Part 2 Glossary (I-L)

I‘aukea, Charlotte K. (Hanks)Married Curtis Pi‘ehu I‘aukea (1855—1940) in 1877 and they would have one daughter and one son.

 

I‘aukea, Curtis Pi‘ehu (18551940)Born in Waimea on Hawai‘i Island to J. W. and Lahapa Nalanipo I‘aukea; raised by his uncle, Kaihupaa, in Honolulu; attended ‘Iolani School through the Church of England; went to Hilo to work in the sugarcane business; married Charlotte K. Hanks in 1877 and they would have one daughter and one son; King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] requested that I‘aukea return to the royal court; served as chief secretary in the Department of Foreign Affairs (1880); special envoy of King Kalākaua in 1883 when he attended the coronation of the Czar (emperor) and empress of Russia; traveled to Europe, India, and Japan, helping to arrange for the importation of Japanese sugarcane plantation laborers; collector general of customs (1884); served as chamberlain of the king’s household, including responsibility for the party that visited President and Mrs. Grover Cleveland in Washington D. C. and then continued on to attended the Jubilee of Queen Victoria in London, England 1887 with Queen Kapi‘olani; in 1897, represented the Republic of Hawai‘i in attending Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee; served as secretary and military attache in 1897 when he traveled to Washington D.C. with Sanford Ballard Dole (18441926) and his wife (at the time, Dole was President of the Republic of Hawai‘i); O‘ahu County Sheriff (19061908); served one term in the Territorial Senate, beginning in 1912; served as chamberlain of Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; as business representative and private secretary to the queen and in accordance with traditional royal custom, issued formal announcement of her death on November 11, 1917; administrator of Queen Lili‘uokalani’s estate, and Lili‘uokalani Trust’s managing trustee; in 1917, appointed Secretary of the Territory (and often acting governor), serving until 1921; chairman of the Hawaiian Homes Commission (19331935);

I‘aukea, J. W.Father of Curtis Pi‘ehu I‘aukea (18551940).

I‘aukea, Lahapa NalanipoMother of Curtis Pi‘ehu I‘aukea (18551940).

Ida, Shomatsu (Horace)Of Japanese ancestry; tried for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thalia and Thomas attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; she told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Ingraham, JosephIn command of the American brigantine Hope when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on May 20, 1791 and barely avoided being captured by King Kamehameha I; had been the second mate of the Columbia when it came to the Hawaiian Islands under the command of Robert Gray in 1789.

Inouye, Daniel (1904—)—Born in Honolulu on September 7, 1924; the first of four children of Hyotaro and Kame Inouye; as a child, attended McKinley High School in Honolulu and worked at various jobs, including parking cars at Honolulu Stadium; in 1943 at the age of 18, Inouye enlisted in the Army, and from 1944 to 1947 he served in the United States Army’s renowned 442nd Infantry Regiment; designated a Sergeant, Inouye fought in the Italian campaign where he became a combat platoon leader; fighting in the French Vosges Mountains in the fall of 1944, Inouye won a Bronze Star when he helped rescue “The Lost Battalion,” a Texas Battalion (141st Regiment, 36th Infantry Division) that was surrounded by German forces; also became a Second Lieutenant; during an attack on a well-defended hill in Italy, a bullet tore through Inouye’s abdomen and came out his back, just missing his spine; as platoon leader, he alone continued to advance, and threw two hand grenades at the machine gun position that had pinned down his men; as Inouye advanced, a German rifle grenade hit him from close range and tore up his right arm; with his left hand, he threw his last grenade and then fired his submachine gun before finally being stopped when he was hit yet again, this time by a bullet in the leg; twenty-five Germans were killed and eight captured in the attack led by Inouye; after nearly two years in the hospital, returned home in 1947 with the second highest award for military valor, the Distinguished Service Cross; this award was later upgraded to a Medal of Honor (the highest award), which was presented to Inouye by the President of the United States on June 21, 2000; twenty-two other former 442nd members also received the Medal of Honor; also earned a Purple Heart with cluster and a Bronze Star, along with a dozen other citations and medals; [despite the United States government’s suspicions about Japanese residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and the harsh and often racist treatment Japanese-Americans received after the Pearl Harbor attack, many wished to show their loyalty and join the war effort; in the summer of 1942, approximately 1,300 Americans of Japanese ancestry from the Hawaiian Islands traveled to Wisconsin’s Camp McCoy for training, and then formed the 100th Infantry Battalion; on February 1, 1943, the government announced the formation of the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team, initially consisting of Nisei (second generation Japanese-American) volunteers from the Hawaiian Islands and the United States Mainland who wanted to demonstrate their loyalty to the United States; in June of 1944 in Italy, the 100th Infantry Battalion joined ranks with the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team; the 442nd/100th, which was comprised mostly of Hawai‘i’s Nisei soldiers, fought in Italy before participating in the invasion in southern France; for their heroic efforts despite heavy losses in Italy, France, and Germany, the 442nd became known as the “Purple Heart Battalion”; the motto of the 442nd was “Go For Broke,” a Hawaiian slang term referring to risking everything; the 442nd/100th, which eventually became the most decorated unit in United States history, earning more than 18,000 total awards for their stellar war performance record, and their valorous fighting in numerous battles despite suffering high casualty rates; awards given to the 442nd included 9,486 Purple Hearts, 52 Distinguished Service Crosses, 8 Distinguished Unit Citations, and 21 Congressional Medals of Honor (see The 442nd/100th—Hawai‘i’s Nisei Soldiers, Chapter 12)]; after attending the University of Hawai‘i (1950) and George Washington University Law School (1952), Inouye became Honolulu’s Deputy Public Prosecutor in 1954; Inouye’s involvement in politics began during the era of McCarthyism, which was particularly directed against those supporting unions in the Hawaiian Islands; when Inouye and other Democrats were accused of being Communists, Inouye responded: “We bitterly resent having our loyalty and patriotism questioned. I gave this arm to fight Fascists,” he said, shaking his empty right sleeve, adding, “...If my country wants the other one to fight Communists, it can have it”; Inouye was elected to the House of Representatives of the Territory of Hawai‘i in 1954, re-elected in 1956, then elected to the Territorial Senate in 1958; [the political landscape of the Hawaiian Islands changed rapidly in the mid-1950s when returning World War II veterans, many of whom were distinguished members of the renowned 442nd Infantry Regiment, began to assert their political power; Japanese-Americans led the new political movement and formed alliances with other ethnic groups, including Filipinos; these increasingly powerful ethnic groups were supported by landowners and business leaders who helped them win important election victories in what became known as the Democratic Revolution of 1954 (six Democrats (Nisei) had been elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1946); favoring statehood, liberal labor benefits, land reform, and equality in education, the Democrats gained a majority in the Territorial House of Representatives and two years later won both Houses; in 1954, Democrats won 55 of the 76 election contests, gaining control of five of the six branches of the Territorial government (see The Democratic Revolution, Chapter 12)]; when Inouye was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1959 after Hawai‘i became the 50th state, he became the State of Hawai‘i’s first Congressman and the first Japanese-American in the United States House or Congress; at Inouye’s swearing in the Speaker stated “Raise your right hand and repeat after me”; Inouye proudly raised his left hand and stated the oath of office; re-elected to the House in 1960, elected to the United States Senate in 1962, and then repeatedly re-elected to the Senate; in 1968, served as the Keynote Speaker at the Democratic National Convention and gained fame during the nationally televised Watergate hearings in the 1970s, and later as chairman of the Senate Iran-Contra hearings; in 1993, helped arrange the return of the island of Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i; received 76% of the votes when he won his 7th term in 1998; now serving his eighth consecutive term as the Senate’s third most senior member; has been involved in many defense-related issues and serves on the Senate Defense Appropriations Committee; Inouye’s extensive political influence has helped to allocate hundreds of millions of federal dollars to programs in the State of Hawai‘i, and he continues to lobby for legislation that creates job for residents of the Hawaiian Islands.

Irwin, William G.Sugarcane entrepreneur; constructed the Irwin Block in 1897 at 928 Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu’s Chinatown district; the architects of the two-story, high-ceilinged building were C. B. Ripley and Charles William Dickey (1871—1942), and the building’s style is Richardsonian Romanesque; the exterior is rough-hewn volcanic stone and brick; the building was used for about 25 years by Yoichi Takakuwa as a wholesale store and political headquarters; in 1923, the building was bought by Nippu Jiji (a Japanese-language newspaper originally founded as The Yamato in 1895 and later called Hawaii Times), which occupied the building until 1984; cornices on the building show the dates 1895 and 1923; in 1973, the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places; extensive interior renovations took place in 1982, and an interior mezzanine level was added along with a five-story addition on the rear of the building.

Isaacs, AttaInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist; the slack key style gained wider popularity in the 1960s and 1970s in part due to his inspired talents along with other slack key pioneers. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Isenberg, Beta (Glade)Wife of Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903)

Isenberg, DoraDaughter of Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903) and Hannah Maria (Rice) Isenberg; wife of Reverend Hans Isenberg (her first cousin).

 

Isenberg, Hannah Maria (Rice)Eldest daughter of William Harrison Rice (1813—1862) and Mary Sophia (Hyde) Rice; married Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903) in 1861; passed away in 1867.

 

Isenberg, Hans (Reverend)Husband of Dora Isenberg (his first cousin).

Isenberg, Heinrich Paul Friedrich (18371903)Born in Germany to a Lutheran minister; hired in 1858 by William Harrison Rice (1813—1862) at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation as an overseer; married Hannah Maria Rice in 1861 and they would have two children, Dora and Paul; in 1862 took over management of Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation after William Harrison Rice passed away, and the company became very profitable; after Hannah Maria passed away in 1867, and he married Beta Glade in 1869 in Germany and they would have six children; acquired a share of Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation in 1870s; became a partner with Captain Heinrich Hackfeld (18151887) in 1881 (this company became American Factors, Ltd. (Amfac), one of Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies; [the “Big Five” companies were Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke (with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom, and by 1933, about 96 percent of the sugar crop in the Hawaiian Islands was controlled by the “Big Five” companies (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; awarded Order of Kamehameha by King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; moved to Germany in 1878.

Isenberg, Paul (1837—1903)—Son of Heinrich Paul Friedrich Isenberg (1837—1903) and Hannah Maria (Rice) Isenberg.

Ives, MarkAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Hāna, Maui mission station (which was established in 1832); served on Hawai‘i Island at the Ka‘awaloa mission station (which was established in 1824).

Jackson, Richard H.Civil War veteran; brigadier-general; named after him in 1914 was Battery Jackson, which had two six-inch guns able to fire 106-pound (48-kg) projectiles 14,600 yards (13,350 m); [Fort Kamehameha Military Reservation was established in 1907 at the entrance to Pearl Harbor at Hickam Air Force Base, becoming the only United States fort to be named after a foreign king; soon constructed was a series of coastal artillery batteries, a “Ring of Steel” including long-range guns and mortars to fortify O‘ahu’s harbors; coastal batteries at Fort Kamehameha included Battery Selfridge, Battery Randolph, Battery Jackson, Battery Hawkins, Battery Hasbrouck, and Battery Closson.] (See Military Bases in the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 12.)

Jacobsen, ViggoDesigned seal for the Republic of Hawai‘i in 1895; the current State Seal was designed after the Territorial Seal, and became the State Seal in 1959 when the Hawaiian Islands became the 50th state; the State Seal is circular in shape, with the words “State of Hawai‘i” on the top of the Seal, and on the bottom, Hawai‘i’s State Motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono(“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”); in the middle of the State Seal is a heraldic shield, which is also the state’s Coat of Arms; kapu sticks are on the lower left and upper right of the shield, and horizontal stripes are at the lower right and upper left of the shield; above the shield is the sun, and “1959,” commemorating statehood; King Kamehameha I is to the left of the shield, while the Goddess of Liberty (holding the state flag) is on the right side of the shield; a phoenix with leaves of kalo (Colocasia esculenta, taro), mai‘a (Musa species, banana), and ‘iwa‘iwa (Adiantaceae, maidenhair fern) are at the bottom of the State Seal.

Jaggar, Thomas Augustus (18711953)Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; earned degrees from Harvard University (A.B., 1893; A.M., 1894; and Ph.D., 1897); studied in Germany (Munich and Heidelberg); Harvard professor; headed Department of Geology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology beginning in 1906; established Hawaiian Volcano Research Association in 1911; worked many years at Kīlauea Volcano on Hawai‘i Island in conjunction with the United States Geological Survey, the National Park Service, and the United States Weather Bureau; also led volcano research projects in locations worldwide; wrote numerous articles and books; on Hawai‘i Island, at the 4,000-foot (1,220-km) elevation on the northern rim of Kīlauea Caldera, is visitor center known as the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum; [also at the summit area of Kīlauea Volcano is the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Headquarters, another Visitor Center, the Volcano Art Center, and the Volcano House Hotel and Restaurant].

Jamieson, FrederickCaucasian businessman; vice president of Hawaiian Trust Company; father of Gill Jamieson, who was abducted and killed by Myles Yutaka Fukunaga on September 18, 1928; paid $4,000 in ransom unaware his son had already been killed; Myles Yutaka Fukunaga admitted his guilt and stated that he sought revenge against Hawaiian Trust for demanding rent from his parents and threatening his parents with eviction. (See Jamieson, Gill.)

Jamieson, GillSon of Caucasian businessman Frederick Jamieson (vice president of the Hawaiian Trust Company); abducted and killed at age ten on September 18, 1928 by nineteen-year-old Myles Yutaka Fukunaga, who later received $4,000 in ransom from Frederick Jamieson; racial tensions rose as the Japanese community was targeted during a search for the boy, who was tricked into leaving Punahou School when Fukunaga told school administrators that Gill’s mother was in a car accident; after leaving Punahou School, Fukunaga took Gill Jamieson in a cab to Waikīkī’s Seaside Hotel, where Fukunaga worked; behind the hotel, Fukunaga attacked the boy with a steel chisel and then choked him to death; Gill Jamieson’s body was found the following day; a ticket agent for Oahu [O‘ahu] Transit who knew Fukunaga discovered that a serial number on a bill used by Fukunaga that matched the ransom money, and alerted the police; five days after the murder, Fukunaga was caught when his sister took authorities to him outside a church; Myles Yutaka Fukunaga admitted his guilt, stating that he sought revenge against Hawaiian Trust for demanding rent from his parents and threatening his parents with eviction; Myles wanted the $10,000 to help his parents and redeem his honor after shaming them with a failed suicide attempt; National Guardsmen with bayonets were needed to control a crowd of about 20,000 people gathered around the police station when Fukunaga was brought in; two weeks later Fukunaga was tried (with no defense witnesses called) and convicted; Fukunaga was hanged on November 19, 1929.

Janion, Robert C.Founded a small trading company in the Hawaiian Islands in 1845 with James Starkey; the Honolulu merchandising business hired Theophilus Harris Davies (1833—1898) on a five year contract in 1856; Janion returned to England in 1868; partner in store called Theo H. Davies, which merged with Janion, Green & Company, and then in 1894 incorporated, serving as financial agents for 22 sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands.

Jarrett, Elizabeth (Neal)Married William Paul Jarrett (1877—1929) after his first wife, Mary H. K. Clark, passed away in 1920.

Jarrett, Mary H. K. (Clark)Married William Paul Jarrett (1877—1929) in 1907 and they would have four children; passed away in 1920.

Jarrett, William Paul (18771929)Born in Honolulu; attended St. Louis College; served as Honolulu’s deputy sheriff (one term), sheriff (three terms), and High Sheriff of the Territory of Hawai‘i (1914—1922); warden of Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison, where he was noted for his reform work; married Mary H. K. Clark in 1907 and they would have four children; after she passed away in 1920, he married Mrs. Elizabeth Neal; Territorial Delegate to Congress (Democrat) (19231927); superintendent of Lunalilo Home (19261929).

Jarves, James Jackson (18181888)Born in Boston, Massachusetts; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands at age 19, then returned to the United States to marry his childhood girlfriend; one of the first people to write a Hawaiian history text in the English language; also wrote the first novel set in the Hawaiian Islands; in 1840, founded a weekly publication called the Polynesian, which became the Hawaiian government’s official publication in 1844; after moving back to the United States Mainland, James was serving as a special commissioner on December 6, 1849 in Washington D. C. when he signed a treaty recognizing the Hawaiian Kingdom’s independence; published The History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands (Boston: Tappan & Dennet, 1843); and Scenes and Scenery in the Hawaiian Islands (Boston: James Monroe, 1843); and the novel Kiana: A Tradition of Hawaii (Boston and Cambridge: James Monroe, 1857).

Jensen, MartinTook second place in the Dole Air Derby (with navigator Paul Schluter) in the Aloha; the competition took place on August 16, 1927; billed as the first trans-oceanic flight race, with entrants competing for the prizes of $25,000 and $10,000, which were offered by James Drummond Dole, president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company; eight planes left Oakland, California for the Hawaiian Island; this was the first race from the United States Mainland to the Hawaiian Islands; a total of ten lives were lost when two planes crashed on take-off; two planes encountered difficulties and had to turn back; and two planes disappeared over the Pacific Ocean; the winner of the trans-oceanic race was Art Goebel (with navigator William Davis) in the monoplane Woolaroc, with just 4 gallons (15 liters) of fuel to spare. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Jervis, GerardBishop Estate trustee on September 10, 1998 when State Attorney General Margery Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry); Jervis was later caught in a public mens’ room at the Hawaiian Prince Hotel with a married Bishop Estate employee; the woman committed suicide the next day, and about one week later Jervis (also married) consumed a large amount of sleeping pills and was rushed to the hospital (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Joerger, Pauline NawahineokalaiDaughter Samuel Wilder King (1886—1959) and Pauline Nawahineokalai (Evans) King; author and teacher.

Johnson, EdwardAmerican Protestant missionary; husband of Lois Johnson; came to the Hawaiian Islands from New Hampshire and served at Kaua‘i’s Wai‘oli mission station (which was established in 1834).

Johnson, LoisWife of Edward Johnson; came to the Hawaiian Islands from New Hampshire.

Johnston, AndrewAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820).

 

Jones, Albert O.Indicted for second degree murder of Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was awaiting a retrial for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; the events of the Massie case began after Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center); Thalia Massie was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; Thalia Massie told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Jones, Cornelia (Hall)Daughter of American Protestant missionary Edwin O. Hall; in 1862, married Peter Cushman Jones (18371922) and they would have three children, including Edwin Austin Jones.

Jones, JuneBecame coach of the University of Hawai‘i Warriors football team in 1998 (which he played for in 1974), improving the team’s record from 0-12 to 9-4, the biggest one year turnaround in NCAA football history, including a victory at the O‘ahu Bowl; named college coach of the year by three national organizations; after playing football for the University of Hawai‘i, Jones played in the National Football League (Atlanta Falcons, 1977—1981) and then the Canadian Football League; he then worked as the quarterbacks coach for UH in 1983 before coaching in the U.S. Football League and the NFL, first in Atlanta and Detroit, then becoming the Atlanta Falcons head coach (1994—1996); San Diego Chargers head coach in 1998 when he took the UH Warriors coaching job; sustained major injuries in a car accident on February 22, 2001 that nearly killed him, but amazingly he was able to recover in time for the start of the 2001 season; became the highest paid state employee in 2003 when he was given a new $800,000 per year contract.

Jones, Edwin AustinSon of Peter Cushman Jones (1837—1922) and Cornelia (Hall) Jones; with his father, founded a company in 1892 which later became Hawaiian Trust Company.

Jones, Peter Cushman (18371922)Born in Boston, Massachusetts; attended Boston Latin School; in 1862, married Cornelia Hall, and they would have three children; partner in a ship chandlery with C. L. Richards; in 1871, became a partner in C. Brewer & Company, then served as the company’s president (1883—1891; 1892—1899); succeeded by Charles Montague Cooke Sr. (1849—1909); father of Edwin Austin Jones, and with him founded a company in 1892 which later became Hawaiian Trust Company; built Pālama Chapel (Pālama Settlement developed from this); Punahou School Treasurer for more than two decades; appointed as Minister of Finance under Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani]; influential advocate and supporter of the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.

Josselin, Jean-MarieOne of twelve Island chefs who founded Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Inc. in August of 1991 on Maui; the twelve chefs who formed the association developed a world-class cuisine centering around fresh local fish and high-quality, locally-grown vegetables and herbs as well as exotic Island fruits, and utilizing a blend of hybrid cooking styles and culinary techniques from both the Eastern and Western traditions; Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine has now won numerous major international culinary awards; the twelve chefs that conceptualized Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine are Sam Choy, Mark Ellman, Roger Dikon, Beverly Gannon, Jean-Marie Josselin, Amy Ferguson Ota, George Mavrothalassitis, Philippe Padovani, Peter Merriman, Gary Strehl, Roy Yamaguchi, and Alan Wong. (See Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine, Chapter 12.)

 

Judd, Agnes Hall (Boyd)Married Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900) in 1872 and they would have nine children, including Henry Pratt Judd (1880—1955), James Robert Judd, and Lawrence McCully Judd (1877—1968)

 

Judd, Albert Francis (1838—1900)—Born in Honolulu; son of Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873); attended Punahou School; graduated from Yale College (1862) and law school at Harvard (1864); after law school practice law in the Hawaiian Islands; began serving in the legislature in 1868 and served several terms; in 1872, married Agnes Hall Boyd, and they would have nine children including Lawrence McCully Judd (1887—1968), Charles Sheldon Judd (1881—1939), Henry Pratt Judd (1880—1955), James Robert Judd, and Albert Francis Judd (II); appointed as Attorney General by King Lunalilo [William Charles Lunalilo] in 1873; State Supreme Court Justice (beginning in 1874); Chief Justice (beginning in 1881 and continuing into the era of the Republic); president of the Hawaiian Board of Missions (1883—1900).

 

Judd, Albert Francis (II)Son of Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900) and Agnes Hall (Boyd) Judd.

Judd, Charles Sheldon (1881—1939)—Born in Honolulu; son of Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900) and Agnes Hall (Boyd) Judd; educated at Punahou School; graduated from Yale (1905); earned a masters in forestry at Yale (1907);

in 1910, married Louise Luquiens, and they would have a son, Charles Sheldon Judd Jr., and a daughter, Emma Judd; in 1911, became land commissioner of the Territory of Hawai‘i; hired by Board of Agriculture and Forestry in 1915 as chief fire warden and superintendent of forestry; from 1927 to 1939 he was territorial forester; traveled to Nihoa Island (Mokumanu) and Necker Island (Mokumanamana) in 1923 with the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Expedition.

Judd, Charles Sheldon (Jr.)Son of Charles Sheldon Judd (1881—1939) and Louise (Luquiens) Judd.

 

Judd, EmmaDaughter of Charles Sheldon Judd (1881—1939) and Louise (Luquiens) Judd.

 

Judd, Florence (Hackett)—Married Lawrence McCully Judd (1877—1968) in 1909; they would have four children.

 

Judd, Gerrit Parmele (1803—1873)—Born in Paris, New York; joined Royal Navy in 1817; attended medical school in Fairfield, New York, earning his medical degree at age 23; married Laura Fish Judd; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828, with the Third Company of American missionaries on the Parthian under the command of Richard D. Blinn; initially served at the Honolulu mission station (which had been established in 1820); Gerrit and Laura had nine children, including Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900); served as Deputy Minister of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); after Rear Admiral Richard Darton Thomas (17771851) received complaints about activities of the Hawaiian government from Richard Charlton in Mexico, he sent Lord George Paulet (1803—1879) of Britain to the Hawaiian Islands; Paulet arrived on the frigate Carysfort on February 10, 1843, and after hearing the angry complaints of Alexander Simpson; Paulet threatened to use his military might (the ship’s cannons, which could bombard Honolulu), and demanded a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain; Paulet also took over three schooners belonging to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); and demanded $100,000; King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) was summoned from Lahaina and acquiesced to Paulet’s demands to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag was raised in Honolulu; King Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd resigned on May 10, 1843, bringing the public papers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[i]) to keep them from being taken by the British naval officers; Judd then wrote appeals to London and Washington for help in resisting Paulet’s illegal activities; at the Mausoleum, Judd used the coffin of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu as a desk as he wrote his appeals; when the U.S.S. Constellation arrived under the command of Commodore Lawrence Kearney caused fears of a rift between the United States and Britain; a confrontation over Hawai‘i’s independence was avoided when Judd’s appeals resulted in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Lord George Paulet’s superior, Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas on July 26, 1843, on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin; Thomas rescinded the cession on July 31, 1843 and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was again raised at the place now known as Thomas Square in honor of Admiral Richard Thomas; later that day, the king gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono(“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”); the date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day (see Chapter 11, Timeline: 1843, July 31; 1849, September 11; and Restoration Day, Chapter 12); Thomas remained in the Islands for about six months until consul general William Miller (17951861) arrived with a treaty similar to the treaty King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) had been forced to sign in 1839 under the threat of British military force; the treaty brought by Miller was signed on February 12, 1844; in 1845, Judd became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; accompanied the royal brothers Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani and Lot Kamehameha (the future kings Kamehameha IV and V) to France, Britain, and the United States in 1849 with the goal of improving international relations and recognition of Hawaiian independence; it was said that the American racial prejudice experienced by the young royal brothers on this journey was formative in the decidedly pro-British reign of King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); the Judd Building was constructed in 1899 on Fort Street in Honolulu; designed by architect Oliver Green Traphagen, the building is four-stories tall, including the first passenger elevator in the Hawaiian Islands; later a fifth floor was added.

Judd, Henry Pratt (18801955)—Born in New York to Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900) and Agnes Judd; graduated from Punahou School (1897); graduated from Yale (1901); graduated from Auburn Theological Seminary (1906); engaged in missionary work (19031935); University of Hawai‘i professor (19351945); served as chaplain of the Territorial Legislature; church pastor for several churches; co-authored an English-Hawaiian dictionary; also wrote a language textbook.

Judd, James RobertSon of Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900) and Agnes Hall (Boyd) Judd.

Judd, Laura Fish (Judd)—Married Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873); they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828, with the Third Company of American missionaries on the Parthian under the command of Richard D. Blinn; Gerrit and Laura had nine children, including Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900).

Judd, Lawrence McCully (1877—1968)—Born in Honolulu to Albert Francis Judd; grandson of Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873); graduated from Punahou School (1905); attended University of Pennsylvania beginning in 1909; married Florence Hackett in 1909 and they would have four children; worked on the United States Mainland before returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1914; began working for Theo H. Davies & Co., Ltd. in Honolulu; enlisted in the United States military when World War I began; colonel in command of Hawai‘i National Guard; appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Republican) in 1929 by United States President Hoover, serving until March 1, 1934; Palama [Pālama] Settlement trustee; St. Andrew’s Cathedral warden; served in Territorial Senate (1920—1928), including serving as president of the senate in 1923; served on O‘ahu County Board of Supervisors; appointed Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i by President Herbert Hoover, serving from 1929 to 1934; as governor, commuted the prison sentence (to one hour in his custody) of Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones, who were the four people charged in the murder of Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was awaiting a retrial for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (see Massie, Thalia); directed Hawai‘i’s Civil Defense program in 1942; president of Hawai‘i Residents Association (1951—1955); in 1953, appointed as governor of American Sāmoa; published an autobiography titled Lawrence M. Judd and Hawaii (Rutland, Vt. and Tokyo: Tuttle, 1971).

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Judd, Louise (Luquiens)Married Charles Sheldon Judd (1881—1939) in 1910, and they had a son, Charles Sheldon Judd Jr., and a daughter, Emma Judd.

Kaapana, LedwardInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai], Joseph [Joe Kalani]Of Hawaiian ancestry; tried for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center), and was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; she told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Kahanamoku, Duke [Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku] (1890-1968)—Full-blooded Hawaiian and a descendant of Hawaiian royalty; born in Honolulu on August 24, 1890 to Duke and Julia Kahanamoku; named after his father, who was named after the Duke of Edinburgh; in 1891; Duke’s family moved to the Kālia area of Waikīkī; Duke’s mother’s family, the Paoas, owned a large portion of the 20 acres (8 ha) of land in the Kālia area now occupied by the 2,545-room Hilton Hawaiian Hotel; Duke’s grandfather, Ho‘olae Paoa, was a descendant of royal chiefs; Ho‘olae Paoa had been deeded land by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) in the Great Māhele (land division) of 1848; the Paoa ‘ohana (extended family) numbered more than 100 individuals living in the Waikīkī area where they farmed, fished, and spent lots of time in the water; Duke’s father is said to have taught his children to swim by simply tying a rope around their waists and tossing them in the water to sink or swim; Duke surfed Waikīkī in 1905, beginning the rebirth of Hawaiian surfing; set an American swimming record in 1911 in the 100-yard sprint; later went on to set several world records and win medals in four different Olympics: Stockholm (1912), Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924), and Belgium (1932); Hollywood movie star (1922-1933); Sheriff of the City and County of Honolulu for 26 years (1934-1960); Duke Kahanamoku eventually became one of the most famous of the Waikīkī Beachboys, a group of water sports instructors working on the beaches fronting the Royal Hawaiian and Moana Hotels; [many of the Beachboys had colorful names such as Toots, Chick, Steamboat, and Turkey; their clients along Waikīkī’s beachfront were mostly wealthy visitors who wanted to surf or ride an outrigger canoe in the waves; clients also included Hawaiian royalty as well as the general public; many visitors to Waikīkī stayed for lengthy periods of time, and the Beachboys developed friendships with them, sharing the aloha spirit and insights into Hawaiian culture (see The Waikīkī Beachboys, Chapter 12)]; in 1911, Duke and his friends organized Hui Nalu (Club of the Waves), a swimming, paddling, and surfing club; the main reason for the formation of Hui Nalu was to meet the United States’ requirement that swimmers had to belong to a recognized club if they wanted official sanction for any aquatic records; that same year, in Honolulu Harbor, Duke set three world records in freestyle swimming; set a world record in the 100-meter freestyle in the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden with a time of 63.4 seconds; overslept during his pre-race nap, which caused him to arrive at the stadium late; barely convinced officials to delay the race as he suited up, and then won the race; in the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium, Duke won two more gold medals, breaking his own 100-meter freestyle world record; helped to set a world record in the freestyle relay, earning yet another gold medal; Hawaiian Pua Kealoha also competed in the 1920 Olympics; at age 34, in the 1924 Paris Olympics, Duke took the silver medal in the 100-meter freestyle, losing to Johnny Weissmuller, who later became famous as the actor who played Tarzan; two of Duke’s brothers, David and Sam Kahanamoku, also qualified for the 1924 Olympics; Sam won a bronze medal in the 100-meter freestyle event, placing third behind Duke and Johnny Weissmuller; in all, Duke Kahanamoku earned a total of six Olympic medals (three gold and two silver, one bronze) in four different Olympics; other swimming victories for Duke Kahanamoku included 100-meter freestyle victories in the 1916, 1917, and 1920 American Athletic Union Outdoor Championships; Duke was known for his use of the “flutter kick,” which he used instead of the common scissors kick; retired from competitive swimming at the age of 42; Duke’s Olympic Medals included: 1912 (Stockholm, Sweden), Gold, 100-Meter Freestyle (World Record), Silver, 4x200-Meter Freestyle Relay (anchored team); 1916 (no Olympics-World War I; 1920 (Antwerp, Belgium), Gold, 100-Meter Freestyle (World Record), Gold, 4x200-meter Freestyle (World Record), Water Polo Team (Fourth Place); 1924 (Paris, France), Silver, 100-Meter-Freestyle (Duke’s Age: 34); 1928 (Amsterdam, Netherlands); 1932 (Los Angeles, California), Bronze, Water Polo Team (Duke’s Age: 42); Duke is also credited with saving many lives through brave ocean rescues, including a daring rescue in Coronal del Mar, California on June 14, 1925, when he used his surfboard to single-handedly save eight lives from a capsized boat; considered the father of modern surfing and the father of international surfing, having introduced the sport to the eastern coast of the United States (1913), Australia and New Zealand (1914-1915), and California (1915-1932); also introduced surfing to Europe; in 1919, Duke pioneered the sport of tandem surfing, in which (traditionally) a male rider holds a female up in the air while surfing; named Papanui surfing spot near Waikīkī in 1930; the surf spot is known as a place where big boards are ridden (Papanui means “big board”); Duke is also considered the first windsurfer, and the (“father of windsurfing”) as well as the first to wakesurf (riding on a surfboard while being towed behind a boat); from 1922 to 1933, Duke had a career in Hollywood; he lived in Los Angles during this time, and appeared in about 30 movies; yet another of Duke’s accomplishments was serving as Sheriff of the City and County Honolulu for 26 years, from 1934 to 1960 (13 consecutive terms); married Nadine Alexander on August 2, 1940; Duke Kahanamoku was a muscular man, standing 6 feet, 1 inch (185.4 cm) tall; with a soft-spoken demeanor, Duke was known for his humility and kindness; he was the victim of prejudice many times in his life, and was sometimes refused entrance to restaurants, clubs, and other places based on his skin color, yet Duke unfailingly responded to prejudice with aloha, and was said to have genuinely felt pity for the prejudiced person rather than anger; Duke strove to break down color barriers; it is notable that in Duke’s first Olympics (in 1912), the track and field competition was dominated by another man who also broke down color barriers, American Indian Jim Thorpe; on the east (Diamond Head) side of the Waikīkī Beach Center at Kūhiō Beach in Waikīkī is a 9-foot (2.7-m) statue of Duke Kahanamoku; a plaque on the Duke Kahanamoku Statue states Duke’s creed: “In Hawai‘i, we greet friends, loved ones or strangers with aloha, which means with love. Aloha is the key word to the universal spirit of real hospitality, which makes Hawai‘i renowned as the world’s center of understanding and fellowship. Try meeting or leaving people with Aloha. You’ll be surprised by their reaction. I believe it and it is my creed. Aloha to you”; Duke was a true Hawaiian waterman, excelling in all types of ocean activities including paddling canoes, surfing, body surfing, swimming, and saving lives in the ocean; to support the United States’ war effort in 1918, Duke traveled throughout the United States Mainland and competed in exhibition races; continued surfing big waves until the age of 50; at age 60, Duke was still considered the best canoe steersman in Waikīkī; a legendary but true story about Duke tells of his famous 1917 ride on a huge wave in Waikīkī, at an outer surf spot offshore of Diamond Head (Lē‘ahi); some call the surf spot Blue Birds because it’s near where the deeper ocean begins, causing the water color to change; others call the surf spot Steamer Lane because it is near where the large ships pass; the surf spot is far from shore, and the surf only breaks when the waves are very large; one day in 1917, when the surf was incredibly big, Duke paddled out to Steamer Lane and rode his 16-foot (4.9-m) surfboard on a huge wave that was estimated to be 30 to 35 feet (9 to 11 m) in height; Duke rode the wave for more than 1 mile (1.6 km), through the spots now known as Publics and Queen’s, and possibly as far down the coast as the Royal Hawaiian Hotel; the ride is still considered the longest ride on a wave in Waikīkī, if not the longest ride on a wave anywhere; a ceremony to dedicate the new United States postage stamp featuring Duke Kahanamoku took place on Saturday, August 24, 2002, which was the 112th anniversary of Duke’s birth; the stamp went on sale to the public the following Monday, including a total of 62.8 million of the stamps on sale across the United States, with two million of the stamps on sale in the Hawaiian Islands; the stamp dedication ceremony took place on the shores of Waikīkī’s Kālia Bay where Duke spent his youth; the voyaging canoe Hawai‘iloa arrived with a 30- by 38-inch (76- by 97-cm) replica of the stamp, and the traditional voyaging canoe was accompanied by a flotilla that included the canoe Makali‘i, and a symbolic 112 surfboards and canoes representing “candles on a cake,” commemorating Duke’s 112th birthday; as the Hawai‘iloa arrived, sounds of the conch shell blowers echoed through the Kālia Bay air when the Hawai‘iloa voyaging canoe arrived and anchored offshore, and the poster of the stamp (draped under red velvet) was transported to the beach in the double-hulled canoe Kamiloa; a receiving delegation met the canoe at the beach, where chanters and hula dancers accompanied the unveiling of the stamp image; voyaging canoe navigator Nainoa Thompson and others presented a lei (which had been draped across the poster of the new Duke stamp), to Fred Paoa, Duke’s first cousin and oldest living relative, who in turn presented a maile lei to the ceremony officials; a large group of relatives, friends, notable surfers, and public officials (including United States Senator Dan Akaka) all celebrated the occasion, along with Duke’s grand nephew, Alden Paoa, and Joanne Kahanamoku, Duke’s niece; Post Office officials were on hand to provide people with the “First Day of Issue” cancellations on various items, including envelopes and post cards; New Orleans artist Michael Deas created the image of Duke for the stamp, which is mainly based on a 1918 photo provided by the Bishop Museum, but also incorporates other images of Duke; the stamp designer and art director for the project was Carl Herrman of Carlsbad, California; the stamp dedication ceremony in Waikīkī included day-long festivities and was also the founding of “The First Annual Duke Paoa Kahanamoku Waterman Challenge,” which includes the Waikīkī Ocean Mile Swim as well as a canoe race, surfing contest, and tug-of-war competition; there was also a lū‘au, a traditional Hawaiian feast and celebration, where friends of the Duke could share their memories and honor him; at nearby Kūhiō Beach, a Duke Kahanamoku statue memorializes a man who is seemingly larger than life; the day before the stamp-dedication ceremony, Duke’s statue was draped with 112 lei to commemorate his birthday; one of the lei was a 5-inch (13-cm) thick, 15-foot (4.6-m) long lei of maile (Alyxia oliviformis); as a ho‘okupu (tribute) to Duke Kahanamoku, the maile had been gathered and strung by inmates at the Big Island’s Kūlani Correctional Facility; in August of 2003 the second annual Duke’s Ho‘olaule‘a (Celebration) took place, establishing the celebration as an annual event; the celebration commemorating Duke’s birthday, and his life as the Hawaiian Islands’ “Ambassador to the World,” includes a Beach Boy Celebration, lei making, historical walks, and surfboard water polo; a central part of the event is an ocean swim and Waterman Challenge; in 1960, Duke Kahanamoku was officially appointed as Hawai‘i’s “Ambassador of Aloha”; to all who knew Duke, this was just a formality, since Duke was always known as someone who lived his life with aloha, and someone who had always been a generous and caring person; Duke had always been an exemplary ambassador of the aloha spirit, and said to be a “pure soul” who personified aloha; in 1965, Duke became the first person ever inducted into both the Surfing Hall of Fame and the Swimming Hall of Fame; in 1984, Duke was also inducted into the United States Olympic Hall of Fame; in 1999, Surfer Magazine declared Duke Kahanamoku the Surfer of the Century; Duke Paoa Kahanamoku passed away on January 22, 1968, at the age of 77; thousands attended the “Beachboy” funeral ceremony, and Duke’s ashes were scattered in the waters off Waikīkī; Duke’s widow, Nadine Kahanamoku passed away on July 17, 1997 at the age of 97; Duke Kahanamoku—Hawaiian waterman, Olympic champion, lifesaver, movie star, sheriff, and “ambassador of aloha”—will forever be remembered as a real-life folk hero for the people of the Hawaiian Islands.

Kahooki, SamuelAfter graduating from Lahainaluna Seminary (the second class), assisted medical missionary James William Smith (1810—1887).

Kahumoku, George (Jr.)Influential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Kahumoku, MosesInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Kalama, KealohaRenowned falsetto singer.

Kalauokalani, DavidOne of four Hawaiians (the other three were James Kaulia, William Auld, and John Richardson) who traveled to Washington D.C. in 1897 to present petitions to the United States government opposing annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; [James Keauiluna Kaulia was the president of Aloha ‘Āina, and David Kalauokalani was the president of Hui Kala‘āina, two native Hawaiian groups opposing annexation; the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition against annexation was titled “Palapala Hoopii Kue Hoohui Aina a Ka Lahui” (“Petition of the Nation Protesting Annexation,”) and contained 21,269 signatures (the population of the native Hawaiians at this time was about 40,000); the Hui Kalai‘āina petition contained 17,000 signatures, and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy; these signed documents are known as the Kū‘ē Petitions (kū‘ē means “to oppose, or protest”); agreeing that the main goal was preventing annexation, group leaders decided to present only the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition to the United States government in order to avoid showing a division of opinion; in December of 1897 in Washington D.C., Kaulia and Kalauokalani consulted with Queen Lili‘uokalani before presenting the petitions to Senators Hoar and Pettigrew]; the 566 pages of signatures were sent to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and then discussed on the Senate floor in front of the whole Senate (Note: The anti-annexation petitions, 556 pages in all, are now in the National Archives of the United States on the Mall in Washington D.C.); Queen Lili‘uokalani also presented an Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation on June 17, 1897; the protest states, in part, “I declare such a treaty to be an act of wrong toward the native and part-native people of Hawaii, an invasion of the rights of the ruling chiefs, in violation of international rights both toward my people and toward friendly nations with whom they have made treaties, the perpetuation oft he fraud whereby the constitutional government was overthrown, and, finally, an act of gross injustice to me”[ii]; by the time the native Hawaiian representatives left Washington D.C. in February, 1898, they had succeeded in persuading numerous pro-annexation senators to change their minds, leaving the Senate twelve votes short of passing the treaty (a 2/3 majority was required for ratification) and successfully stalling the political process of annexation; some Senators pushed for a vote among the residents of the Hawaiian Islands, but pro-annexation Senators opposed this as they knew a vote would doom their cause; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Pacific’s Spanish Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important as a coaling base for the United States fleet; on July 6, 1898, a simple majority passed a Joint Resolution of Congress approving annexation; known as the Newlands Resolution (after Congressman Frances Newlands), it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; the Hawaiian flag at ‘Iolani Palace was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i, with Sanford Ballard Dole as the first governor; about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian Crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government as a result of annexation. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, Chapter 12.)

Kamakahi, DennisInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

 

Kamakawiwo‘ole, Ceslieanne Wehekealake‘alekupuna “Wehi”Daughter of Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997) with Marlene Ku‘upua Ah Lo Kamakawiwo‘ole. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

 

Kamakawiwo‘ole, Israel Ka‘ano‘i (1959—1997)—Pure-blooded Hawaiian; born on May 20, 1959; lived in O‘ahu’s Pālolo Valley until the age of ten when his family moved to Mākaha; the next year Israel and his brother Skippy began playing music, and a few years later they joined with Louis “Moon” Kauakahi, Sam Gray, and Jerome Koko to form the Mākaha Sons of Ni‘ihau; during the next 15 years, the Mākaha Sons released ten albums, toured the United States, and won numerous Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards; they also hosted an annual Mākaha Bash on Memorial Day at the Waikīkī Shell; Israel’s brother Skippy Kamakawiwo‘ole passed away in 1982, the same year Israel married his childhood sweetheart, Marlene Ku‘upua Ah Lo; they gave birth to a daughter, Ceslieanne Wehekealake‘alekupuna “Wehi” Kamakawiwo‘ole; Israel’s uncle, Moe Keale (19392002), was a well-known Hawaiian musician and actor; Iz began his solo career in 1993 with the album Facing Future, and quickly became the most popular entertainer and singer in the Hawaiian Islands; the album N DIS LIFE was released in 1997 and won four Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards: Male Vocalist; Island Contemporary; Album Graphics; and Favorite Entertainer of the Year; Israel passed away at age 38 on June 26, 1997 of respiratory failure; the renowned Hawaiian musician was memorialized by thousands of people at the State Capitol Rotunda, and his ashes were scattered off Mākua Beach; though he was famous worldwide, Israel was said to be the ali‘i (royalty) of the common people of the Hawaiian Islands; in 2001 a new CD, Alone in IZ World, was released and immediately became a top seller.

Kamakawiwo‘ole, Marlene Ku‘upua Ah LoMarried Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997) in 1982, (they were childhood sweethearts); together they had a daughter, Ceslieanne Wehekealake‘alekupuna “Wehi” Kamakawiwo‘ole. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

Kamakawiwo‘ole, SkippyBrother of Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997); began playing music with Israel when Israel was eleven years old in Mākaha; a few years later they joined with Louis “Moon” Kauakahi, Sam Gray, and Jerome Koko to form the Mākaha Sons of Ni‘ihau; during the next 15 years, the Mākaha Sons released ten albums, toured the United States, and won numerous Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards; they also hosted an annual Mākaha Bash on Memorial Day at the Waikīkī Shell; passed away in 1982, the same year Israel married his childhood sweetheart, Marlene Ku‘upua Ah Lo. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

Kanahele, BenehakakaTaken hostage after the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by a pilot of one of the attacking planes that attempted to return to its carrier but instead crash-landed on Ni‘ihau; the pilot took Benehakaka Kanahele and his wife hostage; three days later Kanahele was shot and his wife fought with a man named Harada, who was a supporter of the pilot; the altercation was the sole instance of conflict with “only act of conflict with an enemy in the islands during the entire war”; Kanahele was later given a Purple Heart and National Medal of Merit.

Kanoa, Paul (1802—1885)—Born in South Kona on Hawai‘i Island to Kepaa (his mother); as a youth, served as an assistant to medical missionary Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) and Reverend Hiram Bingham (1789—1869); twice traveled with Bingham to Kaua‘i; served as clerk to O‘ahu Governor Mataio Kekūanaō‘a (1794—1868); appointed as governor of Kaua‘i by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) in 1846, serving until 1877; served on the House of Nobles and Privy Council; Kanoa was replaced as governor of Kaua‘i by Kaikio‘ewa (a cousin of King Kamehameha I), who was appointed to the post by Kuhina Nui (Premier) and former Queen of Hawai‘i, Ka‘ahumanu, who arrived on Kaua‘i on August 27, 1824, after a rebellion against the monarchy was quelled; [the rebellion occurred after Kaua‘i’s former paramount ruler, King Kaumuali‘i, passed away on O‘ahu; his son, George P. (Prince) Kaumuali‘i (Humehume), challenged the rule of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) with a surprise attack on the fort at Waimea, Kaua‘i; the fort was successfully defended, and reinforcements soon arrived to easily defeat the rebel forces (see Kaumuali‘i, George P. (Prince) [Humehume]); about two weeks after his initial attack on the fort; Ka‘ahumanu arrived on Kaua‘i on August 27, and soon replaced virtually all of Kaua‘i’s chiefs with chiefs from O‘ahu and Maui who were loyal to her and to King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); even loyal Kaua‘i chiefs were taken from their positions of power, including Governor Paul Kanoa, and were replaced by O‘ahu and Maui chiefs, most of whom were relatives of King Kamehameha I; passed away in November of 1885 after falling from the balcony of his home.

Kanoa, Paul P.Son of Paul Kanoa (1802—1885); Governor of Kaua‘i (1882—1886); at his home called Niumalu in Līhu‘e, he entertained many guests, including King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

Kapena, Emma (Malo)Married John Makini Kapena (18431887) in 1863.

Kapena, John Makini (18431887)Born in Lahaina, Maui; son of Maniki; attended Royal School (known as Chiefs’ Children’s School until 1846); attended O‘ahu’s Punahou School; married Emma Malo in 1863; in 1873, became O‘ahu circuit judge; in 1874, became Maui governor; in 1874, traveled to the United States with King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua]; Minister of Finance (1876); Minister of Foreign Affairs (1878); replaced William Little Lee (18211857) as Minister of Foreign Affairs as a result of the efforts of Walter Murray Gibson (18821888); traveled to Tokyo, Japan in 1882 as Hawai‘i’s Minister Plenipotentiary; served on Board of Education (1883); later served as Collector General of Customs.

Kapuolono, Kaili [Emma]Chiefess; mother of Emma K. (Metcalf) Beckley [Emma K. (Metcalf) Nakuina] (1847—1929) with Theophilus Metcalf.

 

Kauakahi, Louis “Moon”Joined with Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997), Sam Gray, and Jerome Koko in the 1970s to form the Mākaha Sons of Ni‘ihau; over a 15 year period the Mākaha Sons released ten albums, toured the United States, and won numerous Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards; they also hosted an annual Mākaha Bash on Memorial Day at the Waikīkī Shell. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

 

Kaulia, JamesOne of four Hawaiians (the other three were David Kalauokalani, William Auld, and John Richardson) who traveled to Washington D.C. in 1897 to present petitions to the United States government opposing annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States; [James Keauiluna Kaulia was the president of Aloha ‘Āina, and David Kalauokalani was the president of Hui Kala‘āina, two native Hawaiian groups opposing annexation; the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition against annexation was titled “Palapala Hoopii Kue Hoohui Aina a Ka Lahui” (“Petition of the Nation Protesting Annexation,”) and contained 21,269 signatures (the population of the native Hawaiians at this time was about 40,000); the Hui Kalai‘āina petition contained 17,000 signatures, and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy; these signed documents are known as the Kū‘ē Petitions (kū‘ē means “to oppose, or protest”); agreeing that the main goal was preventing annexation, group leaders decided to present only the Hui Aloha ‘Āina petition to the United States government in order to avoid showing a division of opinion; in December of 1897 in Washington D.C., Kaulia and Kalauokalani consulted with Queen Lili‘uokalani before presenting the petitions to Senators Hoar and Pettigrew]; the 566 pages of signatures were sent to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and then discussed on the Senate floor in front of the whole Senate (Note: The anti-annexation petitions, 556 pages in all, are now in the National Archives of the United States on the Mall in Washington D.C.); Queen Lili‘uokalani also presented an Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation on June 17, 1897; the protest states, in part, “I declare such a treaty to be an act of wrong toward the native and part-native people of Hawaii, an invasion of the rights of the ruling chiefs, in violation of international rights both toward my people and toward friendly nations with whom they have made treaties, the perpetuation oft he fraud whereby the constitutional government was overthrown, and, finally, an act of gross injustice to me”[iii]; by the time the native Hawaiian representatives left Washington D.C. in February, 1898, they had succeeded in persuading numerous pro-annexation senators to change their minds, leaving the Senate twelve votes short of passing the treaty (a 2/3 majority was required for ratification) and successfully stalling the political process of annexation; some Senators pushed for a vote among the residents of the Hawaiian Islands, but pro-annexation Senators opposed this as they knew a vote would doom their cause; on June 15, 1898, the Spanish-American War moved to the Pacific’s Spanish Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands became strategically important as a coaling base for the United States fleet; on July 6, 1898, a simple majority passed a Joint Resolution of Congress approving annexation; known as the Newlands Resolution (after Congressman Frances Newlands), it was signed by President McKinley on July 7, 1898, and thus the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States; the official transfer of power from the Republic of Hawai‘i to the United States took place on August 12, 1898; the Hawaiian flag at ‘Iolani Palace was taken down and replaced with the United States flag, which was raised over the Territory of Hawai‘i, with Sanford Ballard Dole as the first governor; about 1.8 million acres (.73 million ha) of Hawaiian Crown lands and government lands were ceded to the federal government as a result of annexation. (See AnnexationThe Kū‘ē Petitions, Chapter 12.)

 

Kawānakoa, Abigail Wahiikaakuula (Campbell) (1882—1945)—Born in Honolulu to James Campbell (1826—1900) and Abigail Kuaihelani Maipinepine; on January 6, 1902, married Prince David Kawānakoa in San Francisco; member of Hawaiian Homes Commission; proponent of female suffrage; her Punalu‘u home was used to entertain many visitors as well as a site for recreation for servicemen in World War II.

Kawano, JackHonolulu International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU) leader; when the House Un-American Activities Committee held hearings at ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu on April 1, 1950, to investigate alleged Communist infiltration of the labor movement, subpoenas were issued to 70 people, including Kawano, who refused to testify along with 38 others; the “Reluctant 39” were charged with contempt of Congress, but the United States Supreme Court later threw out the charges; the incident began when the ILWU, led by Jack Hall, went on strike on May 1, 1949, against Hawai‘i’s “Big Five” companies: Theo H. Davies; American Factors (Amfac); C. Brewer & Co.; Alexander & Baldwin; and Castle & Cooke; with their interlocking directorates, the “Big Five” companies cooperated to control every aspect of their trade, from the workers in the fields to the laws and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom [by 1933, the amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands dedicated to sugar production reached a peak, totaling more than 250,000 acres (101,170 ha), and about 96 percent of the sugar crop was controlled by the “Big Five” companies. (see The Sugarcane Era, Chapter 12)]; the strike shut down the docks as the union demanded wage parity with workers on the United States Mainland; the ILWU strike lasted more than five months and became known as the Great Hawaiian Dock Strike, crippling the flow of goods to the Islands, which were almost totally dependent upon shipping; the strike resulted in statewide food shortages and caused the bankruptcy of many small businesses; labor organizers were accused of participation in a Communist plot (this was during the McCarthy era); the dock strike ended on October 23, 1949 when return-to-work agreements were signed by the ILWU and six waterfront companies; the parties involved asked the government to end the seizure of docks in the Hawaiian Islands; on August 28, 1951, seven union organizers, including Jack Hall, the ILWU’s regional director in the Hawaiian Islands, were indicted for violating the Smith Act (advocating the use of force or violence to overthrow the United States government); the seven were convicted after a seven-month trial in 1952-53, with one of the men sentenced to three years in prison and six of the men given five year terms; the verdict led to an all-Islands walkout of union members; Jack Hall served no time while the six others served just one week before being bailed out; in 1955, the AFL and CIO merged into one union; after repeated appeals, and then a 1957 United States Supreme Court ruling that the teaching of Communism is not illegal, the “Hawai‘i Seven” verdict was overturned in 1958 by the 9th United States Circuit Court of Appeals.

Keale, Moe (19392002)Well-known Hawaiian musician and actor; uncle of Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997) (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

 

Kealoha, James (Jimmy)Lieutenant Governor (Republican) of Hawai‘i from 1959 to 1962; ran for governor and lost in the Republican primary in 1962 to William Francis Quinn (1919—2006), who then went on to lose the governor’s race to John Anthony Burns (1909—1975).

Judd, Gerrit Parmele (1803—1873)—Born in Paris, New York; joined Royal Navy in 1817; attended medical school in Fairfield, New York, earning his medical degree at age 23; married Laura Fish Judd; they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) on March 30, 1828, with the Third Company of American missionaries on the Parthian under the command of Richard D. Blinn; initially served at the Honolulu mission station (which had been established in 1820); Gerrit and Laura had nine children, including Albert Francis Judd (1838—1900); served as Deputy Minister of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli);

Kearney, LawrenceCommodore in command of the U.S.S. Constellation; the ship’s arrival in the Hawaiian Islands caused fears of a rift between the United States and Britain; [after Rear Admiral Richard Darton Thomas (17771851) received complaints about activities of the Hawaiian government from Richard Charlton in Mexico, he sent Lord George Paulet (1803—1879) of Britain to the Hawaiian Islands; Paulet arrived on the frigate Carysfort on February 10, 1843, and after hearing the angry complaints of Alexander Simpson; Paulet threatened to use his military might (the ship’s cannons, which could bombard Honolulu), and demanded a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain; Paulet also took over three schooners belonging to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); and demanded $100,000; King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) was summoned from Lahaina and acquiesced to Paulet’s demands to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag was raised in Honolulu; King Kamehameha III’s Deputy Minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd resigned on May 10, 1843, bringing the public papers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to the Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu, O‘ahu at Mauna‘ala (“Fragrant mountain”[iv]) to keep them from being taken by the British naval officers; Judd then wrote appeals to London and Washington for help in resisting Paulet’s illegal activities; at the Mausoleum, Judd used the coffin of the late Queen Ka‘ahumanu as a desk as he wrote his appeals]; a confrontation over Hawai‘i’s independence was avoided when the appeals of Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) resulted in the arrival in the Hawaiian Islands of Lord George Paulet’s superior, Britain’s Admiral Richard Thomas on July 26, 1843, on the H.M.S. flagship Dublin; Thomas rescinded the cession on July 31, 1843 and restored the powers of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); the British flag was lowered and the Hawaiian flag was again raised at the place now known as Thomas Square in honor of Admiral Richard Thomas; later that day, the king gave a speech at a Kawaiaha‘o Church service, and is said to have spoken the words which later became Hawai‘i’s official state motto: “Ua mau ke ea o ka ‘āina o ka pono(“The life of the land is perpetuated [preserved] in righteousness”); the date of July 31 was later proclaimed Restoration Day. (See Restoration Day, Chapter 12.)

Keawe, GenoaRenowned falsetto singer.

Kekuku, JosephResident of Lā‘ie, O‘ahu; in about 1894, developed the steel guitar and a unique playing style that allowed better harmonics, glissandos, and slurs not previously possible; the steel guitar, or kīkā kila (kīkā means guitar; kila means steel), is considered just one of two major instruments invented in the United States (the other is the banjo).

Keller, Arthur R.Served as (acting) President of the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] (1941—1942); [the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established in downtown Honolulu in 1907 (opening on September 15, 1908) as a result of a resolution introduced in the Legislature by Senator William Joseph Coelho; it was renamed College of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1911, and renamed the University of Hawaii [Hawai‘i] in 1920].

Kendrick, John (c.17401794)Captain in the American Revolution; left Boston in command of the Columbia Rediviva; along with Robert Gray, who was in command of the American brigantine Lady Washington, sailed to America’s Northwest Coast to trade for furs; in the Northwest, Kendrick and Gray switched ships; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1791 on the Lady Washington; in 1791, left three men on Ni‘ihau, instructing them to travel to Kaua‘i and search for sandalwood (Santalum species; Hawaiian name: ‘iliahi) and pearls; this was a prelude to the sandalwood trade; [between 1810 and 1820, sandalwood sold for about $125/ton, generating more than $3 million; the peak years of the sandalwood trade were from 1810 to 1840, a time that also saw a steadily increasing desire for Western goods in the Islands, and consequently a large debt incurred by the Hawaiian monarchy; by 1821, sandalwood exports totaled about 1,400 tons annually (see The Hawaiian Sandalwood Trade, Chapter 12)]; came to the Hawaiian Islands and again in 1793 and 1794; on December 12, 1794, when Kalanikūpule defeated Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (who at the time was the ruler of Kaua‘i, Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i), near what is now called Pearl Harbor, the victory for Kalanikūpule on O‘ahu was achieved with the assistance of foreigners, including Kendrick and Captain William Brown; from November 16, 1794 to December 12, 1794, the battle was contested in an area between Kalauao and ‘Aiea Heights, resulting in the death of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]; a victory salute fired by William Brown after the battle was accidentally loaded with grapeshot, and it hit the Lady Washington and killed its captain, John Kendrick (c.17401794), and several of his officers; the Lady Washington sailed to China under a new captain; later Brown, as well as Captain Gordon of the Prince Lee Boo, were killed by the warriors of Kalanikūpule in an attempt to take over their ships.

Kennedy, JacquelineAs former first lady, visited Hawaiian Islands with her two children, leaving on July 24, 1966 after a seven week vacation; in appreciation for the privacy afforded to her during her stay in the Islands, Jacqueline Kennedy wrote a letter of thanks and sent it to local newspapers, stating that “I had forgotten and my children have never known what it was like to discover a new place, unwatched and unnoticed.”

 

Kennedy, James A.Father of Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Sr. (1890—1968) (founder of Inter-Island Airways Ltd., later renamed Hawaiian Airlines); interisland shipping boss. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Kennedy, Martha (Davenport)Married Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Sr. (1890—1968) and their son was Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Jr. (1921—2007).

Kennedy, Stanley Carmichael (Jr.) (1921—2007)—Son of Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Sr. (1890—1968); born in Honolulu; attended Punahou School; graduated from Choate School in Connecticut; earned a bachelor’s degree from Yale University; earned rank of lieutenant commander in the United States Navy during World War II; husband of Nancy Carmichael; father of James Cox Kennedy, Blair Parry-Okaden, and Laura Kennedy; brother of Patricia Scott; worked for Hawaiian Airlines (founded by his father); began working for Continental Airlines in 1971; was serving as Continental’s Pacific vice president when he retired in 1983. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

 

Kennedy, Stanley Carmichael (Sr.) (1890—1968)—Born in Honolulu; son of interisland shipping boss James A. Kennedy; attended Punahou School on O‘ahu; graduated from California’s Stanford University (1912); joined Naval Aviation Service (1917); earned a Silver Star in World War I flying H-16 flying boats over the North Sea (one of the few residents of the Hawaiian Islands to participate in active duty in World War I overseas); married Martha Davenport, and their son was Stanley Carmichael Kennedy Jr.; on November 11, 1929, with others, founded Inter-Island Airways Ltd. (later renamed Hawaiian Airlines); began interisland commercial air service operations using a Bellanca monoplane and two Sikorsky S-38-C seven-passenger amphibious airplanes, launching a new era of aviation in the Hawaiian Islands; the planes initially made three weekly round trips between Honolulu’s John Rodgers Airport (now called Honolulu International Airport) and Hilo, with stops on Maui (the flight took about 3 hours and 15 minutes); trips to Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i were made by prior arrangement; outrigger canoes were used to ferry passengers from the water to the shore; became head of Inter-Island Steam Navigation in 1932; in 1941, Inter-Island Airways Ltd. became Hawaiian Airlines (the same year the 24-passenger DC-3 was introduced); instrumental in Pan American Airways’ efforts to begin regular trans-Pacific air service. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Kerr, DeborahIn 1953, starred in the movie From Here to Eternity, along with Frank Sinatra, Burt Lancaster, and Clift Montgomery; filmed on O‘ahu and includes three weeks of filming at Schofield Barracks; the film was based on the novel of the same name by James Jones; From Here to Eternity takes place before the Pearl Harbor attack and involves a private who is punished for not boxing on his unit’s team; meanwhile, his captain’s wife falls in love with the second in command; Sinatra won an Academy Award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his role as the tough Italian Maggio who had strong convictions and refused to be broken; From Here to Eternity received 13 Academy Award nominations, winning eight.

Kerr, Harry LivingstonArchitect of the McCandless Building, which was constructed in 1906 using blue stone, and opened in 1907 in downtown Honolulu at 925 Bethel Street; Lincoln Loy McCandless (1859—1940) was one-third owner; the McCandless Building, one of Honolulu’s first modern office buildings, features a wide arcade overhang on the first story, and an entryway adorned with tile and marble; the style of the McCandless Building is Beaux Arts, and it is one of the few Honolulu buildings with a functioning basement; the McCandless Building was originally planned to be a two-story building, but the plans changed in the middle of construction when it was decided that it would instead be a four-story building; a fifth story (built in a different architectural style) was added to the McCandless Building in 1914, and occupied by the Commercial Club, which later became the Chamber of Commerce; James McCandless originally came to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1800s, and was soon joined by his brothers Link and John; the McCandless brothers drilled artesian wells throughout the Hawaiian Islands, and were also part of the “Committee of Safety” which was instrumental in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893; architect of the Yokohama Specie Bank Building, which was constructed in 1909 at the corner of Merchant Street and Nu‘uanu Avenue in Honolulu, becoming the first major Japanese bank in the Hawaiian Islands; the bank opened in 1910; built in the Renaissance Revival style, the building’s features include ornamental oculi (circular windows) at the top, garlands, overhanging cornice, and a Renaissance style entrance noted for its terra cotta step-up; the Imperial Japanese government chartered Yokohama Shokin Ginko to act as the Japan’s overseas agents, and the Honolulu bank became one of several established around the world; Kerr designed more than 900 Honolulu buildings, and was said to have declared the Yokohama Specie Bank the finest building in Honolulu; the Yokohama Specie Bank is L-shaped, with Carrera glass wainscoting and copper doors and window casings; the building’s windows are trimmed with marble, which is also used for the interior stairs; separate entrances were constructed for Chinese, Japanese, and haole customers; after the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941, the United States’ Alien Custodian Agency confiscated the building, and used the first floor as a storehouse for confiscated goods; City Realty bought the building from the government in 1954, and it was used for office space; the building was placed on the National Historic Register in 1973, and a mezzanine level was added in the 1980s when the building was restored; architect of the McCandless Block Building, which was constructed at 9 North Pauahi Street in 1910; designed, with Mark Potter, the white-trimmed, red-brick Mission Memorial Building, which was constructed in 1915 by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association at 558 South King Street in Honolulu, marking the 100th anniversary of missionaries arriving in the Hawaiian Islands; the building’s style is Colonial/Greek Revival; the Mission Memorial Building includes an auditorium, and an annex was built in 1930; today the building is known as City Hall Annex and used for City and County Offices; the Mission Memorial Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, and remains as Hawai‘i’s only example of true Georgian architecture, a style common in New England and derived from British monarchy.

 

Kidwell, JohnCaptain; introduced the Cayenne variety of pineapple in 1885 in Manoa, O‘ahu, and it soon became the main variety grown in the Hawaiian Islands. (See The Pineapple Industry, Chapter 12.)

 

Kimball, Clifford (18751941)Born in Newton, Massachusetts; attended high school in Massachusetts with Walter Francis Dillingham (1875—1963); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1901; in 1902, married Juliet M. King; became manager of Haleiwa [Hale‘iwa] Hotel in 1908; in 1917, took over from Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lewers the lease of Waikīkī’s Hau Tree Hotel (named after a very old hau tree on the site), and also their residence; originally consisting of a beachfront house and five bungalows, this was the beginning of the Halekūlani Hotel (Halekūlani is translated as “House befitting heaven,” or “House befitting royalty”); soon owned adjoining property, including Gray’s Inn; Kimball’s sons, George Pulsifer and Richard (Kingie) Kimball, took over the hotel after their father passed away in 1941, with Richard in charge of the property until 1962; in 1967, Norton Clapp of Seattle took over; the hotel grew modestly over the years until 1981 when it was rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel.

Kimball, George PulsiferSon of Clifford Kimball (1875—1941); with his brother, Richard (Kingie) Kimball, took over the Halekūlani Hotel after their father passed away in 1941, with Richard in charge of the property until 1962; in 1967, Norton Clapp of Seattle took over; the hotel grew modestly over the years until 1981 when it was rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel.

 

Kimball, Juliet M. (King)Wife of Clifford Kimball (1875—1941); they were the parents of George Pulsifer and Richard (Kingie) Kimball. 

Kimball, Richard (Kingie)Son of Clifford Kimball (1875—1941); with his brother, George Pulsifer Kimball, took over the Halekūlani Hotel after their father passed away in 1941, with Richard in charge of the property until 1962; in 1967, Norton Clapp of Seattle took over; the hotel grew modestly over the years until 1981 when it was rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel.

Kimmel, Dorothy (Kinkaid)Daughter of United States naval officer; wife of Edward Husband Kimmel (18821968); they married in 1912.

Kimmel, Husband Edward (18821968)Born in Kentucky; graduated from United States Naval Academy (1904); married Dorothy Kinkaid in 1912; in 1941, earned the rank of admiral and was given command of the United States Pacific Fleet (the flagship was the U.S.S. Pennsylvania); serving in this position, bore blame (with lieutenant Walter Campbell Short, who was in charge of the Hawaiian Department) for the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese planes; relieved of his duties as Commander of the Pacific fleet on December 17, 1941 (ten days after the attack); succeeding him was Chester William Nimitz (1885—1966); a Naval Court of Inquiry in 1944 found that Kimmel was not guilty of incompetence or wrongdoing, but a joint Congressional inquiry in 1945-1946 found him guilty of errors of judgment, and placed blame for the Pearl Harbor on Admiral Kimmel and Lieutenant General Short; in response to a request by the Chief of Naval Operations, Kimmel retired from the United States Navy on March 1, 1942, reverting to the rank of rear admiral (his permanent rank); later worked with a marine engineering firm designing the first sectional battleship dry dock, which was successfully utilized by the military. (See Pearl Harbor, Chapter 12)

Kimura, ShunichiServed as Mayor of Hawai‘i County (19691974).

King, Charles Edward (18741950)Born in Honolulu; attended Kamehameha Schools, Oswego State Normal School, and Pratt Institute; principal at O‘ahu’s Waiahole [Waiāhole] School (18851889); Kamehameha Schools instructor (19001902) and then worked for the Territory of Hawai‘i as inspector of private schools (19021913); later worked as an insurance agent; began composing songs in 1911; married four times; established Charles E. King Music Company in New York City in 1916; composed Ke Kali Nei Au (The Hawaiian Wedding Song), The Kamehameha Waltz, and over 400 other songs as well as an operetta, The Prince of Hawaii [Hawai‘i], which was produced on the United States Mainland as well as in Honolulu; conducted Royal Hawaiian Band; served in the Territorial Senate (Republican) in the 1919 session and again in the 1922 session.

King, Charlotte Holmes (Davis)Mother of Samuel Wilder King (1886—1959) with Captain James A. King; great granddaughter of Oliver Holmes.

 

King, James (17501784)Born in Clitheroe, Lancashire; served in the Royal Navy; attended Oxford University; Captain Cook’s second lieutenant during Cook’s first visit to the Hawaiian Islands in 1778; named first lieutenant by Captain Charles Clerke on February 14, 1779; on August 22, 1779, after Clerke passed away, King was made commander of the Discovery, leading the voyage back to England; finished the written account of the voyage, entitled James Cook and James King, Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (London: W. & A. Strahan for G. Nicol and T. Cadel, 1784).

King, James A.—Father of Samuel Wilder King (1886—1959); Minister of the Interior during the Republic of Hawai‘i; interisland shipping pioneer.

King, Jean SadakoServed as the State of Hawai‘i’s lieutenant governor (Democrat) from 1978 to 1982; first woman to hold the post in the State of Hawai‘i.

King, Pauline Nawahineokalai (Evans)Married Samuel Wilder King (1886—1959) and they would have five children, including author and teacher Pauline Nawahineokalai Joerger and Samuel Pailthorp King, a federal judge.

King, Samuel PailthorpSon of Samuel Wilder King (1886—1959) and Pauline Nawahineokalai (Evans) King; federal judge.

 

King Samuel Wilder (18861959)Born in Honolulu to Captain James A. King and Charlotte Holmes (Davis) King; attended Honolulu High School (now called McKinley High School); attended St. Louis College; graduated from the United States Naval Academy (1910); in 1912, married Pauline Nawahineokalai Evans and they would have five children, including author and teacher Pauline Nawahineokalai Joerger and federal judge Samuel Pailthorp King; served in the United States Navy for the duration of World War I, until 1924 (lieutenant commander); moved to the Hawaiian Islands and worked in the real estate business; president of Honolulu Realty Board; appointed to the Board of Supervisors in 1932 to complete an unexpired term, then elected to the post in 1933, serving until 1935; Territorial Delegate to Congress (Republican) (19351943); returned to United States Navy service during World War II, retiring as a captain in 1946; elected as president of Constitutional Convention in 1950; charter member of Hawai‘i Statehood Commission (1947); chairman of Statehood Commission (19491953); appointed Governor of the Territory of Hawai‘i (Republican) in 1953 by United States President Eisenhower, serving until September 2, 1957; elected as representative to the State Legislature in 1958; trustee of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate; Representative in the State Legislature (1959); passed away due to a heart attack on March 24, 1959.

Kingsford-Smith, CharlesBeginning on May 31, 1929, with his three-person crew, flew a Fokker trimotor plane called Southern Cross from Oakland, California to Australia (via Hawai‘i and Fiji), completing the first complete crossing of the Pacific Ocean by air when they arrived in Sydney on June 10; with Patrick Gordon Taylor, flew a single-engine Lockheed Altair named Lady Southern Cross from Brisbane, Australia to Oakland, California (via Fiji and Honolulu) in October of 1934, completing the first eastbound flight from the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Mainland, arriving in Oakland on November 3, 1934. (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Kinney, HenryAmerican Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Wai‘ōhinu mission station (which was established in 1841).

Knapp, Horton O.American Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); served at Maui’s Lahainaluna School (which was founded in 1831 by missionaries as a seminary of advanced education for young Hawaiian men, with an overarching missionary goal of advancing Christianity); served at the Waimea mission station (which was established in 1832); husband of Charlotte Close Knapp, who married Daniel Dole (1808—1878) after Horton O. Knapp passed away.

Knudsen, Cecilie (L’Orange)Married Eric Alfred Knudsen (18721957) (his first wife) in 1905, and they would have one son and three daughters.

Knudsen, Eric Alfred (18721957)Born on Kaua‘i; son of Valdemar Knudsen (18201898); after attending schools in New Zealand, Europe, and Boston, graduated from Harvard Law School in 1897; managed Knudsen Brothers’ Ranch beginning in 1900; Vice Speaker in the Territorial House of Representatives (1903) and Speaker (1905), Senator (19071915) and Acting President (1911; 1913); married Cecilie L’Orange in 1905 and they would have one son and three daughters; married Helen Lewis in 1935 and they would have one daughter and one son; served on Kaua‘i Board of Supervisors (19231932); talked about Hawaiian history and legends on his KTOH radio show that was broadcast live from Līhu‘e, Kaua‘i; had an extensive knowledge of Kaua‘i’s mountain trails, including a route to the summit of Mt. Wai‘ale‘ale; with Gurre P. Noble, published Kanuka of Kauai (Honolulu: Tongg, 1945).

Knudsen, Helen (Lewis)Married Eric Alfred Knudsen (18721957) (his second wife), and they would have one daughter and one son.

Knudsen, Valdemar (18201898)Born in Kristiansand, Norway; son of Norway Premier; attended University of Norway, and then worked in the book publishing business in New York before participating in the Gold Rush in 1849; used his wealth attained from gold prospecting to start a business in Sacramento, California, but was cheated out of his interest in the enterprise; visited Norway, and his return was interrupted by a bout with Panama fever; he received the news about his financial loss when his ship stopped at Kaua‘i, so he remained in the Hawaiian Islands and became involved in the sugarcane industry; managed Grove Farm Plantation in Līhu‘e, Kauai and purchased land in southern Kaua‘i; married Anne McHutcheson Sinclair in 1867 and they would have five children, including Eric Alfred Knudsen (18721957); served in the Legislature (1860—1890); pledged allegiance to the Provisional Government after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893.

Knudsen, Anne McHutcheson (Sinclair)Daughter of Captain Francis S. Sinclair R.N. and Eliza (McHutcheson) Sinclair; married Valdemar Knudsen (18201898) in 1867 and they would have five children, including Eric Alfred Knudsen (18721957).

Kohler, J. W.Brought an Edison phonograph to Honolulu allowing the first demonstration of recorded sound in the Hawaiian Islands in February of 1879.

Koko, JeromeJoined with Israel Ka‘ano‘i Kamakawiwo‘ole (1959—1997), Louis “Moon” Kauakahi, and Sam Gray in the 1970s to form the Mākaha Sons of Ni‘ihau; over a 15 year period the Mākaha Sons released ten albums, toured the United States, and won numerous Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards; they also hosted an annual Mākaha Bash on Memorial Day at the Waikīkī Shell. (See Bruddah Iz, Chapter 12.)

Konno, FordOne of the three Hawaiian residents to win a gold medal in the 1952 Helsinki Olympics; Konno’s medal was in the 1,500-meter freestyle; the other two winners were William Woolsey (800-meter freestyle relay) and Yoshio Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke).

Kono, TommyMoved to Honolulu in 1955; won his second Olympic gold medal in 1956 in weightlifting in Melbourne, Australia; won a gold medal in Helsinki in 1952; World Champion every year from 1953 to 1959; during his career Kono set 26 world records and 70 Olympic records; opened a gym in Wailuku, Maui in 1964.

 

Koob, Barbara (variations Kopp; Koop) [Mother Marianne Cope] (1838—1918)—Roman Catholic nun; born in Germany on January 3, 1838 as Barbara Koob; took the name Marianne upon joining the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis in New York in 1862; later volunteered to minister to leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients in Honolulu; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on November 7, 1883 along with three other Franciscan nuns; moved to Kalaupapa in 1888 to supervise a new girls’ home for Hansen’s disease patients, and later she also ran a home for boys [in 1865, the first victims of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) in the Hawaiian Islands arrived at Kalawao on Moloka‘i’s Kalaupapa Peninsula, beginning the practice of segregating patients at the remote site; Hansen’s disease is caused by the slow-growing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae; over the following decades, nearly 9,000 Hansen’s disease patients were quarantined at Kalaupapa, Peninsula, which is located along Moloka‘i’s north-central coast, and is surrounded on three sides by ocean and on the other side by cliffs rising up 2,000 to 3,000 feet]; selfless and dedicated servant who ministered to the leprosy patients of Kalaupapa; at Kalaupapa, first worked alongside Father Damien, and then continued working at Kalaupapa for decades after Damien’s passing; ministered to the needy for a total of 30 years until she passed away in 1918 at the age of 80; known for her uplifting attitude; helped the patients in many small but meaningful ways such as planting flowers and trees, organizing picnics, sewing clothes for the residents, and playing piano so they could sing along; founded Maui’s first hospital, now known as Maui Memorial Hospital; King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] honored Mother Marianne with royal decorations, and famed author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850—1894) wrote of her; in January of 2004, the Vatican’s Congregation for the Causes of Saints affirmed Mother Marianne’s “heroic virtue,” which was a step toward canonization and sainthood; bones were exhumed in January of 2005 so they could be enshrined in the headquarters of the Sisters of St. Francis in Syracuse, New York; also in 2005, Mother Marianne was beatified, the last formal step before sainthood. (See Heroes of KalaupapaFather Damien and Mother Marianne, Chapter 12.)

Koop, BarbaraSee Koob, Barbara [Mother Marianne].

Kopp, BarbaraSee Koob, Barbara [Mother Marianne]. 

 

Korn, Alfons L.Translated Fourteen Years in the Sandwich Islands (1855—1868), which was written by Charles-Victor Crosnier De Varigny (18291899) and published by the University of Honolulu Press in 1981; edited The Victorian Visitors: An Account of the Hawaiian Kingdom, 1861-1866 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1958). 

Kotani, OzzieInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Kotzebue, Otto VonBaltic German and Russian subject; son of a renowned German playwright; served in the Russian Imperial Navy; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1804 on the Nadeshda, which was captained by his uncle, Adam Johann von Krusenstern (17701846), on an around-the-world journey (1803—1806); the crew’s mission was to encourage political relations with Japan and China, and also to further the fur trade in the Pacific; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (Kailua-Kona) again in November of 1816 (from California) on the Russian exploring ship Rurick; the ship was first mistaken by King Kamehameha I as an invading vessel of war due to the exploits of Georg Anton Schäffer (17791836); befriended King Kamehameha I; the Rurick’s official artist, Louis (Ludwig) Choris, produced several watercolors and sketches of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as portraits of King Kamehameha I, who insisted on dressing for the portrait in traditional Western sailor’s clothes (blue pants, white shirt, red waistcoat, and a yellow silk necktie); Kotzebue repudiated the agreements of Schäffer on Kaua‘i with Kaua‘i’s vassal ruler Kaumuali‘i; in May of 1817, Kaumuali‘i renounced his agreement with Schäffer, who was soon forced to leave the Hawaiian Islands; Kotzebue also sailed the Rurick to Honolulu; Kotzebue’s account of this trip was published in three volumes: A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beerings’ Straits (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, 1821); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands again on December 13, 1824, visiting Honolulu on the Russian Imperial Navy frigate Predpiyatie; the ship returned again on September 12, 1825; this journey was described in two volumes, entitled: A New Voyage Round the World (London: H. Colburn & R. Bentley, 1830).

 

Krusenstern, Adam Johann Von (17701846)Captain of the Nadeshda on June 7, 1804 when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) as one of the first two ships of the Imperial Russian service to visit the Islands (the consort ship was the Neva under the command of Captain Urey [Yurii; Iurii] Lisiansky [Lisianskii] (17701846); first Russian navigator to visit the Hawaiian Islands; on board the Nadeshda was Krusenstern’s nephew, Otto Von Kotzebue; the Russian ships were on a three-year around-the-world journey (18031806) with the goals of re-establishing trade with China and Japan, and finding more opportunities for fur trading; after the Neva left the main Hawaiian Islands for Canton, China, the ship ran aground twice on October 15, 1805 on what is now named Neva Shoal, located southeast of a small islet now named Lisianski Island (Hawaiian name: Papa‘āpoho) near Midway Atoll [Lisianski Island is a relatively flat coral island with sandy, white beaches and about 381 acres (154 ha) of dry land; the island’s maximum height is a sand dune that rises to about 40 feet (12 m) in height]; the Neva’s crew had to toss cargo overboard to free their vessel; the Neva returned to the Hawaiian Islands on January 27, 1809 under the command of Captain Leonth Andreanovic[h] Hagemeister; on board the Neva in 1809 was Archibald Campbell (17871821), who later became a sailmaker for King Kamehameha I; Campbell remained in the Hawaiian Islands for more than one year and wrote extensively about native Hawaiian life; Campbell’s writings included observations of King Kamehameha I as he ruled all of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

Kunimura, TonyServed as Mayor of Kaua‘i County; term began in 1982.

Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson (18851963)Born in California; graduated from College of the Pacific (1919); graduated from the University of California at Berkeley (1921, masters degree in history); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1922; worked as executive secretary of the Historical Commission of Hawai‘i; with Herbert Ernest Gregory (1869—1952) published A History of Hawaii (New York: MacMillan, 1926); began teaching history at University of Hawai‘i in 1932; with A. Grove Day, published Hawaii: A History (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1948, 1961); published about 50 historical articles; published The Hawaiian Kingdom (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1943, 1956, 1967); named in his honor is Kuykendall Hall, built in 1964 on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa in Honolulu.

Kwan, LeonardInfluential kī hō‘alu (slack key) guitarist; the slack key style gained wider popularity in the 1960s and 1970s in part due to his inspired talents along with other slack key pioneers. (See Kī Hō‘alu—Slack Key Guitar, Chapter 12.)

Ladd, WilliamWith partners William Northey Hooper and Peter Brinsmade, organized Ladd & Company, and Hooper was appointed as the manager of Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation in southern Kaua‘i; this was the first commercial sugarcane plantation in the Hawaiian Islands; the land was originally leased from King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) for $300/year; the initial planting consisted of 25 acres (10.1 ha) of sugarcane and coffee; the Koloa [Kōloa] Plantation used techniques first developed in China to grind and process their sugarcane; the plantation also invented new methods of grinding, harvesting, and milling sugarcane, serving as the model for sugar plantations throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

LaFarge, John (1835—1910)—Painter; traveled with Henry Adams in 1890 and 1891; drew sketches and wrote about Hawaiian Islands; author and illustrator of Reminiscences of the South Seas (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1912).

Lafon, Sophia Louisa (Parker)—Married Dr. Thomas Lafon (1801—1876) in 1836; the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with the Eighth Company of American missionaries in 1837 on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner (the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days); the couple was initially assigned to the Kōloa mission where Dr. Lafon served as a minister and teacher.

Lafon, Thomas (Dr.) (1801—1876)Born in Chesterfield County, Virginia; served at Kaua‘i’s Kōloa mission station (which was established in 1834); Kaua‘i’s first physician; earned his medical degree from Transylvania University (1827); ordained a minister at Marion College, Missouri (1835); married Sophia Louisa Parker in 1836; the couple arrived in the Hawaiian Islands with the Eighth Company of American missionaries on April 9, 1837 on the barque Mary Frazier, which was under the command of Charles Sumner (the ship arrived from Boston in a record 116 days); the couple was initially assigned to the Kōloa mission where Dr. Lafon served as a minister and teacher; in 1839, Lafon was assigned to minister to the large, thatched church built in Līhu‘e by Governor Kakio‘ewa at the current site of the Līhu‘e Post Office and Bank of Hawai‘i; the church had 52 members; in 1841, Lafon resigned from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in protest over their continued acceptance of money from slaveholders; Lafon also served as the doctor for the Ladd & Company sugar plantation, which employed about 100 Hawaiians.

Lancaster, BurtIn 1953, starred in the movie From Here to Eternity, along with Frank Sinatra, Deborah Kerr, and Clift Montgomery; the movie was filmed on O‘ahu, and included three weeks of filming at Schofield Barracks; the film was based on the novel of the same name by James Jones; From Here to Eternity takes place before the Pearl Harbor attack and involves a private who is punished for not boxing on his unit’s team; meanwhile, his captain’s wife falls in love with the second in command; Sinatra won an Academy Award in the Best Supporting Actor category for his role as the tough Italian Maggio who had strong convictions and refused to be broken; From Here to Eternity received 13 Academy Award nominations, winning eight.

Lane, John CareyMayor of City and County of Honolulu from January 4, 1915 to July 2, 1917.

Laplace, Cyrille Pierre TheodoreArrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 9, 1839 in command of the Navy frigate Artemise; commissioned by the French government to demand rights for French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands “with all the force that is yours to use,” and to seek “complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed”; despite the earlier Edict of Toleration issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), Laplace threatened war and made a series of demands that included freedom of worship for Catholics, a site for a Catholic Church, and $20,000 in reparations (which was paid by local merchants); Laplace’s threats of war forced King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) to agree to a treaty with five demands related to allowing Catholic worship in the Hawaiian Islands; this was in response to King Kamehameha III’s earlier ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; the demands were met by Kuhina Nui (Premier) Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea] and Governor Kekuanao‘a; [the events leading up to Laplace’s arrival in the Hawaiian Islands began when Jean-Baptiste Jassont Lafayette (John) Rives (1793—1833), during an 1823 voyage to England (he had lived in the Hawaiian Islands since 1910), became the initial proponent of the French colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and for establishing the Catholic religion there; his efforts led to later arrivals of French warships; the first Roman Catholic missionaries to arrive from France were Patrick Short, Alexis Bachelot, and Abraham Armand, who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on July 7, 1827 on the Comète under the command of Captain Plassard; this was a pioneering Catholic mission of priests of the Order of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; on July 14, 1827 (Bastille Day), Bachelot led Hawai‘i’s first Catholic Mass; on November 30, 1827, the child of Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marín became the first foreign baby to be baptized; with the permission of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), the three missionaries were able to open first Catholic chapel in Honolulu; this was done with the support of Governor Boki, who had been baptized in 1819 on the French ship L’Uranie, which was under the command of Captain Louis de Freycinet (1779—1842); [Boki, whose original name was Kamā‘ule‘ule (“The one who faints”), was Governor of O‘ahu under King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho); Boki eventually came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu who, in May of 1827 with the Council, charged him with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha; Boki disappeared at sea in 1830 (see The Demise of Boki, Chapter 12), and in 1831 his wife, Liliha, lost power]; on April 2, 1831, a decree of banishment was issued and Fathers Short and Bachelot were sent to Mexican California; a second attempt to establish a Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands occurred in 1835 when Brother Columba Murphy, a British subject, arrived, followed by Father Arsenius Walsh on September 30, 1836; a French warship was in port at the time and due to the captain’s influence, the Catholic priests were allowed to minister to foreigners but not to native Hawaiians; on April 17, 1837, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short returned to the Hawaiian Islands; on April 30, 1837, a decree was issued ordering the priests to leave, but with the support of Jules Dudoit (18031866) as well as the American and English consuls, the priests were escorted from their ships by the captains of French and British warships; Patrick Short left the Hawaiian Islands in October of 1837, and just two days later, Louis Desire Maigret and Brother Columba Murphy arrived; Murphy had previously come to the Hawaiian Islands (in 1835) and since that time had been ordained; local authorities were unaware that Murphy had been ordained, and the priest came ashore; Alexis Bachelot and Louis Desire Maigret left the Hawaiian Islands on November 23, 1837 to sail to the South Pacific, but Bachelot died during the journey; on December 18, 1837, with the urging of Protestant missionaries, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an ordinance rejecting the Catholic religion; at the time, Catholic influence was growing rapidly in Honolulu; on June 7, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued a Declaration of Rights that came to be known as the Hawaiian Magna Carta; on June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) issued an Edict of Toleration regarding religious differences, reversing his earlier stance banning the practice and teaching of Catholicism]; on July 17, 1839, Laplace made additional demands for special privileges for French residents of the Hawaiian Islands, and for French imports, including brandies and wines; also on July 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Laplace signed the Convention of 1839 granting numerous protections to French citizens in the Hawaiian Islands; Laplace’s activities alarmed officials of Great Britain and the United States, and eventually led to official recognition of Hawaiian independence by all three countries: France, Great Britain, and the United States; the “Declaration of Rights” that had been issued by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) on June 7, 1839 was a predecessor to Hawai‘i’s first formal constitution in 1840, and also served as the constitution’s preamble; on May 5, 1840, the exiled Father Maigret arrived in the Hawaiian Islands along with two other priests and Bishop Rouchouze, the vicar apostolic of the Pacific; on O‘ahu a church was built using stone, and Catholic schools and churches were also built on other Hawaiian Islands; in November of 1841 a Catholic printing press began operating (and would continue operating until the end of the century); Captain S. Mallet was sent to the Hawaiian Islands by Admiral Abel du Petit-Thouars to investigate whether the 1839 treaties that had been signed with Cyrille Pierre Theodore Laplace had been violated; Mallet arrived in 1842 in command of the Embuscade, causing concern that he would attempt to claim the Hawaiian Islands for France; Mallet’s primary concerns were the freedom of Catholic priests to worship and preach, and also the ability of the French to freely import wines; he left Hawaiian Islands in September of 1842; as a result of Mallet’s arrival Ahuimanu [‘Āhuimanu] School (a Catholic school) was established on O‘ahu. (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Larsen, L. DavidBrother of Nils Paul Larsen (1890—1964); managed Kilauea [Kīlauea] Plantation on Kaua‘i.

Larsen, Nils Paul (18901964)Born in Stockholm, Sweden; attended Cornell University Medical College; graduating in 1916; served as a medical officer in France and Belgium with 106th Infantry; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1919 to visit his brother, L. David Larsen who managed Kilauea [Kīlauea] Plantation on Kaua‘i; came back to Hawaiian Islands in 1922 to work at Queen’s Hospital where he later served as medical director; president of Honolulu County Medical Society (two terms); president of Hawai‘i Medical Association (one term), and president of Hawai‘i Academy of Sciences; served as Hawai‘i’s Swedish vice consul (11 years); married Sara Elizabeth Lucas in 1921, and they would have two children.

Larsen, Sara Elizabeth (Lucas)Married Nils Paul Larsen (1890—1964) in 1921 and they would have two children.

Lawrence, RobertPartner in James Robinson & Company, which was formed in 1823 with pioneer shipbuilder James Robinson, and became a prominent waterfront shipyard until 1868, when Lawrence passed away.

 

Leadingham, JohnAmerican Protestant missionary; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820).

Lee, William Little (18211857)American lawyer; arrived in Hawaiian Islands in 1846; appointed as a judge in Honolulu on December 1, 1846; helped frame the Organic Acts of 18451847; [King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) passed the First Organic Act in March of 1846, establishing an executive branch of government as well as a Privy Council; the Second Organic Act was enacted on April 27, 1846, establishing a new system of land ownership; the Third Organic Act was enacted on January 10, 1848, reforming Hawai‘i’s judicial system]; appointed as Chief Justice in September of 1847 (under the third Organic Act); in 1849, Lee and Gerrit Parmele Judd (1803—1873) were assigned to deal with the issues that arose due to the arrival of French Admiral Legoarant De Tromelin, who arrived in Honolulu in April of 1848 in command of two French ships: the Gassendi (a steam corvette) and La Poursuivante, and demanded equality of worship and an end to duties on French imports, claiming these acts violated an earlier treaty; Tromelin’s ten demands were sent to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and included equality of worship; Tromelin engaged in reprisals that included taking over government buildings and ransacking Fort Kekuanohu in Honolulu and seizing the yacht of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli); Tromelin departed ten days later, taking with him Guillaume Patrice Dillon, the French Consul, who had initiated the conflict; Lee wrote the 1850 Act for the Government of Masters and Servants (the Masters and Servants Act), which was passed by Hawai‘i’s legislature in 1850, establishing a contract labor system that began the mass importation of laborers to work on sugar plantations and allowing persons over twenty years of age to sign a contract binding them to an employer for up to five years; the following decades saw increasing numbers of immigrant laborers arriving in the Hawaiian Islands from China, Japan, Portugal, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Korea, Germany, Norway, and other countries (see Immigrant Laborers, Chapter 12); assisted in drafting the Constitution of 1852; played a leading role in the 1846 Māhele; partner in the company of Henry Augustus Peirce (1808—1885), founder of Kaua‘i’s Lihue [Līhu‘e] Plantation; prominent member of the Royal Agricultural Society, founded in 1850; became American minister to Hawaiian Islands (18691878); in 1874, accompanied King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua] to Washington D.C. during Kalākaua’s United States tour; served as Hawai‘i’s Minister of Foreign Affairs (1878), but was soon replaced in this part by John Makini Kapena (1843—1887) due to the efforts of Walter Murray Gibson (18821888). (See French/Catholics, Chapter 12.)

Lemmon, JackPlayed Ensign Frank Pulver, the friend of Doug Roberts (played by Henry Fonda) in the film Mister Roberts, filmed in the Hawaiian Islands in 1955; the film was an adaptation of Fonda’s Broadway hit; Fonda played Lieutenant Doug Roberts, the chief cargo officer of the supply ship Reluctant during the last few months of World War II; James Cagney was the Reluctant’s surly captain.

Lewers, Catherine B. (Carter)Married Robert Lewers (1836—1924) and they would have one son and one daughter.

Lewers, Christopher H.Cousin of Robert Lewers (1836—1924); founded a lumbering firm in 1852; established Wilder & Company in 1872 in partnership with Samuel Gardner Wilder (1831—1888).

Lewers, Robert (1836—1924)—Born in New York City; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1856; joined the lumbering firm of his cousin, Christopher H. Lewers, in 1860; with Charles Montague Cooke Sr. (1849—1909), and J. G. Dickson, became partners in his cousin’s firm (after Christopher H. Lewers passed away); the firm became known as Lewers & Cooke after Dickson passed away in 1880; in 1867, married Catherine B. Carter, and they would have one daughter and one son; the Carters lived in their Honolulu residence and hotel, called Hau Tree Hotel (after a very old hau tree on the site); in 1917, the lease on the Hau Tree Hotel was taken over by Clifford Kimball (18751941), and the Halekūlani Hotel opened on the site; originally consisted of a Waikīkī beachfront house and five bungalows, the hotel grew modestly over the years until 1981 when it was rebuilt into a modern, world-class hotel; Halekūlani is translated as “House befitting heaven,” or “House befitting royalty.”

Lincoln, Bill AliiloaRenowned falsetto singer.

Lincoln RogersArchitect (from San Diego, California) of the Army and Navy YMCA Building, which opened in 1928 at 250 South Hotel Street, formerly the site of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel; the property was purchased by the YMCA in 1917, and then $800,000 in renovations were completed under the direction of architect Lincoln Rogers; the building’s style is Spanish Mission Revival, somewhat resembling an Italian palazzo; the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; in the 1980s, developer Chris Hemmeter purchased the property for $11 million and completed $30 million in renovations, including the addition of a four-story annex at the rear of the building; the State of Hawai‘i purchased the building in 2000, and it now houses the collection of the Hawai‘i State Art Museum; architects of the Dillingham Transportation Building, which was constructed at 735 Bishop Street in Honolulu in 1929; the building was constructed in the Italian Renaissance/Mediterranean Revival style, and the arcade and entrance lobby display different colors of bricks and marble used with Art Deco patterns and paneled beams; a plaque on the building commemorates Benjamin Franklin Dillingham, who founded the Oahu [O‘ahu] Railway & Land Co.; the family’s connection to transportation also shows in the twisted-rope decorations lining the street openings; the location of the Dillingham Transportation Building is not far from Honolulu’s piers, and medallions on the arched entrances show sailboats and steam vessels; the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

Lindbergh, Anne MorrowWife of famous American aviator Charles Lindbergh; Maui resident; lived at Kīpahulu near Hāna, Maui; passed away in 2001 and was buried next to her husband at Palapala Ho‘omau Congregational Church.

Lindbergh, Charles (19021974)Famous American aviator; in 1927, became the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean; Maui resident; passed away in 1974 at his home in Kīpahulu near Hāna, Maui; buried on August 26, 1974 at Palapala Ho‘omau Congregational Church near his Maui home; his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh passed away in 2001, and was also buried there (see Grave of Charles Lindbergh in Maui section, Chapter 2); was known affectionately as the “Lone Eagle” for his completion of the first solo flight across the Atlantic; the inscription on his granite headstone was taken from the Bible’s Psalm 139, and reads, “If I take the wings of morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea...” (See Aviation, Chapter 12.)

Lindeman, WilliamCopra grower; initial planter of the groves coconut palms (Cocos nucifera; Hawaiian name: niu) on the site of Kaua‘i’s Coconut Palms Hotel (which was named after the trees).

Lind, IanOne of nine protesters who, on January 4, 1976, led the first protest occupation of the island of Kaho‘olawe in an effort to stop the use of the island as a military bombing target [in 1920, the United States military began using the island of Kaho‘olawe as a bombing range for ships and aircraft; in 1939, the Territory of Hawai‘i leased the southern tip of Kaho‘olawe to the United States Army for use as an artillery range; after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor the United States Navy gained exclusive use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice and gunnery training; on February 20, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order placing Kaho‘olawe under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy]; seven of the protesters—Kimo Aluli, Ian Lind, Ellen Miles, Stephen Morse, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Walter Ritte and Karla Villalba—were arrested within hours; two of the protesters, Walter Ritte Jr. and Emmett Aluli, were able to get inland from the shore without being caught; Ritte and Aluli remained on the island for nearly three days before surrendering; following the occupation, the stories told by Ritte and Aluli of what they saw—widespread destruction, and desecration that included bombed heiau (ancient sacred sites)—inspired activists and fueled a passionate protest movement that sought to stop the bombing of Kaho‘olawe; after the initial occupation, Ritte and Aluli returned to Kaho‘olawe with Ritte’s sister and wife, and again they evaded the military for days; in all, there were at least twelve occupations of Kaho‘olawe after the initial landing by the “Kaho‘olawe Nine”; in the weeks after the initial protest, the county councils of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Island urged an end to the use of Kaho‘olawe as bombing target; native Hawaiians organized a grass-roots protest movement known as Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana and filed a lawsuit in federal court attempting to halt the bombing; in March of 1977 James “Kimo” Mitchell and his cousin George Jarrett Helm Jr., the leader of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana while paddling their surfboards to Kaho‘olawe during another attempt to reclaim the island for native Hawaiians; on October 22, 1990, United States President George Bush ended the use of Kaho‘olawe for bombing practice; in 1994, under a congressional appropriations act and presidential order, the island of Kaho‘olawe was returned to the State of Hawai‘i; on November 11, 2003 the Navy transferred control of access to Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. (See Kaho‘olawe, Chapter 2.)

Lindsey, LokelaniBishop Estate trustee on September 10, 1998 when State Attorney General Margery Bronster issued a 58-page report detailing accusations of illegal activities and abuse of power by Bishop Estate trustees in their management of the multibillion dollar trust; Bronster called for the removal of three of the trustees, Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, and Henry Peters; on May 6, 1999, Circuit Judge Bambi Weil removed Lokelani Lindsey from her position as a Trustee of Bishop Estate due to “poor judgment, “creation of a climate of fear,” “misappropriation of trust assets to her own benefit” and “breaches of loyalty and trust” ; the decision was a result of a lawsuit filed by fellow trustees Oswald Stender and Gerard Jervis; on May 7, 1999, Judge Kevin Chang removed four of the five trustees: Richard Wong, Lokelani Lindsey, Henry Peters, and Gerard Jervis, and accepted the resignation of the fifth trustee, Oswald Stender (this was the Bishop Estate’s first board comprised completely of members with Hawaiian ancestry); Lokelani Lindsey was later sentenced to six months in prison for bankruptcy fraud and money laundering, charges unrelated to her Bishop Estate position; on October 3, 2003, Federal Judge David Ezra ordered Lokelani Lindsey to immediately start serving her six-month prison term for bankruptcy fraud (she was scheduled to begin serving the sentence on November 3) because she was spotted in Las Vegas in September after claiming she was caring for her sick husband in Hawai‘i; Lindsey admitted that she had made two trips to Las Vegas in 2003 (see The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12); today the Bishop Estate, officially renamed Kamehameha Schools, includes the 600-acre (243-ha) Kapālama Heights campus in Honolulu as well as smaller campuses on Maui and Hawai‘i Island; the Estate has vast land holdings and investments with an endowment worth an estimated $7.66 billion during the 2005—2006 fiscal year, with $897 million in revenue in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006; in that same fiscal year, $221 million was spent by the trust to educate children of native Hawaiian ancestry, with a total of 6,715 students enrolled at its various campuses including the Kapālama Heights campus, preschools, and schools on the outer Islands; the trust also supports 14 charter schools as well as community outreach programs, and these schools and programs serve another 22,000 children. (See Kamehameha Schools and Bishop Museum; and The Bishop Estate Scandal, Chapter 12.)

Lingle, LindaElected Governor of Hawai‘i (Republican) on November 5, 2002, with James “Duke” Aiona Jr. as lieutenant governor; elected as the mayor of Maui County (1990), then re-elected as mayor in 1994; elected as the chairwoman of the State of Hawai‘i’s Republican Party (1999); the first Republican governor of the State of Hawai‘i since William Quinn who served from 1959 to 1962.

Lisiansky [Lisianskii], Urey [Yurii; Iurii] (17701846)Captain of the Neva on June 7, 1804 when it arrived in the Hawaiian Islands (then referred to as the Sandwich Islands) as one of the first two ships of the Imperial Russian service to visit the Islands (the other was the Nadeshda under the command of Captain Adam Johann von Krusenstern (17701846) (the Neva was the consort ship); the Russian ships were on a three-year around-the-world journey (18031806) with the goals of re-establishing trade with China and Japan, and finding more opportunities for fur trading; after the Neva left the main Hawaiian Islands for Canton, China, the ship ran aground twice on October 15, 1805 on what is now named Neva Shoal, located southeast of a small islet now named Lisianski Island (Hawaiian name: Papa‘āpoho) near Midway Atoll [Lisianski Island is a relatively flat coral island with sandy, white beaches and about 381 acres (154 ha) of dry land; the island’s maximum height is a sand dune that rises to about 40 feet (12 m) in height]; the Neva’s crew had to toss cargo overboard to free their vessel; the Neva returned to the Hawaiian Islands on January 27, 1809 under the command of Captain Leonth Andreanovic[h] Hagemeister; on board the Neva in 1809 was Archibald Campbell (17871821), who later became a sailmaker for King Kamehameha I; Campbell remained in the Hawaiian Islands for more than one year and wrote extensively about native Hawaiian life; Campbell’s writings included observations of King Kamehameha I as he ruled all of the Hawaiian Islands. (See Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 2.)

Locke, EdwinAmerican Protestant missionary; served at O‘ahu’s Waialua mission station (which was established in 1832).

London, Charmian Kittredge (1871—1955)—Second wife of Jack London (1876—1916); with her husband, arrived in the Hawaiian Islands from San Francisco on May 21, 1907 on the ketch Snark; completed a four-month tour of the Islands; both Jack and Charmian wrote about the Hawaiian Islands; the Londons returned for another visit in 1915—1916; wrote The Log of the “Snark” (New York: Macmillan, 1915); wrote Our Hawaii (New York: Macmillan, 1917; rev. ed., 1922), which included some previously unpublished articles by Jack London, entitled “My Hawaiian Aloha”); wrote The Book of Jack London (New York: Century, 1921).

London, John Griffith (Jack) (1876—1916)—One of the world’s wealthiest authors when he arrived in the Hawaiian Islands from San Francisco on May 21, 1907 on the ketch Snark (which he financed, designed, and helped to build) with his wife Charmian Kittredge London (1871—1955); completed a four-month tour of the Hawaiian Islands and then sailed to the South Seas on a two-year tour; both Jack and Charmian wrote about the Hawaiian Islands, with Jack reportedly writing precisely 1,000 words per day, including his article “A Royal Sport: Surfing at Waikiki”; surfed Waikīkī; the Londons returned for another visit in 1915—1916; they were entertained by the deposed Queen Lili‘uokalani [Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī-Dominis Lili‘uokalani] and also Prince Kūhiō [Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi]; visited Haleakalā Volcano (which he wrote about in The Cruise of the “Snark” (New York: MacMillan, 1911)); visited Halema‘uma‘u at Kīlauea Volcano, and the leper (Hansen’s disease) colony at Kalaupapa on Moloka‘i; wrote The House of Pride (New York: MacMillan, 1912), which included three stories about leprosy (Hansen’s disease) and the colony on Moloka‘i; three years after London passed away, the book On the Makaloa Mat (New York: Macmillan, 1919) was published; London also left an unpublished novel about the multiracial aspects of the Hawaiian Islands; after Jack London passed away, his wife published Our Hawaii (New York: Macmillan, 1917; rev. ed., 1922), which included some previously unpublished articles by Jack, entitled “My Hawaiian Aloha”).

Long, Geneva RuleMarried Oren Ethelbert Long (1889—1965) in 1917.

 

Long, Oren Ethelbert (1889—1965)—Born in Altoona, Kansas; earned a masters degree from the University of Michigan (1916) and another from the Columbia University (1922); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1912; married Geneva Rule in 1917; worked as a teacher and principal (high school) until 1925; served as deputy superintendent of public instruction (1925—1934), and superintendent (1934—1936); member of the University of Hawai‘i Board of Regents (1935—1946); Secretary of the Territory of Hawai‘i (1946—1951); member of the Constitutional Convention (1950); appointed Governor of Territory of Hawai‘i (Democrat) in 1951 by United States President Truman; served as governor until February 28,1953; chairman of the Statehood Commission (1954—1956); Senator (1960—1962); retired in 1963.

Loomis, Elisha (Dec. 11, 17991836)Born in Rushville, New York; at age 19 year, while serving a five-year apprenticeship with a printer in Canandaigua, New York, he read the Memoirs of Henry Obookiah, which moved him so much that he applied to the Board for the mission, and asked his employer to release him from the apprenticeship; attended the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall Connecticut; married Maria Loomis; came to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of American missionaries, leaving Boston on August 31, 1819, on the brig Thaddeus under the command of Andrew Blanchard; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on March 31, 1820, reaching Kailua-Kona on April 4, 1820; served at the Honolulu mission station (which was established in 1820); Elisha and Maria were the parents of Levi Sartwell Loomis, who was born on July 16, 1820, becoming the first Caucasian child born in the Hawaiian Islands; on January 7, 1822, used a second hand iron and mahogany Ramage press brought to the Hawaiian Islands on the Thaddeus to complete the first printing in the Hawaiian Islands and the North Pacific region; the first printing was done in a grass-roofed hut in Honolulu at the site that is now Kawaiaha‘o Church; the lever to begin the printing process was pulled by Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox], who was the son of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (high chief of Kona and a supporter of King Kamehameha I in the battles uniting the Hawaiian Islands); this first printing was the beginning of the Mission Press, which eventually printed millions of pages, many in the Hawaiian language; in 1823, the Hale Pa‘i, or Printing Office, was constructed of coral blocks; language teachers and translators utilized the lead-type press and were helped by nā kānaka pa‘i (native Hawaiian assistants); the first book published in the Islands came off the press in 1823, and was entitled Na Himeni Hawaii (Hymns of Hawai‘i); the Hale Pa‘i (Printing Office) was considered the birthplace of the written Hawaiian language, producing books, broadsides, hīmeni (hymns), newspapers, rules, primers, and the first translation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language; [today the complex of missionary buildings is known as the Mission Houses Museum, also called Nā Hale Hō‘ike‘ike O Nā Mikanele (“Exhibition House of the Missionaries”); the Mission Houses Museum is located at 553 S. King Street, Honolulu (across from Kawaiaha‘o Church); Phone: 808-531-0481; Open 9 to 4, Tuesday-Saturday; www.lava.net/ormhm/main.htm.] (See Mission Houses Museum in O‘ahu section, Chapter 2; and The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

 

Loomis, Levi SartwellChild of Elisha Loomis (1799—1836) and Maria Loomis; born on July 16, 1820, becoming the first Caucasian child born in the Hawaiian Islands.

Loomis, MariaWife of Elisha Loomis (1799—1836); mother of Levi Sartwell Loomis, who was born on July 16, 1820, becoming the first Caucasian child born in the Hawaiian Islands.

Lord, E. J.—Enlisted man under the command of Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie; indicted for second degree murder of Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was awaiting a retrial for the criminal assault of Thalia Massie (c.19101963), the 20-year-old wife of United States Navy lieutenant Thomas H. Massie; the events of the Massie case began after Thomas and Thalia Massie attended a party on September 12, 1931 at Honolulu’s Ala Wai Inn (a Honolulu nightclub formerly on the site of the present location of the Hawai‘i Convention Center); Thalia Massie was later found beaten and assaulted with her jaw broken in two places; Thalia Massie told authorities that she had been forced into a car and taken to Ala Moana Park where she was raped; five plantation workers who allegedly raped Thalia Massie (a Caucasian) were detained that night and taken to her hospital room, where she apparently identified the driver of the car, though later evidence claimed she only identified the attackers as “Hawaiian”; a medical report did not show any evidence of rape; further, there were rumors that Thalia’s husband had discovered her with another man, and had himself beaten her; the detained men, who were charged with criminal assault, were: Joseph Kahāhāwai [Kehahawai] (Joe Kalani) (Hawaiian); Shomatsu (Horace) Ida (Japanese); Henry Chang (Chinese-Hawaiian); Ben Ahakuelo, Hawaiian; and David Takai (Japanese-Hawaiian); the defendants were represented by Heen, William Haehae Heen (1883—1973); despite evidence pointing to the innocence of the detained men, they were assumed guilty by the national press, which ran stories about the brute locals preying on white women; the accused men were later set free due to lack of evidence, with a deadlocked jury that had taken 97 ballots in more than 100 hours of deliberation, on December 6, 1931, it was determined that the jury was deadlocked and could not agree on a conviction, and a mistrial was declared; the release of the accused men fueled racial tensions and violence in Honolulu, including animosity between the military and local residents; the story garnered national attention; while a retrial was still pending, Shomatsu (Horace) Ida was kidnapped and beaten on December 12, 1931; on January 8, 1932, one of the defendants, 20-year-old Joseph Kahāhāwai, who was said to have been the leader of the “School Street gang,” was kidnapped by Thalia Massie’s husband and mother and two Navy men; Kahāhāwai taken to a home in MānoaValley that had been rented by Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue (Thalia’s mother), and there Kahāhāwai was shot and killed; they placed the slain Kahāhāwai’s body in the trunk of their car and drove toward the rocky coastline near Koko Crater where they planned to dump the body; during the drive they were stopped by police and Kahāhāwai’s body was discovered in the back of the car; all four—Lieutenent Thomas H. Massie (husband of Thalia Massie), Grace Hubbard Bell Fortescue, E. J. Lord, and Albert O. Jones—were indicted for second degree murder; Thomas H. Massie took responsibility for shooting Kahāhāwai, but his lawyer, the renowned Clarence Darrow, told the court his client was temporarily insane; the four were convicted on April 30, 1932 of manslaughter (with a recommendation of leniency) after 49 hours of deliberation by a jury under Judge Charles S. Davis, and they were sentenced to ten years hard labor at Oahu [O‘ahu] Prison; Governor Lawrence Judd (1877—1968) immediately commuted the sentence to one hour, to be served in his office; the attack on Thalia Massie, as well as the subsequent vigilante action and controversial court decisions contributed to racial tensions in the Islands for years to come; Thalia Massie later lived in Florida where she committed suicide in 1963.

Lord, JackStarred in the television series Hawaii Five-O, which ran from 1968 to 1980 on the television network CBS; Steve McGarrett (played by Jack Lord) was the head of Five-O, a special law enforcement unit; the show was the first network series to be filmed only in the Hawaiian Islands, and also the longest-running crime drama and longest running police show; there were 284 Hawaii Five-O episodes in all during the twelve-year run; at one point, the weekly show had more than 300 million viewers in 80 countries; the show is credited with significantly boosting the tourism industry in the Hawaiian Islands.

Low, Ebenezer Parker (Eben) (1864—1954)—Grandson of John Palmer Parker; born in Honolulu; attended ‘Iolani School; worked at Theo H. Davies & Co. (1881—1887); managed Kohala Ranch (1890—1893); started Puuwaawaa [Pu‘uwa‘awa‘a] Ranch in partnership with Robert Hind; became manager of the Woods cattle ranch in 1900; lost a hand in a roping accident; but continued to excel at the skill; managed Humuula [Humu‘ula] Ranch (1908—1910); established a shipping business in 1909 with Miller Salvage Company and then established Oahu [O‘ahu] Shipping Company in 1913 with J. B. Castle, purchasing Castle’s interest in 1917; skilled yachtsman; won a trans-Pacific race as part of the crew of the Lurline; served on Honolulu Board of Supervisors.

Low, JohnManager of Kaua‘i’s Princeville Plantation in 1866. 

Lydgate, Helen (Elwell)Teacher at Malumalu School for Hawaiian boys and girls, which was located above the Hulē‘ia River; married John Mortimer Lydgate (II) in 1898, and they would have four sons.

Lydgate, John Mortimer (I)—Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1865 with his family and the family of Alexander Young (1832—1910); with Alexander Young, founded Hilo Iron Works, and later sold his share of the business to Young and began a sugarcane plantation in Laupāhoehoe on Hawai‘i Island, later selling the plantation to Theo H. Davies & Co.; father of John Mortimer Lydgate (II) (1854—1922).

Lydgate, John Mortimer (II) (1854—1922)—Born in Ontario, Canada to John Mortimer Lydgate (I); arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1865 with his parents and the family of Alexander Young (1832—1910); attended Punahou School; worked as a surveyor for the government (1873—1875); helped to plan the first wagon road between Kīlauea Vocano and Hilo; graduated from Toronto University (1880) and Yale Divinity School (1891); served as a pastor at the Stellacoom, Washington Congregational Church; founded and then served at Lihue [Līhu‘e] Union Church (now Līhu‘ē United Church) (1878—1919); married Helen Elwell in 1898, and they would have four sons; initiated and oversaw the conversion of the McBryde family cattle ranch into a sugarcane plantation in 1903, and served as the plantation’s managing director until 1910; spoke Hawaiian and published versions of legends; in 1914, founded the Kauai [Kaua‘i] Historical Society; named after him is Kaua‘i’s Lydgate Park.

Lyman, Chester S.Wrote Around the Horn to the to the Sandwich Islands and California, 1845-1850 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1924), describing early life in the Islands, such as surfing Waikīkī, Kīlauea Volcano, and the preaching of American Protestant missionary Titus Coan (1801—1882).

Lyman, David B.American Protestant missionary; served on Hawai‘i Island at the Hilo mission station (which was established in 1824).

Lyon, Harold Lloyd (1879—1957)—Born in Hastings, Minnesota; attended University of Minnesota where he studied botany and earned two degrees; worked there as a teacher from (1900—1907); earned a doctorate in 1903; in 1906, married Maude Fletcher; arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1907 and worked in Honolulu for the Hawaii [Hawai‘i] Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station; placed in charge of Department of Botany and Forestry; in 1914, helped to establish the Pineapple Research Institute; after returning to the Hawaiian Islands in 1848, directed Manoa [Mānoa] Arboretum (later named after him) and Foster Botanical Gardens; published numerous papers on plants; also named in his honor was a botanical garden at Koko Head Crater

Lyon, Maude (Fletcher)—Botanist; married Harold Lloyd Lyon (1879—1957) in 1906, and they arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1907.

Lyons, Betsey (Curtis)—Wife of Lorenzo Lyons (1807—1886); two months after they married they set sail with the Fifth Company of American missionaries on the whale ship Averick, which was under the command of Captain Swain and arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832; stationed at Waimea on Hawai‘i Island; had one living son with Lorenzo Lyons; passed away in 1837.

Lyons, Lorenzo (Reverend) (18071886)Born in Colerain, Massachusetts; attended Union College in New York and then Auburn Theological Seminary in Massachusetts; ordained in 1831; married Betsey Curtis; two months later they set sail with the Fifth Company of American missionaries on the whale ship Averick, which was under the command of Captain Swain and arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on May 17, 1832; stationed at the Waimea mission station on Hawai‘i Island where he worked for the 54 years; had one living son with Betsey, who passed away in 1837; married Lucia Garratt H. Smith and they would have two daughters and one son; constructed Hokuloa Church at Puakō on Hawai‘i Island in 1859; known as an expert in the Hawaiian language; composed hymns and ran singing schools; an account of his life is given in Makua Laiana: The Story of Lorenzo Lyons (Honolulu: privately printed, 1945) by Emma Lyons Doyle.

Lyons, Lucia Garratt H. (Smith)Second wife of American missionary Lorenzo Lyons (1807—1886), and with him had two daughters and one son.



[i] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.

[ii] Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation: Presented by Lili‘uokalani in Washington D.C., June 17, 1897. Internet site: http://hawaiii-nation.org/treatyprot.html, 6/14/2005.

[iii] Official Protest to the Treaty of Annexation: Presented by Lili‘uokalani in Washington D.C., June 17, 1897. Internet site: http://hawaiii-nation.org/treatyprot.html, 6/14/2005.

[iv] Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Elbert, Samuel H. & Mookini, Esther T. Place Names of Hawaii: Revised & Expanded Edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974.