Part III. Other Hawaiian Alii (Royalty) and Chiefs

Chapter 16—Part III

Other Hawaiian Ali‘i (Royalty) and Chiefs

Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] (c.1713—1794)

Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe (c.1736—1804)

Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] (1748—1794)

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula

[Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] (c.1756—1795)

Kalanikūpule (1760—1795)

Kaikio‘ewa (1765—1839)

Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt] (1768—1827)

Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] (1776—1840)

King Kaumuali‘i (c.1780—1824)

Kapi‘olani (I) (1781—1841)

Kīna‘u (1805—1839)


Kahekilinui‘ahumanu

Kahekili 

Biographical Sketch: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]: 

Born: c.1713.

Died: 1794.

Father: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike].

Mother: Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui].

Brother: Kamehamehanui.

Sister: Kalola.

Sons: Kalanikūpule; Koalaukani [Koholokalani]; possibly also King Kamehameha I (see below).

Half-Brothers: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], Kekuamanohā.

Half-Sister: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]

Summary of Life of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]:

· Chief of Maui and O‘ahu.

· Enemy of warriors Kalani‘ōpu‘u and Kamehameha I.

· May have been true biological father of King Kamehameha I. Though the father of King Kamehameha I is usually listed as Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui], many think Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] is indeed the true biological father because Kamehameha’s mother Keku‘iapoiwa (II) had visited Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] before the young ali‘i Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I) was born.

· Tattooed black over one side of his body from head to toe; sometimes referred to as “Pā‘ele kū chief of the Bays of Pi‘ilani [Maui],” referring to “the solid black tattoo covering half of Kahekili’s body.”[i]

· Assisted by his half-brother Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], became ali‘i ‘ai moku (paramount chief) of Maui (succeeded Kamehamehanui) and then O‘ahu, leaving his son, Kalanikūpule to rule Maui.

· Visited ship of British Captain James Cook (1728—1779) in November 1778.

· In 1790, Kahekilinui‘ahumanu was the most powerful ali‘i (chief) in the Hawaiian Islands, ruling Maui, Lāna‘i, and Moloka‘i. He was in alliance with his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], ruler of Kaua‘i, who seized O‘ahu by killing its chief and sacrificing him to his own war god, also killing lesser chiefs of O‘ahu and using their skeletons to construct a house of bones.

· Fearing conquest of Hawai‘i Island by Kā‘eokūlani and Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], Kamehameha decided to strike first, and landed his troops on Maui to fight against Kalanikūkupule, son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. Kamehameha considered it a good omen when the feathers of his war god Kūkā‘ilimoku bristled.

· Fighting between the two groups of warriors began in Wailuku, and then proceeded up into ‘Īao Valley where the precipitous cliffs at the head of the valley blocked escape. Kamehameha’s forces had the advantage of superior western weapons (muskets) as well as a cannon manned by the foreigners John Young (I) [‘Olohana] (c.1749—1835) and Isaac Davis [‘Aikake].

· In Kamehameha’s victory at ‘Īao Valley, dead bodies from both sides are said to have blocked the river, giving the battle its name, the Battle of Kepaniwai (“The Water Dam”). The bloody confrontation is also referred to as Ka‘uwa‘upali (“Precipice-clawing”), referring to the fleeing warriors climbing the steep cliffs of ‘Īao Valley as they tried to escape.[ii]

· Facing imminent defeat, Kalanikūpule, the son of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu fled over a narrow mountain pass along with his high chiefs, and they sailed to O‘ahu where Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] began war preparations.

· Defeated in 1791 by forces of Kamehameha I off the northeast coast of Hawai‘i Island in the sea battle known as Kepūwaha‘ula‘ula (“War of the Red Mouthed Cannon”), the first Hawaiian sea battle in which both sides were armed with foreign gunners and cannons. (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1791.)

· Died in summer of 1794 and left his domains to his half-brother, Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], and his son, Kalanikūpule, who became enemies, instigating the battles that led to the rise of the young warrior Pai‘ea Kamehameha (the future King Kamehameha I). (See Chapter 11, Timeline: 1794.)

· The house of Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] at Wailuku was known as Lanikeha.

· Known as the “Famous warrior chief of the Bays of Pi‘ilani,” “King of Maui of Kama,” and Maui mō‘i ‘ai moku.”[iii]

(For more information about Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili], see 1748; 1753; 1760; 1775; 1784; 1786; 1790; 1791; 1794; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe 

Biographical Sketch: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe(c.1736—1804)

Born: c.1736.

Died: 1804.

Father: Keawepoepoe.

Mother: Kūma‘aikū.

Wife: Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Daughter: Ka‘ahumanu (queen as wife of King Kamehameha I).

Sons: Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]; Ke‘eaumoku (II) [Governor Cox].

Older brothers (on father’s side): Sacred twins Kamanawa and Kame‘eiamoku (these brothers were allies of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe).

Granddaughter: Ka‘ua‘umokuokamānele [Kamānele] (daughter of Kuakini [Kaluaikonahale; John Adams]).

Summary of Life of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe:

· Fought numerous interisland battles, eventually joining forces with Kamehameha I.

· Was the most prominent of Kona’s four high chiefs, leading canoe fleets and land battles supporting Kamehameha I.

· Said to have killed Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] at the heiau at Kawaihae in 1791. (See 1791, Summer.)

· Became governor of large areas of Hawai‘i Island.

· Died in 1804, likely of ma‘i ‘ōku‘u (thought to be cholera), during an 1804 invasion of O‘ahu with the troops of Kamehameha I.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “Ka aku la ka‘u lā‘au i ka ‘a‘ama kua lenalena.” (“My spear pierced the yellow-shelled crab.”). “This was the boast of the warrior who speared Ke‘eaumoku at the Battle of Moku‘ohai. Ke‘eaumoku revived and shortly after killed Kīwala‘ō. This battle was between the two cousins Kamehameha and Kīwala‘ō.”[iv]

(For more information about Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe, see 1753; 1768; 1776; 1780; 1782; 1785; 1790; 1791, Summer; 1802; 1804; 1805; 1822, Jan.7; 1830, Dec.11; 1834, Feb.9; 1838; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Kā‘eokūlani

Kā‘eo 

Biographical Sketch: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]

Born: 1748.

Died: 1794.

Father: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike].

Mother: Holau.

Wife: Kamakahelei.

Son: Kaumuali‘i.

Grandson: Kinoiki (daughter of Kekelaokalani [Kapuaamohu] and Kaumuali‘i).

Great grandchildren: Kapi‘olani (II), Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani, and Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (children of Kūhiō and Kinoiki).

Great great grandchildren: Edward Keali‘ihonui, David Kawānanakoa, and Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole Pi‘ikoi (children of Esther Kinoiki and David Kahalepouli Pi‘ikoi).

Half-brother: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili]. 

Summary of Life of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]: 

· Ruler of Kaua‘i.

· Helped Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] conquer Maui and O‘ahu.

· When Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili] died in 1794, his domains were divided between Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kalanikūpule (son of Kahekili).

· Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] and Kalanikūpule became enemies, and Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo] was killed in a 1794 battle against Kalanikūpule, who was assisted by foreigners and foreign ships. The battle took place near what is now called Pearl Harbor. (See 1794, Dec. 12.)

(For more information about Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo], see 1713; 1753; 1760; 1780; 1786; 1790; 1794, Summer; 1794, Dec. 12; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula

Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula

Ka‘iana

Biographical Sketch:

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]

Born: c.1756.

Died: 1795.

Father: ‘Ahu‘ula [Ahaula].

Mother: Kaupekamoku.

Half-brother: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

Summary of Life of:

Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana]:

· First Hawaiian chief to travel to foreign countries. Went to Canton, China in 1787 on the Nootka with Captain John Meares, returning on the Iphigenia with Captain William Douglas in 1788.

· A warrior chief, Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula [Keawe-Ka‘iana a ‘Ahu‘ula; Ka‘iana] led battles for and against Kamehameha I.

· Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula had brought back muskets and cannons from his journeys, and his knowledge of foreign weapons and high rank made him a valuable ally of Kamehameha I. This is said to have diminished after 1793 when he is alleged to have had an affair with Queen Ka‘ahumanu, the wife of King Kamehameha I.

· Led Kamehameha I’s forces against Keōuakū‘ahu‘ula [Keōua] (chief of Puna and Ka‘ū districts).

· During the 1795 invasion of O‘ahu, Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula deserted to Kalanikūpule’s side, and died fighting the forces of Kamehameha I in the Battle of Nu‘uanu.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “‘Eu kōlea i kona puapua; ‘eu ke kanaka i kona hanu.” (“A plover stirs its tail; a man stirs because of the breath within.”) “Said by Ka‘iana, who led an army in battle under Kamehameha I. When the Puna fighters refused to battle against Keouakuahu‘ula because of the close kinship between their own district and Ka‘ū, Ka‘iana said this to urge them to think of themselves and their own lives. Encouraged, the warriors resumed fighting and won the victory for Kamehameha.”[v]

(For more information about Ka‘iana‘ahu‘ula, see 1787, Aug.2; 1795, Feb.; 1795, April; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Kalanikūpule

Biographical Sketch: Kalanikūpule

Born: 1760.

Died: 1795.

Father: Kahekilinui‘ahumanu [Kahekili].

Mother: Kauwahine.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Keku‘iapoiwa (I) [Keku‘iapoiwanui].

Uncle: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

Summary of Life of Kalanikūpule:

· When his father died in 1794 he became ruler of Maui and O‘ahu.

· Fought with his uncle Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

· Suffered defeat to Kamehameha I at 1795 Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali, and then hid in the mountains for several months before being captured and sacrificed to Kamehameha’s war god, Kūkā‘ilimoku.

(For more information about Kalanikūpule, see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Kaikio‘ewa

Biographical Sketch: Kaikio‘ewa

Born: 1765.

Died: 1839.

Father: Ka‘ianaukupe Kaolohaka-a-keawe [Ka‘ianaukupe].

Mother: Kekiko‘ola Lalanikauleleaiwi.

Wife: Kalanikaulihiwakama (sister of King Kamehameha I); Keaweamahi

Children:

Daughter (by Kalanikaulihiwakama): Kuwahine.

Daughter (by Nahaukapu): Likelike.

Summary of Life of Kaikio‘ewa:

· Cousin of King Kamehameha I through both mother and father.

· Supporter of Kamehameha I during the civil wars.

· Guardian of Kauikeaouli, who would later become King Kamehameha III.

· Appointed as governor of Kaua‘i in 1825 after Kaua‘i rebellion was thwarted, and remained governor until he died, at which time his wife, Keaweamahi took his place.

· Went into debt during the sandalwood era due to excesses in spending on novelties.

· Converted to Protestantism, and encouraged the expulsion of Catholic priests in 1830.

(For more information about Kaikio‘ewa, see 1814, Mar. 17; also see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Kalanimoku

Kālaimoku

William (Billy) Pitt

Biographical Sketch: [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt]

Born: 1768.

Died: 1827.

Father: Kekuamanohā.

Mother: Kamakahukilani.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u.

Wife: Kiliwehi.

Son: William Pitt Leleiōhoku (I), (husband of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikōlani). 

Summary of Life of Kalanimoku:

· Treasurer and Principal Counselor (Kālaimoku) to King Kamehameha I, and later to Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, serving also as Ka‘ahumanu’s Treasurer, supervising all tax and fee collections.

· Present at the death of Captain Cook in 1779.

· Took the nickname of “Billy Pitt” after William Pitt, the English Prime Minister.

· Baptized a Roman Catholic in 1819 aboard the L‘Uranie, in the presence of Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu and King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho). The scene was painted by Jacques Arago (1790—1855), the ship‘s artist, who wrote and illustrated accounts of the Hawaiian Islands during the French expedition.

[Illustration: Scene above depicted by Arago.]

· Guardian of young Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho).

· Helped defeat Kaua‘i rebellion of 1824 led by George P. Kaumuali‘i. (See 1824.)

· Sent ships on numerous trading voyages, including to America, the South Seas and the Russian-American colonies.

(For more information about Kalanimoku [Kālaimoku; William (Billy) Pitt], see 1797; 1819; May 20, 1824.)


Ulumāheihei

Ulumāheiheihoapili

Hoapili

Biographical Sketch:

Ulumāheihei[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili]

Born: 1776.

Died: 1840.

Father: Kame‘eiamoku (a high chief, and one of the sacred twins of Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike]).

Mother: Keali‘iokahekili.

Summary of Life of:

Ulumāheihei[Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili]:

· A close friend of Kamehameha I, Ulumāheihei was given the name Hoapili because of his close friendship with Kamehameha I (Hoapili means “Close personal friend”).

· After King Kamehameha I’s death in 1819, Ulumāheihei [Ulumāheiheihoapili; Hoapili] was entrusted with hiding the King Kamehameha’s bones. (See 1819, May 8.)

· Hoapili was supportive of the overthrow of the traditional kapu system in 1819.

· After Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani] died, Hoapili married Kalākua (the daughter of Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana]), and had a child, Kekāuluohi [Miriam ‘Auhea], who later gave birth, with Charles Kana‘ina, to the future King Lunalilo.

Kalākua also gave birth (with King Kamehameha I) to Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano] (queen as wife of King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho)).

· Hoapili married King Kamehameha’s sacred wife, Queen Keōpūolani [Keōpūolanikauhiakama; Kalanikauika‘alaneokeōpūolani], becoming her sole husband when she abandoned polygamy.

· From 1836 to 1840, Hoapili was governor of Lāna‘i, Maui, and Moloka‘i.

· An ancient Hawaiian proverb states, “Ulumaheihei wale no, iāia o loko, iāia o waho.” (“Ulumaheihei knows everything inside and out.”) “One who knows everything. Ulumaheihei was a very close friend of Kamehameha, who renamed him Hoapili. He was the king’s most trusted friend and knew every affair of the kingdom. It was to him that Kamehameha entrusted his bones after death.”[vi]

(For more information about Ulumāheihei, see 1819, May 8; 1836-1840.)


King Kaumuali‘i

Biographical Sketch: King Kaumuali‘i 

Born: c.1780.

Died: 1824.

Father: Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo].

Mother: Kamakahelei.

Grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Holau (parents of Kā‘eokūlani [Kā‘eo]).

Son: George P.(Prince) Kaumuali‘i (Humehume).

Grandchildren: Queen Kapi‘olani, Virginia Kapo‘oloku Po‘omaikelani, and Esther Kinoiki Kekaulike (children of Kūhiō and Kinoiki).

Favorite Queen: Deborah Kapule [Kekaiha‘akūlou]

Summary of Life of King Kaumuali‘i:

· Paramount ruler (king) of Kaua‘i.

· Ceded the island of Kaua‘i to King Kamehameha I in 1810, allowing King Kamehameha I to declare the Hawaiian Islands one nation (the united Hawaiian Kingdom).

· Supported (unauthorized) Russian occupation (led by Georg Anton Schäffer) of Kaua‘i in 1816—1817.

· Pledged his allegiance to King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) on September 16, 1821, at Waimea, Kaua‘i, and accepted Liholiho’s sovereignty.

· Taken prisoner by King Kamehameha II (Kalaninui ‘Iolani Liholiho) on September 16, 1821, aboard the royal ship, Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i) and then taken to O‘ahu.

· On October 9, 1821, Kaumuali‘i married Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu, former favorite wife of King Kamehameha I. 

(For more information about Kaumuali‘i, see 1768; 1796, April; 1797; 1798; 1810; 1815; 1820, May 3; 1821; 1824, July 21.)


Kapi‘olani (I)

Kapi‘olaninui

Biographical Sketch: Kapi‘olani

Born: 1781.

Died: 1841.

Father: Keawemauhili, high chief of Hilo.

Mother: Ululani.

Brother: Keaweokahikona.

Husband: Nāihe.

Summary of Life of Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui]:

· As a child, Kapi‘olani (I) was captured with her parents after being defeated in the Battle of Moku‘ōhai; they escaped, but the infant Kapi‘olani (I) was abandoned in the forest, and later found.

· Converted by Protestant missionaries, Kapi‘olani led a march in 1824 on Hawai‘i Island, from Kona to Kīlauea Volcano, where she defied Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes, by proclaiming the power of Jehovah. When the marchers were not engulfed by lava, at least 90 more converts joined with her.

· Kapi‘olani means “The arch of heaven,” referring to a rainbow, which is a traditional sign of royalty.

· Kapi‘olani’s niece and namesake was Queen Kapi‘olani (1834—1899), wife of King Kalākaua [David La‘amea Kalākaua].

· “Kapiolani,” a dramatic poem about Kapi‘olani’s march to the volcano, was written by English poet laureate, Lord Tennyson.

Kapiolani, by Lord Alfred Tennyson

When from the terrors of Nature a people have fashion’d and worship a Spirit of Evil

Blest be the Voice of the Teacher who calls to them,

“Set yourselves free!”

Noble the Saxon who hurled at his Idol a valorous weapon in olden England!

Great, and greater, and greatest of women, island heroine Kapiolani

Clomb the mountain, and flung the berries and dared the Goddess, and freed the people

Of Hawa-i-ee!

A people believing that Peelè the Goddess would wallow in fiery riot and revel

On Kilauea,

Dance in a fountain of flame with her devils or shake with her thunders and shatter her island,

Rolling her anger

Thro’ blasted valley and flowing forest in blood-red cataracts down to the sea!

Long as the lava-light

Glares from the lava-take,

Dazing the starlight;

Long as the silvery vapor in daylight

Over the mountain

Floats, will the glory of Kapiolani be mingled with either on Hawa-i-ee.

What said her Priesthood?

“Woe to this island if ever a woman should handle or gather the berries of Peelè

Accursed were she!

And woe to this island if ever a woman should climb to the dwelling of Peelè the Goddess!

Accursed were she!”

One from the Sunrise

Dawned on His people and slowly before him

Vanished shadow-like

Gods and Goddesses,

None but the terrible Peelè remaining as Kapiolani

Ascended her mountain,

Baffled her priesthood,

Broke the Taboo,

Dipt to the crater,

Called on the Power adored by the Christian and crying, “I dare her, let Peelè avenge herself!”

Into the flame-billows dashed the berries, and drove the demon from Hawa-i-ee.

(For more information about Kapi‘olani (I) [Kapi‘olaninui], see The Early Battles of Pai‘ea Kamehameha, Chapter 17.)


Kīna‘u

Biographical Sketch: Kīna‘u

Born: 1805.

Died: 1839.

Father: King Kamehameha I.

Mother: Kalākua.

Sister: Kamāmalu [Kamāmalunuiomano]

Husband: Mataio Kekūanaō‘a

Children: King Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani); King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa Kamehameha); Victoria Ka‘ahumanu Kamāmalu; and Moses Kekūāiwa.

On father’s side:

Grandparents: Keōuakupuapāikalaninui [Keōuanui] and Keku‘iapoiwa (II).

On mother’s side:

Grandparents: Ke‘eaumoku Pāpa‘iaheahe and Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana].

Great grandparents: Kekaulikenuiahumanu [Kekaulike] and Ha‘alo‘u (parents of Nāmāhānaikaleleonalani [Nāmāhana])

Summary of Life of Kīna‘u:

· In 1832, Kīna‘u became Kuhina Nui (Premier, sharing power with King Kamehameha III [Kauikeaouli]), succeeding Ka‘ahumanu.

· Kīna‘u continued Ka‘ahumanu’s policy of supporting missionary teachings and associated laws. This was not supported by King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli), who was prevented from recovering certain properties due to the laws.

· Kīna‘u and King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) reconciled in 1835 when King Kamehameha III proclaimed a code of laws in line with Kīna‘u’s beliefs.

(For more information about Kīna‘u, see 1794; 1814, Mar.17; 1829; 1830, Dec.11; 1834, Feb.9.)


‘Ōpūkaha‘ia

Biographical Sketch: ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia

Born: 1792.

Died: 1818.

· Parents and brother killed at Kaipalaoa on Hawai‘i Island in Nāmakaehā’s rebellion.

· Raised in Nāpō‘opo‘ō on Kealakekua Bay on Hawai‘i Island by his kahuna (priest) uncle.

· In 1809, Henry ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia left the Hawaiian Islands for New England (Connecticut) on the ship Triumph, which was under the command of Captain Caleb Brintnall.

The ship first went to the Seal Islands in the American northwest, and then stopped in the Hawaiian Islands before going to Canton, China, and then to New York, and finally to New Haven, Connecticut.

· Influenced by students of Andover Seminary and Yale College, ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia became a Christian, taking the name Henry Obookiah. He is considered the first Hawaiian Christian.

· Began translating the Bible into Hawaiian and had plans to travel back to the Hawaiian Islands with the First Company of missionaries (but died before these goals were realized).

· Died of typhus fever in Cornwall, Connecticut on February 17, 1818, at the age of 26.

· ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s death inspired the first American Christian mission to the Hawaiian Islands.

· On July 26, 1993, ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia’s remains, which had been buried in Connecticut since 1818, were returned to the Hawaiian Islands, and then on August 15, 1993 the remains were reburied on the island of Hawai‘i, at Kahikolu Cemetery in Nāpō‘opo‘o, South Kona.

(For more information about ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia, see 1809; 1818.)



[i] p. 41, Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[ii] p. 191, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1781.

[iii] Desha, Stephen L., translated by Frazier, Frances N. Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekūhaupi‘o. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 2000; originally published in Ka Hoku o Hawaii (The Star of Hawai‘i) between December 16, 1920 and September 11, 1924.

[iv] p. 200, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 1860.

[v] p. 46, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 381.

[vi] p. 227, Pukui, Mary Kawena. ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1983. Proverb 2541.