’s patron in the British Admiralty; after a fruitless journey north in search of a Northwest Passage (a northwest route from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean), Cook returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on January 17, 1779, sailing into Kealakekua Bay on the island of Hawai‘i; Cook’s intention was to restock his ships and let his men recover from their journey so they could press on for further exploration; Cook was unaware that he was visiting the Islands during the ancient Hawaiian harvest festival known as Makahiki, which began with the first appearance of the crescent moon following the new moon after the appearance of the constellation Makali‘i (Pleiades) rising in the east after sunset (around the middle of October), and lasted several months; during Makahiki, time was taken away from work for feasts, sports games, and other events in honor of Lono, the god of agricultural fertility; when Cook arrived on the island of Hawai‘i during the Makahiki festival, he was greeted by processions and celebrations unlike any he had encountered before; many historians state that Cook was received as the god Lono, but others disagree (see Appendix 1); Hawaiian beliefs held that Lono had long ago departed from Kealakekua Bay, promising to return; while accounts vary on whether Cook was indeed thought by the natives to be the god Lono, it is clear that Cook was given preferential treatment; was brought to the heiau called Hikiau, a sacred temple where kāhuna (native priests) put sacred red kapa cloth on him and offered sacred chants; left Kealakekua Bay on February 4, 1779 to survey the other Hawaiian Islands before heading off again on his explorations; however, soon after leaving Kealakekua Bay, a foremast of the HMS Resolution broke, requiring Cook and his men to return to Kealakekua Bay; on the evening of February 13, 1779, one of Cook’s boats (a cutter, the Discovery’s largest boat) was stolen; the next morning Cook went ashore with nine of his men to retrieve the boat; planned to find the ruler of the island, Kalani‘ōpu‘u, and take him hostage in order to demand the return of the boat for the return of the chief; Cook and his men went ashore and awakened Kalani‘ōpu‘u, and compelled him to come to the ship; meanwhile, members of Cook’s crew had blockaded the harbor so no one could escape; when a canoe attempted to pass the blockade, Cook’s crew fired on the natives, killing a chief; learning that one of their chiefs had been killed, the natives gathered in a large crowd near shore; just then, Cook’s group, including Kalani‘ōpu‘u, reached shore to take their small boat out to the main ship; in an encounter with the angry native Hawaiians on the shore, Cook and his men fired upon the natives; when Cook’s men paused to reload they were attacked; Cook yelled for his men to “take to the boats!,” but it was too late—Cook was stabbed in the neck and killed, and floated face down in the water; at least four of Cook’s men were also killed; the rest of Cook’s group escaped in their boat that was near the shore; Cook’s men retreated to the main ship, leaving Cook behind along with the other members of his crew that had been killed; four marines and an unknown number of native Hawaiians died in the fighting during the following days as hostilities escalated; a stalemate existed over the return of Cook’s remains, which had been taken inland; eventually Cook’s remains were returned by a procession of Hawaiians bearing white flags and beating drums; the remains were wrapped in kapa barkcloth, and covered by a feather cloak; within the kapa, however, were only some of Cook’s remains, the rest still being in the possession of native chiefs; Cook’s hands and feet had been preserved with pa‘akai (sea salt), and the rest of his flesh had been stripped from his bones and burned [historians have noted that this treatment was normally reserved for ali‘i nui (high chiefs)]; Cook’s crew then held a naval burial service; the ship’s cannons were fired in salute, and Cook’s remains were lowered into Kealakekua Bay (pressure from the British government eventually resulted in Cook’s remains being returned to his homeland); after Cook’s crew left the Hawaiian Islands, no other Europeans sailed to Hawai‘i’s shores until 1786; then an increasing number of foreign ships began to visit the Hawaiian Islands, including British Captain George Vancouver’s expeditions in 1792, 1793 and 1794.

 

Cope, Mother Marianne—See Koob, Barbara. 

 

Corney, EmilyDaughter of Peter Corney. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

 

Corney, FannyDaughter of Peter Corney. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Corney, Mrs.Widow of Peter Corney; lived with Mr. and Mrs. Dudoit in Hanalei along with three of the Corney children: Fanny, Emily, and Peter; Jules Dudoit had traveled to Hawai‘i on a ship with the Corneys, who were going on to meet their father, Peter Corney, in the Northwest; upon learning of their father’s death, the Corney family remained in the Hawaiian Islands where one of the daughters, Anna, married Jules Dudoit. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

 

Corney, Peter (?—1835)—English seaman; adventurer; around 1813 began working for North West Company, and later for the Hudson’s Bay Company; author of The Early Voyages of Peter Corney; author of Voyages in the Northern Pacific (18131818) (Honolulu: Thos. G. Thrum, 1896); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in January of 1815 aboard the training schooner Columbia (Corney was chief officer); the ship was then sold for twice its bulk in sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), and Corney stayed in the Hawaiian Islands; later became involved in an 1818 encounter with some South American pirates; Hippolyte [Hypólite] de Bouchard (1785—1843), a French revolutionary from Buenos Aires in command of the Argentina—a 44-gun frigate of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata River (later the Argentine Republic)—arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in September of 1818; Bouchard’s goal was to subdue the South American pirates who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on the pirate ship corvette Santa Rosa in May of 1818 and were taking refuge in the Hawaiian Islands; Bouchard recaptured the Santa Rosa and put it under the command of Peter Corney; the two ships sailed for California; some considered Bouchard to be a pirate; both Bouchard and Corney later participated in a political raid on Monterey, the capital of Spanish California; in 1835, served as the chief officer on the Hudson’s Bay Company bark Columbia (a different ship than he previously arrived on); Jules Dudoit had traveled to the Hawaiian Islands on a ship with the Corneys, who were going on to meet their father, Peter Corney, in the Northwest; upon learning of their father’s death, the Corney family remained in the Hawaiian Islands where one of the daughters, Anna, married Jules Dudoit. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Corney, PeterSon of Peter Corney. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Crabbe, Clarence “Buster”Swimmer and Hawaiian resident; competed at the Los Angeles Olympics, winning a gold medal in the 400-meter freestyle on August 10, 1932; Hawai‘i’s only medallist in the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, winning a bronze in the 1,500-meter freestyle.

Crain, John C.Lieutenant; completed a 16½-hour Army glider plane flight in 1931, taking off from the Kāne‘ohe experimental grounds; the glider was designed by Lieutenant W. A. Cocke Jr. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Crane, Charles SpencerMayor of City and County of Honolulu from July 15, 1938 to January 2, 1941.

Cravalho, Elmer FranklinServed as Mayor of Maui County (19691979.

Crawford, David L.Served as President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1927—1941); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Craycroft [Cracroft], Sophia (18161892)Brought to Hawaiian Islands by Robert Crichton Wyllie in 1861, along with her aunt and long-time companion, Lady Jane Franklin; Wyllie and his two guests sailed into Hanalei Bay after first visiting O‘ahu and then the volcanoes of Hawai‘i Island; Sophia Craycroft and Lady Jane Franklin were visited at their home in London, England in 1865 by Queen Emma [Emma Na‘ea Rooke; Kalanikaumakeamano; Kaleleonālani] (1836—1885), the wife of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); an account of this London visit is given in a book edited by Alfons L. Korn entitled: The Victorian Visitors: An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958). (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Crowninshield, George (Jr.)Heir to a shipping fortune; son of George Crowninshield Sr.; commissioned the Salem shipbuilding firm of Retire Becket to construct Cleopatra’s Barge, the first ocean-going yacht in the United States built solely for pleasure rather than commerce or war; [the ship was built in the harbor of Salem, Massachusetts, and measured 100 feet (30 m) along its deck and 83 feet (25 m) long at its waterline; Cleopatra’s Barge cost about $50,000 to build and another $50,000 to furnish; the ship had five staterooms, a large forecastle, and mahogany paneling inlaid with bird’s-eye maple and other fine woods; known as a hermaphrodite brig, the extravagant vessel had a main mast that was square-rigged, while the fore and aft sails were rigged on the mizzen; thousands of visitors came to see Cleopatra’s Barge as it was being built in the Salem, Massachusetts harbor; the ship’s name comes from the famous William Shakespeare play Anthony and Cleopatra]; in April of 1817, George Crowninshield Jr. journeyed on Cleopatra’s Barge to sixteen southern European and Mediterranean ports; after George Jr. passed away suddenly and unexpectedly, the ship’s expensive furnishings were auctioned off; in July of 1818, Cleopatra’s Barge was sold for $15,400; the new owners of Cleopatra’s Barge, the Boston Merchant firm of Bryant and Sturgis; the ship was later sent to the Hawaiian Islands in the hopes that it could be traded for fragrant and valuable sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi), which could be sold for a profit in China; in November of 1820, Cleopatra’s Barge was purchased by King Kamehameha II for a cargo of sandalwood (8,000 piculs), which was worth about $80,000 in China; he renamed the ship Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i), and used it as a royal pleasure craft, ship-of-state, merchant vessel, and for interisland travels; the elegant royal ship was perhaps the most famous sailing vessel ever owned by the Hawaiian monarchy; on July 21, 1821, King Kamehameha II sailed to Kaua‘i on his royal ship to meet with Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler, Kaumuali‘i; it was during this journey that King Kamehameha II took Kaumuali‘i on the ship as a prisoner; when King Kamehameha II was away from the Islands visiting England with Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] in 1824, a royal crew sailed the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i to Kaua‘i; on April 5, 1824, the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i became shipwrecked at the mouth of the Wai‘oli River in Hanalei Bay, and was abandoned; the king and queen would never learn of the fate of the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i; Queen Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] died of measles on July 8, 1824, and less than one week later King Kamehameha II also died of the disease; ironically, the royal couple had originally intended to sail to Europe on the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i, but a late change of plans led them to instead sail on the whale ship L’Aigle; a salvage attempt was witnessed by missionary Reverend Hiram Bingham (17891869); the ship’s main mast snapped and the huge vessel rolled back, ending the salvage efforts; in the 1850s, the builders of a small vessel at Wai‘oli paid native Hawaiians to retrieve an iron gun from the wreck of the Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i; also retrieved from the 1824 shipwreck were the oak capstan (much decayed) and the iron post upon which it revolved; in 1995, the Smithsonian Institution’s Dr. Paul Forsythe Johnston used remote sensing equipment to discover the buried location of the sunken wreck of Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Prince of Hawai‘i); hundreds of artifacts were recovered from the shipwreck. (See Hanalei History in Kaua‘i section, Chapter 2.)

Crowninshield, George (Sr.)Earned a sizeable fortune through privateering during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812; became head of a shipping firm called George Crowninshield and Sons; father of George Crowninshield (Jr.), who commissioned the Salem shipbuilding firm of Retire Becket to construct Cleopatra’s Barge, renamed Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i), when it was purchased by King Kamehameha II, who used it as a royal pleasure craft, ship-of-state, merchant vessel, and for interisland travels that included transporting American missionaries. (See Crowninshield, George (Sr.).)

Cummins, John Adams (1835—1913)—Born on O‘ahu to a native Hawaiian mother remotely related to King Kamehameha I, and a father who was an English settler who owned land, cattle, and interests in sugarcane; attended Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846); became manager of his father’s ranch in 1855; in 1863, married Kahalewai; after she passed away in 1902, married Kapeka Mersburg; established Waimanalo Sugar Plantation; in 1885, became a Hawaiian Jockey Club charter member; involved with horse racing, breeding, and importing; in 1890, became King Kalākaua‘s Minister of Foreign Affairs; participated in 1895 counter-revolution [on January 6, 1895, a small group of royalists, mostly native Hawaiians in support Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani], attempted a counter-revolution to overthrow the Republic and restore the Queen; the uprising apparently took place without the participation of Queen Lili‘uokalani, who denied any involvement; hundreds of men were arrested; on January 7, 1895, Martial Law was declared and a military commission was appointed to court-martial Queen Lili‘uokalani and others; in all, 37 people were found guilty of treason and open rebellion, 141 guilty of treason, and 12 guilty of misprision; twenty-two people were exiled to the United States]; charged with conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, and fined; ran a ten-ton pilot boat from his Waimanalo dock to various Island ports; a rail line was laid from the dock to Cummins’ house to accommodate King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha).

 

Cummins, KahalewaiMarried John Adams Cummins (1835—1913) in 1863; passed away in 1902.

Cummins, Kapeka (Mersburg)Married John Adams Cummins (1835—1913) after his first wife, Kahalewai, passed away in 1902.



[i] Although hundreds of sources were used to compile this Glossary of Important Persons of Hawaiian History, of particular importance as a source for Part 2 of this glossary was: History Makers of Hawaii: A Biographical Dictionary (Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, March, 1984).

[ii] Translation by J.C. Lane, as cited in: Houston, Victor S. K. The Hawaiian Flag. Friends of ‘Iolani Palace, 6/1988.

[iii] p. 215, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[iv] p. 78, Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[v] Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation: Presented by Lili‘uokalani in Washington D.C., June 17, 1897. Internet site: http://hawaiii-nation.org/treatyprot.html, 6/14/2005.

[vi] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[vii] Princeville Ranch. p. 2, Na Leo ‘O Princeville. Princeville Corporation & Princeville Utilities Company, Inc., Summer, 2003.

[viii] p. 270, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917.

[ix] p. 22, Cook, Chris. Princeville’s History. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Mutual Publishing, 2002.

[x] p. 281, Wilcox, Elsie. Hanalei in History, Wilcox mss. Kauai Historical Society, 4/26/1917. Note: Other accounts say the ride was about 40 miles in 4½ hours.