Science of the Hawaiian Islands

Science of the Hawaiian Islands

1. What color is always seen at the very top of a rainbow?

a) Purple

b) Green

c) Yellow

d) Red

2. What is the term used by geologists for the uprising plume of lava that has formed all of the Hawaiian Islands?

a) Kīlauea Volcano

b) The Pacific Plume

c) The Hawaiian Hotspot

d) The Tectonic Column

3. This active and erupting undersea volcano is 9000 feet tall, about 20 miles off the southeast coast of the Big Island. The summit is about 3,000 feet beneath the surface and will someday rise up to become the next Hawaiian Island.

a) Waipi‘o Volcano

b) Mauna Loa

c) Kamalei

d) Lō‘ihi

4. These two types of lava are distinguished by their appearance, which varies depending upon the temperature at which the lava erupted.

a) Ulu‘u and Ulō‘ō

b) Basalt and sedimentary

c) Pahoehoe and ‘a‘a

d) Metamorphic and basaltic

5. What was the name of the hurricane that hit Kaua’i on September 11, 1992 with gusts up to 227 miles per hour?

a) Iwa

b) Dot

c) Iniki

d) Grace

6. What volcano is currently considered the most active volcano on Earth?

a) Mauna Loa

b) Kīlauea

c) Mauna Kea

d) Haleakalā

7. Hawaiian Green sea turtles lay eggs between May and September, digging a small pit on shore, and depositing 100 to 200 ping-pong ball sized eggs up to 3 feet deep in the sand. A deposit of eggs is known as a:

a) Clutch

b) Cluster

c) Gaggle

d) Incubatch

8. What natural disaster has killed more people in the Hawaiian Islands than all other natural disasters combined?

a) Hurricanes

b) Floods

c) Tsunamis

d) Landslides

9. How many major observatories are on the summit of Mauna Kea?

a) 2

b) 4

c) 7

d) 12

10. What is the physiological process that dolphins (and all toothed cetaceans) use to get an acoustic picture of their surroundings, by emitting sound waves from their forehead, bouncing the sounds off objects and interpreting the returning echo?

a) Acoustization

b) Dolphinalysis

c) Echolocation

d) Echosounding

11. What percent of native Hawaiian plants and animals are endemic species, found naturally only in the Hawaiian Islands?

a) Less than 10%

b) About 40%

c) About 80%

d) Over 90%

12. During the last century, Kīlauea Volcano erupted what percent of the time?

a) 20%

b) 48%

c) 60%

d) 91%

13. The 1946 tsunami, which sent waves up to 56 feet above sea level and killed 159 people in Hilo and Laupāhoehoe on Hawai‘i Island, was caused by an earthquake that occurred where?

a) On the Big Island

b) The Aleutian Islands

c) Chile

d) Peru

14. What was the total monetary assessment of the property damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992?

a) 100 million dollars

b) 500 million dollars

c) Over 1 billion dollars

d) Over 3 billion dollars

15. About how old is the island of Kaua‘i?

a) 20 million years old

b) 2 million years old

c) 5 million years old

d) 70 million years old

16. What is the name of the most prominent telescopes atop Mauna Kea Volcano, consisting of 2 huge domes, each 8 stories tall and nearly 300 tons with over 700,000 cubic feet of volume, making them the largest optical/infrared telescopes in the world?

a) The Mauna Kea Towers

b) The Subaru Telescopes

c) The Keck Telescopes

d) The Hubble Telescopes

17. Pit craters line this fractured area that runs from Kīlauea’s summit toward the ocean, and this area is currently the most active area on the volcano for erupting lava.

a) The South Rift Zone

b) The East Rift Zone

c) The North Rift Zone

d) The West Rift Zone

18. Within Kīlauea’s summit caldera is Halema‘uma‘u Crater, which erupted as recently as 1982. How wide and deep is Halema‘uma‘u Crater?

a) 2 miles across and 1,000 feet deep

b) 200 yards across and 50 feet deep

c) 3,000 feet across and 280 feet deep

d) 5 miles across and 1 mile deep

19. Two of the primary causes of the endangerment and extinctions of small, endemic Hawaiian land birds are:

a) Avian malaria and avian pox

b) Avian cholera and avian ringworm

c) Avian typhoid and avian hepatitis

d) Avian staff and avian leptospirosis

20. What is generally considered by scientists to be the major reason that the Hawaiian Islands have so many unique species found nowhere else on Earth?

a) The soil

b) Lack of predators

c) Temperature

d) Geographic isolation

21. Mauna Loa Volcano extends about 18,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. How high does it reach above sea level?

a) 9,677 feet

b) 11,677 feet

c) 13,677 feet

d) 15,677 feet

22. What is the highest point of a wave called?

a) Trough

b) Swell

c) Crest

d) Gnarly

23. What is the Hawaiian name for the North Star (called Arcturus by westerners), which was very important in the celestial navigation used by ancient Polynesian voyagers?

a) Hōkūpa‘a

b) Hōkūle‘a

c) Hawai‘iloa

d) Honua

24. This phenomena is known to occur atop Haleakalā and a few other spots in the world. Standing between the sun and clouds, your image is projected onto the clouds and the water droplets in the clouds create a circular rainbow around your shadow.

a) Rainbow mirrors

b) Brocken specter

c) Circular reflection

d) Optical projection

25. Kīlauea Volcano’s eruptions have been emitting sulfur dioxide gas (known as Vog) almost continually since 1982. Researchers estimate that about how many tons of sulfur dioxide are being emitted each day?

a) 5

b) 100

c) 500

d) 1,000

26. What area of Hawai‘i Island is most likely to suffer the accumulation of the volcanic gas known as Vog, which is being produced by the continuing eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano?

a) South Kona

b) Hilo

c) Mauna Kea

d) Windward Mauna Loa

27. In 1975, two people were killed and 19 injured when a tsunami hit the shoreline of Halapē on Hawai‘i Island. Where was the tsunami generated?

a) The Aleutian Islands

b) Chile

c) Japan

d) The Big Island

28. In 1959, this hurricane brought winds well over 100 m.p.h. to Kaua‘i, causing over 6 million dollars in damage.

a) Iniki

b) Dot

c) Nina

d) ‘Iwa

29. It is not uncommon to see a double rainbow in the Hawaiian Islands, and when this occurs the colors of the upper rainbow are reversed from the normal pattern of a rainbow. What color is on the top of a double rainbow?

a) Violet

b) Red

c) Green

d) Yellow

30. A double rainbow is caused by:

a) Two clouds in the sky

b) A double reflection within the raindrops

c) Vapor between the first rainbow and the observer

d) It is an illusion due to optical dispersion

31. Which of the following is not commonly thought to be one of the reasons that humpback whale’s breach?

a) To look around

b) To communicate to other whales

c) To impress females during breeding season

d) To help digest food

32. What is the term used by scientists to describe the volcanic activity that is prevalent all around the margins of the Pacific tectonic plate, from Japan’s Mt. Fuji, to Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, to Katmai in Alaska and Washington’s Mount Saint Helens.

a) Margin Volcanism

b) Ring of Fire

c) Magma Plate Eruption

d) Lava Dispersion

33. The Pacific tectonic plate floats on the magma beneath, slowly drifting to the northwest, carrying with it the Hawaiian Islands as they form, one after another, over the stationary plume of lava known as the Hawaiian hot spot. About how far are the islands being carried northwest each year (e.g., how far is the Pacific Plate moving each year)?

a) ½-inch

b) 3.5 inches

c) 9 inches

d) 2 feet

34. Since this crater on Hawai‘i Island began erupting on Jan. 3, 1983, its lava flows have destroyed over 180 structures (mostly homes, but also churches, heiau and native sites).

a) Pu‘u Ō‘ō Crater

b) Kīlauea Crater

c) Kīlauea Iki Crater

d) Halema‘uma‘u Crater

35. Eruptions of Mauna Loa Volcano in 1984 flowed down to the 3,200-foot level of the mountain near Hilo, and covered how many square miles with lava?

a) .8

b) 9

c) 18

d) 170

36. The summit crater of this Hawaiian volcano is 7 miles long, 21 square miles in all, and about 3000 feet deep.

a) Mauna Loa

b) Kīlauea

c) Haleakalā

d) Mauna Kea

37. One of the unique life forms in the Hawaiian Islands is archaea, a single-celled organism said to resemble prehistoric life forms, lacking nuclei yet with DNA similar to higher life forms. Where are archaea found?

a) Deep sea vents

b) Atop volcanoes

c) In blue-green algae

d) In tidepools

38. Researchers have analyzed the lava of Lō‘ihi Seamount’s deep sea vents, and theorized that it is coming from extremely deep in the Earth, near the very core. This chemical composition is analyzed by comparing:

a) Viscosity

b) Carbon/Sulfur ratios

c) Helium isotope ratios

d) Carbon half-life signatures

39. Tsunamis typically have a wavelength of:

a) 800 yards to 1 mile

b) 5 to 10 miles

c) 30 to 50 miles

d) 50 to 300 miles

40. About how fast does a typical tsunami travel across the Pacific Ocean?

a) 20 miles per hour

b) 200 miles per hour

c) 500 miles per hour

d) 1,000 miles per hour

41. On July 23, 1986, this hurricane caused two million dollars of damage on Hawai‘i Island, Maui, and O‘ahu.

a) Iniki

b) Dot

c) Nina

d) Estelle

42. The Keck telescopes explored the farthest limits of space ever reached by the eyes of humans, glimpsing areas of the universe as they existed 10 to 12 billion years ago? Particularly in what portion of the light spectrum have these discoveries been made?

a) Ultraviolet

b) Infrared

c) Visible

d) X-ray

43. What is the common name of the only endemic Hawaiian dragonfly species which, at up to 14 centimeters long, is also the largest of all native Hawaiian insects?

a) Pink Thompson’s dragonfly

b) Red Long-winged dragonfly

c) Green darner dragonfly

d) Blue mountain dragonfly

44. This controversial type of energy production is utilized on Hawai‘i Island.

a) Coal burning

b) Nuclear energy

c) Waste Incineration Conversion

d) Geothermal energy

45. What is the researcher’s proper term for the tail of a humpback whale?

a) Posterior

b) Vestige

c) Fluke

d) Dorsal

46. Cowry, Cone, Miter, Harp and Auger are all names of Hawaiian:

a) Birds

b) Fish

c) Insects

d) Shells

47. Which of the following is not a bird found in the Hawaiian Islands?

a) Turnstone

b) Brownling

c) Francolin

d) Shoveler

48. What is the term for a group of dolphins?

a) Posse

b) School

c) Assembly

d) Pod

49. Since Captain Cook first arrived at the islands in 1778 establishing western contact, about how many native bird species have become extinct in the Hawaiian Islands?

a) 9

b) 19

c) 35

d) 70

50. Before Captain Cook first arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778 establishing western contact, about how many native bird species had already become extinct due to hunting by Polynesian settlers as well as predation by the dogs, pigs, and rats they brought?

a) 5

b) 15

c) 25

d) 35

51. When flowing hot lava cools and crusts over while the still-molten interior lava continues to flow downhill draining the lava out from the hardened outer crust, it leaves what is known as a:

a) Lava dyke

b) Lava sequence

c) Lava crustiform

d) Lava tube

52. About what percentage of their time do monk seals spend resting on the beach?

a) One fifth

b) One third

c) One half

d) Two thirds

53. Medical researchers have found that ground-up coral works well for what medical use?

a) Preventing cancer

b) Skin therapy

c) Bone grafts

d) Preventing scars

54. Scientists began captive propagation efforts in 1992 to save the extremely endangered Hawaiian crow (as well as other birds). In 1992, how many Hawaiian crows (‘alalā) were surviving in the wild?

a) 12

b) 39

c) 200

d) 900

55. When molten earth is beneath the Earth’s crust, it is called _________, and when it erupts above the surface it is called _________.

a) basalt; lava

b) lava; magma

c) basalt; magma

d) magma; lava

56. When a volcano erodes into a small, flat island (crescent-shaped or ring-shaped), and is covered or surrounded by coral reef, it is known as:

a) A guyot

b) An atoll

c) A shoal

d) A bluff

57. This scientific instrument measures contraction and expansion on different parts of volcanoes.

a) Volcanometer

b) Expansion meter

c) Tiltmeter

d) Eruptometer

58. This is the last stage in the erosion of a volcanic peak, when an atoll sinks below the surface of the water.

a) Shoal

b) Reef

c) Estuary

d) Guyot

59. This Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientist founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

a) Thomas Jaggar

b) Richard Feynman

c) George Wilcox

d) Sanford dole

60. Due to the relatively recent availability of this very useful scientific tool, the eruption of Kīlauea Volcano that began in 1983 is likely the most studied eruption in history.

a) Richter scale

b) Pressure sensor

c) Thermal regulators

d) Global Positioning System

61. The monarch butterfly’s slender, coiling tongue, which allows it to sip flower nectar, is called a:

a) Proboscis

b) Glandular

c) Reticulum

d) Dartmouth

62. On the island of O‘ahu, Pūowaina (Punchbowl), Diamond Head, and Koko Head are all examples of volcanic features known as:

a) Dykes

b) ‘A‘a

c) Tuff cones

d) Seamounts

63. Hawaiian volcanoes occur in the middle of a tectonic plate over a stationary plume of lava, and are known as:

a) Subduction volcanoes

b) Shield volcanoes

c) Cataclysmic volcanoes

d) Plume volcanoes

64. In 1950 on Hawai‘i Island, three separate lava flows wiped out the village of:

a) Ho‘okena Mauka

b) Kalapana

c) Royal Gardens

d) Hilo

65. This disease, caused by a bacterium, is transmitted by mammals (especially rats), and is a danger to people swimming in freshwater streams in the Hawaiian Islands.

a) Pneumonia

b) Encephalitis

c) Leptospirosis

d) Mononucleosis

66. The historical record of bird evolution in the Hawaiian Islands is considered a world-renowned example of:

a) Creationism

b) Adaptive radiation

c) Anatomism

d) Mutation

67. When Captain Cook arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778 there were an estimated 25,000 nēnē (Hawai‘i’s state bird) living on the Big Island, and significant populations on the other islands as well. By 1951, how many nēnē were left in the wild?

a) 30

b) 130

c) 300

d) 3,000

68. In Hawaiian waters there are basically three types of lobsters. Which of the following is not one of them?

a) Slipper Lobsters

b) Large-claw Lobsters

c) Spiny Lobsters

d) Red Reef Lobsters

69. The city of Honolulu is built upon the skeletal remains of a reef of what type of coral?

a) Rice coral

b) Antler coral

c) Finger coral

d) Lobe coral

70. This sea star has between 9 and 23 arms, all covered with venomous spines.

a) Spiny sea star

b) Crown-of-Thorns sea star

c) Urchin sea star

d) Crab sea star

71. Structural reefs that form directly offshore of islands are known as:

a) Island reefs

b) Barrier reefs

c) Fringing reefs

d) Formative reefs

72. Studies have shown that a metalloid substance near the frontal lobe of the humpback whale’s brain may allow it to detect changes in the earth’s magnetic field, helping it navigate during migration and home in on its breeding and feeding grounds. What is this metalloid substance called?

a) Ferrate

b) Magnetite

c) Titanite

d) Iron

73. The Hawaiian bat leaves its roost before sunset and returns before dawn. In other words, it is:

a) Migratory

b) Nocturnal

c) Diurnal

d) Neotonic

74. The first maps of the Hawaiian Islands are thought to have been made by this member of Captain Cook’s crew, who later was the captain of the Bounty.

a) John Stevens

b) William Bligh

c) George Vancouver

d) J. LaRue Mull

75. The 55-foot-long whale skeleton hanging in the Bishop Museum on O‘ahu is what species of whale?

a) Humpback whale

b) Right whale

c) Gray whale

d) Sperm whale

Advanced Questions

Science of the Hawaiian Islands

1. An island of vegetation surrounded by a lava flow is called a:

a) Kipuka

b) Pahoehoe

c) Puka

d) Kumu

2. Rainbows are caused by a process by which light is separated into different colors according to their frequencies. This process is called:

a) Refraction

b) Reflection

c) Diffraction

d) Dispersion

3. Each toe of a gecko contains how many tiny hairs (setae)?

a) 10

b) 1,000

c) 30,000

d) 100,000

4. What is the name of the process used by the Keck II telescope, in which deformable mirrors may change shape 670 times per second to cancel out atmospheric distortion, producing images 10 times sharper than previous images?

a) Deformation Optics

b) Focal Symmetry

c) Optical Analysis

d) Adaptive Optics

5. The ‘Aila‘u lava flow on the Big Island was the result of a continuous eruption that lasted from:

a) 1983-1986

b) 1883-1898

c) 1960-1964

d) 1410-1470

6. Shark skin is composed of hard, and very abrasive tooth-like scales called:

a) Denticles

b) Enamels

c) Triangulands

d) Armdillians

7. In 1790, Haleakalā Volcano released how much lava?

a) 2 square miles

b) 10 square miles

c) 22 square miles

d) 0 square miles

8. At what wind speed does a tropical storm become officially classified as a hurricane?

a) 50 m.p.h.

b) 74 m.p.h.

c) 87 m.p.h.

d) 100 m.p.h.

9. Rainbows occur because drops of water disperse light, bending the light rays at different angles, and our eyes see different colors from drops at different heights in the sky. At what angle do we see the color red?

a) 42 degrees

b) 45 degrees

c) 55 degrees

d) 65 degrees

10. In the last 1,100 years, about how many square miles has Kīlauea Volcano covered with lava?

a) 5

b) 50

c) 500

d) 5,000

11. Jellyfish stings may (very rarely) cause an extreme and severe reaction known as:

a) Anaphylactic shock

b) Narcosis

c) Diabetes

d) Hypoglycemia

12. The most massive mountain on Earth is Mauna Loa Volcano, which is over 100 times as large as Washington’s Mount Rainier. How many cubic miles is Mauna Loa?

a) 1,000

b) 10,000

c) 50,000

d) 100,000

13. This part of the box jellyfish has fishhook-like spines that grab prey so venom can be injected.

a) Nematocyst

b) Polyp

c) Proboscis

d) Projectile

14. In 1999, the Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service attached transmitters to these birds, and then tracked them via satellite, finding that they fly incredible distances. One flew 24,843 miles in just 90 days, returning to the Hawaiian Islands to feed its young.

a) Frigatebirds

b) Red-tailed tropicbird

c) Laysan Albatross

d) Pacific golden plover

15. These endangered Hawaiian birds were raised in captivity at the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center on the Big Island, and at least 25 of them have been released in the wild, producing many new nests and fledglings.

a) ‘I‘wi

b) ‘Elepaio

c) ‘O‘u

d) Puaiohi

16. Monk seals are black at birth, and then as they become adults they develop a more brownish coat, called a:

a) Pelage

b) Plastron

c) Furtion

d) Epidermis

17. The scientific term for a sea turtle’s shell is:

a) Plastron

b) Carapace

c) Bell

d) Chitin

18. A record for Hawaiian volcanoes was set when, in just one 3-week period beginning July 17, 1996, over 4,000 earthquakes were recorded near the summit of this submarine volcano?

a) Kīlauea

b) Kure

c) Molokini

d) Lō‘ihi

19. What is the length and weight of the ocean weather buoys that are north, south, east and west of the Hawaiian Islands, transmitting weather data (e.g., sea and air temperatures, wind speed, wave height)?

a) 10 feet long, 7,000 pounds

b) 20 feet long, 14,000 pounds

c) 30 feet long, 21,000 pounds

d) 40 feet long, 28,000 pounds

20. A typical ocean wave’s energy reaches about how deep?

a) 10 feet

b) Half the wave’s length

c) A depth equal to the wave’s length

d) To the ocean bottom

21. Box jellyfish in Hawaiian waters usually arrive near shore about how many days after a full moon?

a) 4 to 8

b) 8 to 10

c) 10 to 12

d) 12 to 14

22. What is the name of the University of Hawai‘i research boat that carried the deep-diving manned submersible called Pisces V to explore Lō‘ihi Seamount’s volcanic activity and life forms?

a) Ka‘imikai O Kanaloa

b) Ka‘imikai O Kāne

c) Ka‘imikai O Lono

d) Ka‘imikai O Pele

23. This museum in Hilo provides tsunami education programs and historical information regarding tsunamis.

a) Hilo Tsunami Museum

b) Hawaiian Tsunami Education Museum

c) Pacific Tsunami Museum

d) Museum of the Pacific, Hilo

24. This hurricane caused about $100,000 in damage when it hit Kaua‘i in 1957.

a) Iniki

b) Dot

c) Nina

d) ‘Iwa

25. The segmented mirror of each Keck Telescope is a perfect parabolic reflecting surface how big in diameter?

a) 3 meters

b) 6 meters

c) 10 meters

d) 14 meters

26. The Keck telescopes have computer-controlled precision pistons and sensors that adjust the mirror segments individually (twice every second) to an accuracy of:

a) 4 centimeters

b) 4 millimeters

c) 4 decimeters

d) 4 nanometers

27. What is the scientific term for the underside of a sea turtle?

a) Plastron

b) Carapace

c) Underbelly

d) Stomata

28. The 1960 tsunami killed 61 people in Hilo and 122 in Japan. Where did the earthquake occur that generated this tsunami?

a) Japan

b) Chile

c) Aleutian Islands

d) Alaska

29. What process allows the existence of the life forms at Lō‘ihi Seamount’s deep sea vents?

a) Photosynthesis

b) Phototropism

c) Chemosynthesis

d) Chemo-Glycolysis

30. A wave’s period is the time it takes one complete wave to pass a given point. At the beach this may be from just a few seconds to over 20 seconds during a swell. What is a typical wave period for a tsunami?

a) 2 to 3 minutes

b) 9 to 30 minutes

c) 33 to 45 minutes

d) 45 to 59 minutes

31. Whale biologists have completed a great volume of research on the migration and distribution of humpback whales using what research method?

a) Satellite tagging

b) Aerial surveys

c) Tail Fluke Photographing and Identification

d) Computer modeling

32. ‘Ie‘ie, ‘ōhelo, and manono are all Hawaiian:

a) Insects

b) Plants

c) Birds

d) Fish

33. Along Kīlauea Volcano’s Mauna Iki trail, one may see these preserved in ash from a 1790 eruption.

a) Ground-nesting birds

b) Footprints of warriors

c) Ancient heiau

d) Hawaiian home sites

34. The bottlenose dolphin is considered the smartest of all dolphin species, with a highly advanced brain, particularly in the area that corresponds with social communication, abstract information processing, problem solving and higher level thinking. What is this area of the brain called?

a) Medulla

b) Cerebellum

c) Cerebral cortex

d) Ungulata

35. Hawaiian monk seals belong to what Order of marine mammals?

a) Monachus

b) Staunlanchyths

c) Pinniped

d) Stenella

36. About how long does a sea turtle egg incubate beneath the sand before it hatches?

a) 2 weeks

b) 1 month

c) 6 weeks

d) 2 months

37. About how long ago was it that land turtles began venturing back into the ocean, eventually evolving into sea turtles much like the sea turtles of the Hawaiian Islands today?

a) 200 million years ago

b) 100 million years ago

c) 50 million years ago

d) 5 million years ago

38. According to the National Marine Fisheries Service, how many sharks were caught by longline fishermen in Hawaiian waters (usually far offshore), in 1999?

a) 7, 576

b) 37, 576

c) 57, 576

d) 87,576

39. What is the primary native habitat for the ‘alalā, the Hawaiian crow?

a) Low-lying forests and coastal areas

b) Dense rainforest

c) High, dry volcanic slopes

d) Mixed koa-‘ōhi‘a forest

40. In 1998, a University of Hawai‘i research team led by Ryuzo Yanagimachi stunned the scientific world when they announced that they had cloned several generations of what animal?

a) Sheep

b) Guinea pigs

c) Cattle

d) Mice

41. Of the more than 100,000 known species of caterpillars in the world, only some rare Hawaiian species have evolved to:

a) Walk upside down

b) Change colors

c) Segment and multiply

d) Ambush prey

42. In 1935 and 1932 on Hawai‘i Island, this was done in an attempt to save structures from destruction by lava flows.

a) Earthen diversion walls were built

b) The flows were bombed by aircraft

c) A river was diverted to cool the lava

d) Mass prayer ceremonies were held

43. This medical condition caused the death of two hikers near the active lava flows in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park in the year 2000.

a) Lava burns

b) Heat exhaustion

c) Sulfur poisoning

d) Pulmonary edema

44. Humpback whales are in the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, and the SubPhylum Vertebrata. What Class are they in?

a) Cetacea

b) Mammalia

c) Mysticeti

d) Balaenopteridae

45. The humpback whale’s scientific name (genus and species) is Megaptera Novaeangliae. What does it mean?

a) Big-winged whale from New England

b) Deep diving new whale

c) Southern species

d) Giant angel

46. What marine species, when threatened, sometimes releases a condensed cloud of ink to confuse or blind a predator, or temporarily clog its gills so it cannot give chase.

a) Squid

b) Octopus

c) ‘Ahi

d) Eel

47. These marine species are typically the primary grazing herbivores on the coral reefs during the evening.

a) Reef sharks

b) Octopi

c) Sea urchins

d) Parrotfish

48. Coral colonies are made up of skeletal cups that contain the living polyps. Each skeletal cup is known as a:

a) Spore

b) Rigata

c) Calyx

d) Tubercula

49. In 1997, amidst a swarm of earthquakes, what crater erupted and collapsed, sending abrasive red cinder dust (fine-grained lithic tephra) over dozens of square miles of Kīlauea Volcano’s eastern flank?

a) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō

b) Kīlauea Iki Crater

c) Halema‘uma‘u Crater

d) Mauna Loa Crater

50. Saddleback, Fourspot, and Oval are all names of Hawaiian:

a) Spiders

b) Butterflyfish

c) Birds

d) Corals