Species of the Hawaiian Islands

Species of the Hawaiian Islands

1. What is the official state bird of Hawai‘i?

a) The Laysan Albatross

b) Nēnē, the Hawaiian Goose

c) The Hawaiian Stilt

d) ‘Io, the Hawaiian Hawk

2. The Pacific golden plover is commonly seen in yards and grassy areas of the Hawaiian Islands, feeding on insects during the winter. Where does the migratory plover lay its eggs in the summer?

a) Chile

b) Alaskan tundra

c) California

d) Japan

3. This marine creature’s Hawaiian name is ‘ilio holo i ka uaua, which means “the dog that goes in the rough water.”

a) Sea turtle

b) Monk seal

c) Humpback whale

d) Scorpion fish

4. What Hawaiian jellyfish species arrives nearshore on some leeward O‘ahu beaches about 8 to 10 days after a full moon, trailing 4 pink tentacles up to 2 feet behind, and using jet propulsion to swim about 2 miles per hour?

a) Box Jellyfish

b) Portuguese man-of-war

c) Tentaculus

d) Hydroidia

5. This dolphin species seen in Hawaiian waters is considered the most intelligent of all dolphins.

a) Spinner

b) Curvier’s

c) Gray-Spotted

d) Bottlenose

6. The smooth and waxy large leaves of this plant made it useful to ancient Hawaiians who used it as a wrapper for storing and cooking food.

a) Kukui

b) Ti

c) Kava

d) Hala

7. The red or purple flower heads of this plant were used in ancient Hawai‘i for a shampoo as well as for scenting kapa bark cloth and for medicinal uses.

a) ‘Awapuhi

b) Kukui

c) Passion flower

d) Plumeria

8. This fruit was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the early 1800s, and is about 2 to 3 inches in diameter, with yellow skin when ripe, and creamy pink insides.

a) Mango

b) Papaya

c) Star Fruit

d) Guava

9. This tiny lizard was brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the first Polynesians settlers of the islands.

a) Anole

b) Chameleon

c) Gecko

d) Iguana

10. Where does the Hawaiian green sea turtle lay its eggs?

a) On the coral reefs

b) Beneath rocks

c) In the sand

d) In trees

11. About how much does an adult humpback whale weigh?

a) 20 tons

b) 40 tons

c) 50 tons

d) 70 tons

12. What is the most common type of dolphin seen in Hawaiian waters?

a) Bottlenose dolphins

b) Beaked Dolphins

c) Spotted Dolphins

d) Spinner Dolphins

13. Which is the most endangered native Hawaiian sea turtle?

a) Hawksbill

b) Green

c) Leatherback

d) Ridley’s

14. This grass was used by early Hawaiians to construct their beautiful thatched houses.

a) Hilihila

b) Pili

c) Hala

d) Pandanus

15. Graceful in flight but awkward on land, the Hawaiian name of this bird is moli, and it may have an 80-inch wingspan.

a) Frigatebird

b) Albatross

c) Tropicbird

d) Shearwater

16. This bird is over 3 feet long, with long red tail feathers and a wingspan of nearly 4 feet. The bird plunge dives into the ocean for fish and squid.

a) Wedge-tailed shearwater

b) Pueo

c) Red-footed booby

d) Red-tailed tropicbird

17. This slender wading bird is 16 inches tall with a black beak and long, pink legs.

a) Black-necked stilt

b) Koloa duck

c) Pacific golden plover

d) Black-crowned night heron

18. This cousin of sharks may weigh over 2 tons, has a 22-foot wingspan, and sometimes jumps completely from the water.

a) Hawaiian waterbird

b) Spinner dolphin

c) Manta Ray

d) Orca

19. Which of the following species was not brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the early Polynesian settlers?

a) Kukui

b) Yams

c) Dogs

d) Goats

20. This introduced owl species is common on all the main Hawaiian Islands and has a white heart-shaped face with dark eyes.

a) Snowy Owl

b) Spotted Owl

c) Barn Owl

d) Pueo

21. There are 24,000 species of fish in the world. About how many fish species are native to the Hawaiian Islands?

a) 100

b) 700

c) 7,000

d) 20,000

22. About how many species of fish are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (found in the Hawaiian Islands and nowhere else)?

a) 50

b) 100

c) 200

d) 400

23. Ancient Hawaiians gathered many varieties of this plant from the ocean as well as from fresh water ponds and streams, and it was a great source of minerals.

a) Limu

b) Hapu‘u

c) Ti

d) Pili

24. Coral is a:

a) Plant

b) Animal

c) Arthropod

d) Avifauna

25. The only native land mammal in the Hawaiian Islands is the:

a) Wild boar

b) Sea turtle

c) Hawaiian bat

d) Monk seal

26. Nine species of these are among the most well known of endemic Hawaiian sea animals.

a) Cowries

b) Sea Snakes

c) Sea Turtles

d) Sharks

27. The Hawaiian Islands have many species of these animals, which are among the simplest of all multi-celled creatures, having no mouth, stomach, gills, heart or any other organ systems.

a) Eels

b) Coral

c) Sponges

d) Arthropods

28. These disk-like hydroids float on the surface, and are dark purplish blue in color with short tentacles and a transparent triangular sail that protrudes upward and may catch the wind.

a) Portuguese man-o-war

b) Rays

c) By-the-wind sailors

d) Jellyfish

29. One of the most commonly seen of the honeycreepers, this bird is deep crimson in color, very similar to the ‘ōhi‘a lehua blossoms upon which it feeds.

a) ‘Alala

b) ‘Io

c) ‘Akialoa

d) ‘Apapane

30. This is one of the most abundant trees in native Hawaiian forests. It may be over 100 feet tall with scarlet nectar-filled blossoms that are a source of food for native birds.

a) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua

b) Ironwood

c) Hala

d) Koa

31. There are 22 species of marine birds (seabirds) in the Hawaiian Islands, with a total population of:

a) Less than 2 million birds

b) About 5 million birds

c) About 12 million birds

d) Over 20 million birds

32. Over 60% of seabirds in the Hawaiian Islands are:

a) Albatross and Frigatebirds

b) Boobies and Shearwaters

c) Noddies and Terns

d) Tropicbirds and Frigatebirds

33. About how many insect species are there in the Hawaiian Islands?

a) 800

b) 8,000

c) 10,000

d) 100,000

34. In the decades after Captain Cook’s first visit to the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, the landscape of the islands began to be drastically altered by increasing numbers of:

a) Deer and pigs

b) Cattle, pigs, and deer

c) Cattle, sheep, pigs and goats

d) Water buffalo, cattle and pigs

35. The Hawaiian name for the jasmine plant is Pīkake, and was inspired by this princess, who was also known as the Princess of the Peacocks.

a) Ka‘iulani

b) Lili‘uokalani

c) Kapi‘olani

d) Ka‘ahamanu

36. This Hawaiian cave spider is a long-legged runner, totally blind, and doesn’t weave webs, but instead locates and tracks its prey using its front legs, which are specialized for sensing sound waves.

a) Wolf spider

b) Echo spider

c) Cricket spider

d) Daddy longlegs spider

37. What is the scientific term for the (12 to 30) long, furrowed grooves that run for two-thirds of the humpback whale’s underside, and contain extra skin that allows the whale’s huge mouth to expand open during feeding?

a) Caudal Peduncle

b) Nares

c) Ventral Pleats

d) Vibrissa

38. When the Pacific golden plover makes its flight between Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands, it may fly as high as 20,000 feet and reach speeds up to 70 miles an hour. About how long does it take the plover to make the approximately 3,500-mile trip?

a) 2½ days

b) 5 days

c) 8 days

d) 2 weeks

39. This ¼-inch long pale, shrimp-like landhopper is a cave species that is blind and feeds on decaying matter that works its way down through the cave ceiling. It is the principal prey of the Kaua‘i cave wolf spider.

a) Kaua‘i cave termite

b) Kaua‘i cave flea

c) Kaua‘i cave amphipod

d) Kaua‘i cave mantis

40. Hawaiian Green sea turtles may weigh up to 500 pounds. About how much do they weigh at birth?

a) One ounce

b) One pound

c) Two pounds

d) Ten pounds

41. When they are young, Hawaiian green sea turtles feed on fish eggs and plankton. What do they eat when they are adults?

a) Fish eggs and plankton

b) Fish and Eels

c) Mollusks, fish, and plankton

d) Limu (seaweed)

42. The most common sharks around the Hawaiian Islands are:

a) Tiger sharks, reef sharks, and whale sharks

b) Reef sharks, great white sharks, and tiger sharks

c) Tiger sharks, reef sharks, and hammerhead sharks

d) Ribbontail sharks, reef sharks, and tiger sharks

43. Corals secrete a hard skeleton of this material, and the built up layers of all of the old skeletons forms the coral reef.

a) Calcium Chloride

b) Sodium Chloride

c) Calcium Carbonate

d) Phosphate

44. Some coral colonies are thousands of years old. About how fast does coral grow?

a) ½-inch to 4 inches per year

b) 1/10-inch to 1-inch per year

c) 3 to 9 inches per year

d) Coral does not grow.

45. About how long do geckos live?

a) One to two years

b) Three to five years

c) Five to seven years

d) Seven to nine years

46. There are 9,700 bird species in the world. Not including seabirds and migratory birds, about how many land birds are (or were) native to the Hawaiian Islands?

a) 22

b) 100

c) 250

d) 280

47. This marine creature has a helmet-shaped body sac about 1½ inches long, with long, trailing, poisonous blue tentacles, and a translucent bluish-purple body sac makes it difficult to see in the water.

a) Box jellyfish

b) Portuguese man-of-war

c) Blue hydroid

d) Helmet jellyfish

48. This native Hawaiian duck is about 19 inches long, mottled golden brown in color, with a greenish head, olive-colored bill, green/blue secondary wing feathers, and orange feet and legs.

a) Coot

b) Moorhen

c) Koloa

d) Mallard

49. This native tree was valued not only because of its great strength (being a hardwood), but also due to the beautiful reddish grain of the wood. It was used to make jewelry, weapons, canoes, paddles, and many other items. The tree may grow over 100 feet tall.

a) Breadfruit

b) Hala

c) Wiliwili

d) Koa

50. This native fern may grow over 20 feet high with 12-foot fronds. It’s scientific name is Cibotium splendens.

a) Hapu‘u fern

b) Pala‘ā fern

c) Laua‘e fern

d) Palapalai fern

51. This giant herb is often mistaken for a tree, but has no woody tissue, and the trunk is actually tightly-layered leaf sheaths. Once the tree bears fruit it dies, and then new shoots grow up around the base.

a) Papaya

b) Banana

c) Mango

d) Guava

52. Pua is the Hawaiian word for:

a) Fruit

b) Tree

c) Medicinal plants

d) Flower

53. This common Hawaiian coral species is typically the first to colonize new underwater lava flows. It may be brown, green or pink, and gets its name from its resemblance to a common vegetable.

a) Broccoli coral

b) Asparagus coral

c) Onion coral

d) Cauliflower coral

54. This Hawaiian bird species may be up to 3 feet long with an 80-inch wingspan, making it the biggest seabird in the entire Pacific region. The bird is white, with black on its upper wings and around its eyes, and may live for over 40 years and stay at sea up to 5 years before returning to land to nest.

a) Great frigatebird

b) Tropicbird

c) Laysan albatross

d) Red-footed booby

55. The most commonly seen Hawaiian seabird offshore of the main Hawaiian Islands, this brownish-gray bird is about 18 inches long with a 3-foot wingspan. It skims close to the surface of the water and then plunges in to catch fish or squid.

a) Red-footed booby

b) Great frigatebird

c) Black noddy

d) Wedge-tailed shearwater

56. What is the Hawaiian word for sea turtle?

a) Hoku

b) Honu

c) Kona

d) Hana

57. What is the common name of the Hawaiian marine species Tursiops truncatus?

a) Humpback whale

b) Spinner dolphin

c) Bottlenose dolphin

d) Melon-headed whale

58. This bird is the most abundant winter visitor to the Hawaiian Islands, arriving around August and leaving around May.

a) Nene

b) Laysan albatross

c) Great frigatebird

d) Pacific golden plover

59. These Hawaiian seabirds are known for their courtship habits in which a pair of birds may be seen repeatedly circling each other in flight.

a) Frigatebirds

b) Shearwaters

c) Albatross

d) Tropicbirds

60. This native Hawaiian owl is about 15 inches long with yellow eyes, and brown and white feathers. It is found on all the main Hawaiian Islands, with the largest populations on Maui, Kaua‘i, and the Big Island.

a) ‘Alala

b) Pueo

c) ‘Io

d) ‘I‘iwi

61. This eel has a white mouth, and a body mostly all white but with a pattern of black blotches with yellow spots. It is often seen by divers, perhaps because it likes to swim in the open, unlike other more secretive eels.

a) Dwarf moray eel

b) Whitemouth moray eel

c) Snowflake moray eel

d) Yellowspot moray eel

62. This tree may grow over 60 feet tall with a trunk diameter of over 2 feet. It was brought by the first Polynesian settlers, and had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i. The fruit of this tree is very nutritious, supplying complex carbohydrates, calcium and vitamin B.

a) Breadfruit

b) Wiliwili

c) Mango

d) Passion fruit

63. The Hawaiian Islands have no native:

a) Hawks

b) Crows

c) Owls

d) Seagulls

64. This bird is a tern with uncharacteristically dark feathering.

a) Red-footed booby

b) Brown noddy

c) Shearwater

d) Albatross

65. This 10 to 15-inch fish has a large mouth and many fine teeth, and is silver-grey in color but may become more shiny blue-black in breeding season. This fish was introduced to Hawai’i in the 1950s, and then quickly multiplied to the detriment of some native species.

a) Ahi

b) Ono

c) Tilapia

d) Akule

66. This bioluminescent cephalopod lives in the shallow waters around the Hawaiian Islands, and has a light organ that houses bioluminescent bacteria that help it camouflage itself as it hunts for food.

a) Squid

b) Octopus

c) Jellyfish

d) Crab

67. About how much do monk seals weigh at birth?

a) 5 pounds

b) 15 pounds

c) 30 pounds

d) 45 pounds

68. This tropical fruit is eaten fresh, dried, or pickled. The sap of the plant may cause rashes, and the most common horticultural varieties are Hayden and Pirie.

a) Mountain apple

b) Starfruit

c) Papaya

d) Mango

69. This tree is native to Australia, and now in the Hawaiian Islands the processing of a product of the tree is a major industry.

a) Papaya

b) Eucalyptus

c) Koa

d) Macadamia

70. Introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in 1813, this tree is often pruned into a low shrub for ease of harvesting the berries.

a) Mokihana

b) ‘Ohelo

c) Coffee

d) Passion fruit

71. The survival of numerous small forest birds, including the nukupu‘u, kama‘o, ‘o‘o, and ‘o‘u, was seriously harmed by Hurricane Iniki because the hurricane decimated the food supply of these native birds. What do all four of the birds eat?

a) Insects

b) Fruit

c) Larvae

d) Seeds

72. This was one of the main plants used to make kapa bark cloth, and is also commonly known as paper mulberry.

a) Papala

b) Wiliwili

c) Kukui

d) Wauke

73. These little crabs find small shells to live in, and are often seen in and around tidepools.

a) Hermit crab

b) Pool crab

c) Snail crab

d) Rock crab

74. Encounters with this marine echinoderm may be painful due to its hundreds of spines.

a) Crab

b) Porcupine fish

c) Urchin

d) Spiny eel

75. These soft-bodied marine creatures are quite common in the Hawaiian Islands, and they often look like big sausages sitting on the seafloor.

a) Lionfish

b) Sea Cucumber

c) Soft-shelled crab

d) Protebus eel

76. These heart-shaped flowers, which may be red, white, or green, appear to some to be made of plastic. There are over 500 species in the Hawaiian Islands.

a) Bromeliad

b) Hibiscus

c) Protea

d) Anthurium

77. What flower is the official emblem of the island of O‘ahu?

a) ‘Ilima

b) Plumeria

c) Hibiscus

d) Passion flower

78. The Hawaiian Islands have how many species of native seabirds?

a) 12

b) 22

c) 32

d) 42

79. These Hawaiian seabirds have yellow-orange legs and feet, and vary in color from dark gray-brown to sooty black. The species lives throughout the Hawaiian Islands, nesting on rocky ledges, in caves or in trees, and may live to 25 years of age.

a) Tropicbird

b) Black noddies

c) Shearwaters

d) Frigatebirds

80. The Hawaiian name of this fish is kihikihi. It is about 8 inches long with a long, pointed snout, and two wide black bars running vertically on its sides with white in-between, as well as a large orange spot and orange around the mouth.

a) Bullethead parrotfish

b) Triggerfish

c) Butterflyfish

d) Moorish idol

81. This tree grows up to 80 feet tall and may have a broad symmetrical crown that makes it a nice shade tree. Its wood is worked into many items, and its scientific name is Samanea saman.

a) Kukui Tree

b) African tulip Tree

c) Monkeypod Tree

d) Banyan Tree

82. The Hawaiian name for this tree is ‘iliahi, which refers to the tree’s reddish blooms and new leaves. It is known for its fragrant heartwood, and most all of the big trees of this species in the Hawaiian Islands were logged in the 1800s.

a) Monkeypod

b) Koa

c) Ironwood

d) Sandalwood

83. This tree may reach heights of over 100 feet and live over 70 years. The leaves, oil, wood, and seeds of the plant had many uses in ancient Hawai‘i.

a) Wiliwili

b) Milo

c) Koa

d) Coconut Palm

84. This plant’s fragrant stem-bark and shiny leaves are used to make open-ended leis. The plant also has small yellowish flowers and olive-like ½-inch long fruits.

a) ‘Ie‘ie

b) Maile

c) ‘Ilima

d) Plumeria

85. Weighing from 25 to 200 pounds, and considered a trophy fish, this gamefish is known to swim at up to 45 miles per hour as it tries to escape the hook and line. It is also known as wahoo.

a) ‘Ahi

b) Ono

c) Mahimahi

d) Tilapia

86. Humpback whales do not have teeth, but instead use the ___________ that hangs from their upper jaw to strain food from the water.

a) Filtration

b) Krill

c) Baleen

d) Enamel

87. In northern waters during the winter, humpback whales feed on small fish such as herring, and also filter from the water tiny shrimp-like creatures known as:

a) Bacteria

b) Diatoms

c) Sea snails

d) Krill

88. On average, how long do spinner dolphins around the Hawaiian Islands live?

a) 10 years

b) 20 years

c) 30 years

d) 40 years

89. What is a good estimate of the total population of Hawaiian monk seals as of 2001?

a) 500

b) 1,300

c) 2,200

d) 22,000

90. What is the most common type of coral found in Hawaiian waters?

a) Finger coral

b) Cauliflower coral

c) Sea fan coral

d) Lobe coral

91. This blue, orange and green fish is the most common wrasse in Hawaiian waters. It is very curious, and not afraid to investigate snorkelers. Females may change sex to males (the fish, not the snorkeler!), and when they do this it is revealed by a white stripe on the side of the fish behind the orange saddle.

a) Cleaner wrasse

b) Psychedelic wrasse

c) Saddle wrasse

d) Hermaphroditic wrasse

92. This is Hawai‘i’s official state fish, and it is commonly seen in nearshore, wave-swept areas. It is white on the bottom and light brown to greenish above, with a black band running below the eye, blue above the mouth, red at the base of the pectoral fin, and a gold line running across the side.

a) Moorish idol

b) Bullethead parrotfish

c) Reef triggerfish

d) Threadfin butterflyfish

93. This alien predator was originally introduced to control canefield rats. That effort was unsuccessful, and instead this species devastated native populations of ground-nesting birds.

a) Pig

b) Cat

c) Mongoose

d) Ferret

94. About 17 inches long, this endemic Hawaiian bird soars gracefully searching for insects, rodents, and occasionally young game birds. The bird’s Hawaiian name is ‘io, and probably less than 2,000 survive in their diminishing native habitat in the Hawaiian Islands.

a) Hawaiian crow

b) Hawaiian hawk

c) Red-tailed tropicbird

d) Hawaiian owl

99. This endemic Hawaiian bird is about 19 inches long, with a black beak and legs, and dark brown and black feathers. The bird’s Hawaiian name is ‘alalā, and it feeds on fruit and nectar as well as insects and carrion.

a) Hawaiian crow

b) Hawaiian hawk

c) Brown noddy

d) Hawaiian owl

100. The bracts of this brilliant crimson and scarlet flowers are highlighted with yellow and apple green, and some varieties are said to resemble lobster claws and parrot beaks.

a) Hibiscus

b) Heliconia

c) Antherium

d) Protea


Advanced Questions

Species of the Hawaiian Islands

1. What beautiful yellow ginger plant gets its common name from its resemblance to the feathered standard used by ancient Hawaiian royalty?

a) Ali’i

b) Awapuhi

c) Kāhili

d) Shield Ginger

2. What Hawaiian seabird has a name that means “thief,” due to its habit of swooping down on other birds to make them drop their food so they may snatch the food from midair?

a) ‘Io

b) ‘Iwa

c) ‘Iolani

d) ‘Icarus

3. These rare native goby fishes swim from the ocean up into the streams to lay their eggs and are able to climb waterfalls using a specially-evolved suction disc that they have evolved at the base of their pectoral fins.

a) Tilapia

b) Puhi

c) Ulua

d) ‘O‘opu

4. This rare, 5-inch-long, olive-green bird is found only on East Maui between 5,000 and 7,000 feet on the slopes of Haleakalā. It’s easily recognized by its large, compressed beak.

a) Maui Creeper

b) Maui Honeyeater

c) Maui Parrotbill

d) Maui Thrush

5. Sharks have the highest known electrical sensitivity of any animal, and may sense as little as:

a) 5 billionths of a volt per meter

b) 5 millionths of a volt per meter

c) 500 thousandths of a volt per meter

d) 5 hundredths of a volt per meter

6. This endangered Hawaiian waterbird is about 15 inches long, mostly dark on top, with white undertail feathers, a white bill and a white patch atop its head. It is also known as the mud hen because it sometimes feeds out on the mud flats.

a) Koloa

b) Coot

c) Stilt

d) Moorhen

7. Of the 20,000 species of orchids in the world, how many are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, found naturally in the Hawaiian Islands and nowhere else?

a) 0

b) 3

c) 30

d) 300

8. Off of Laysan Island in 1902, the first specimens of these black to dark brown Cnidarian marine creatures were dredged.

a) Jellyfish

b) Moray Eel

c) Black Hydroid

d) Medusa

9. The Hawaiian bat is occasionally seen on O‘ahu and Maui, but stable populations are only known to exist on:

a) Lāna‘i

b) Moloka‘i and Kaho‘olawe

c) Ni‘ihau and Kaua‘i

d) The Big Island and Kaua‘i

10. From 1990 to 1997, what place did the Hawaiian Islands rank nationally in fatalities from shark attacks?

a) 1st

b) 2nd

c) 5th

d) 10th

11. What is the scientific name of the Manta Ray?

a) Myliobatidae

b) Dasyatidae

c) Mobulidae

d) Glidolious

12. How does the gecko clean its eyes?

a) It secretes a fluid

b) It dips its head in water

c) It blinks repeatedly

d) It uses its tongue

13. What is the scientific name of the wild boars that today inhabit many Hawaiian forests?

a) Sus scrofa

b) Ungulata boras

c) Swinius

d) Swinius ungulata

14. About what percentage of federally listed endangered and threatened species of animals and plants are Hawaiian species?

a) Less than ten percent

b) About twenty percent

c) Over thirty-five percent

d) Over fifty percent

15. This migratory bird spends winter in the Hawaiian Islands and summer far to the north, just like the humpback whales, but comes to the Hawaiian Islands to feed and goes north to give birth, just the opposite of the whales.

a) Great frigatebird

b) Wedge-tailed shearwater

c) Pacific golden plover

d) Laysan albatross

16. The native Hawaiian duck (koloa), was once widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Today it is estimated that there are less than 2,000 left, and 80% of them are on what island?

a) Maui

b) O‘ahu

c) Moloka‘i

d) Kaua‘i

17. Hawaiian box jellyfish spend most of their time feeding from about 10 to 60 feet below the surface. What do they eat?

a) Limu

b) Coral algae

c) Plankton

d) Krill

18. This Cnidarian anthozoan polyp may be from 1 inch to 2 feet in size, with a cylindrical body and a central mouth surrounded by tentacles, and it usually attaches to a solid surface. When exposed by a low tide it contracts its muscles, pulling its upper column over its tentacles.

a) Coral

b) Limu

c) Anemone

d) Mollusk

19. Nearly 400,000 nesting pairs of Laysan albatross, the largest population anywhere, may be found on this island.

a) Kure

b) Midway

c) Ni‘ihau

d) Kaua‘i

20. This bird is known as the golden gooney because of its yellow head and neck feathers, and pink bill.

a) Laysan albatross

b) Short-tailed albatross

c) Black-footed albatross

d) Pacific albatross

21. This Hawaiian cetacean is a deep ocean species, generally shy, and tends to flee approaching vessels. Its scientific name is Stenella coeruleoalba, and it feeds on lantern fish, squid and shrimp.

a) Killer whale

b) Bottlenose dolphin

c) Pilot whale

d) Striped dolphin

22. Introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in 1879, this predaceous creature feeds on insects, fish, crayfish, baby birds and other small fare. It is found in the lower areas of streams as well as in marshes, ponds, and other wetland areas, and can jump up to 20 times its body length.

a) Green darner

b) Toad

c) Bullfrog

d) Gecko

23. This tiny, wingless predator lives atop Mauna Kea volcano, and has dark coloration to absorb heat, and also an antifreeze substance in its blood that allows it to withstand freezing temperatures. It feeds on insects blown on the wind up from adjacent habitats.

a) The Wēkiu

b) The Drosphilia

c) Maunus Keasipha

d) Damselfly

24. About how long does 1 humpback song last?

a) 4 minutes

b) 20 minutes

c) 40 minutes

d) 4 hours

25. Humpback whales once numbered over 200,000 worldwide. After the peak of commercial whaling, and before a total ban on hunting humpback whales was enacted by the International Whaling commission in 1966, about how many humpback whales existed in the world’s oceans?

a) Less than 1,000

b) About 5,000

c) About 10,000

d) Over 20,000

26. What was the ancient Hawaiian word for taro?

a) Kalo

b) Kava

c) Kumu

d) Kaukau

27. This fish species is known for its propensity to eat ectoparasites off of other fish, who wait in line for a chance to have their body surface cleaned.

a) Moorish idol

b) Goatfish

c) Cleaner wrasse

d) Parrotfish

28. These elongated fish may be up to 30 inches long but very thin. They may orient themselves in a vertical fashion to deceive their prey, and ambush their prey in a puka (hole) in the reef.

a) Lionfish

b) Trumpetfish

c) Flying fish

d) Eel

29. Large herds of these whales are occasionally seen in Hawaiian waters. They are about 8 feet long and weigh about 350 pounds.

a) Melon-headed whale

b) Orca

c) Beaked whale

d) Pilot whale

30. This plant was brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the first Polynesian settlers of the Hawaiian Islands, who used it for food and medicinal purposes.

a) Passion fruit

b) Hou

c) Wiliwili

d) Sugar cane

31. This plant’s scientific name is Curcuma domestica, and in ancient Hawai‘i it was used for medicinal purposes, in dyes, and in foods.

a) Kukui

b) ‘Olena

c) Noni

d) Ginger

32. How many species of sea turtles are considered native to the Hawaiian Islands?

a) 10

b) 6

c) 3

d) 1

33. This flower is the official emblem of the island of Maui.

a) ‘Ilima

b) Plumeria

c) Pink rose

d) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua

34. This fruit tree may grow to 20 feet in height, producing a waxy 5-angled fruit that is bright yellow when ripe, with a fragrant, juicy flesh.

a) Liliko‘i

b) Lychee

c) Starfruit

d) Mango

35. This tree came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1852 aboard a ship from China carrying contract laborers. The tree produces a small plum-sized, rough-skinned red fruit that is sweet to eat, and is eaten fresh and also canned and dried.

a) Mountain apple

b) Liliko‘i

c) Guava

d) Lychee

36. This plant was used for home construction in ancient Hawai‘i, as well as for hula skirts.

a) Hau

b) Pili

c) Ti

d) Kukui

37. Wauke, māmaki, ma‘aloa, and ‘ākala were all used to make what material in ancient Hawai‘i?

a) Houses

b) Fishnets

c) Kapa bark cloth

d) Canoes

38. What is the name of the rare, carnivorous, insect-eating plant that lives in Kaua‘i’s Alaka‘i Swamp.

a) Prosar anglica

b) Venusia hawaiiansi

c) Drosphilia basilin

d) Prosforia dilentia

39. This fish may be from 10 to 65 pounds, is sometimes caught by visitors on the charter fishing boats, and is prized as a good eating fish. The common name of this fish is dorado.

a) ‘Ahi

b) Mahimahi

c) Ono

d) Wahoo

40. The fruit of this tree looks like a pineapple, and a fruit cluster might be 8 inches long and contain more than 50 sections, called keys. In ancient Hawai‘i, the keys were dried so that the fibers on the inner ends could be used as brushes to paint kapa bark cloth. What tree produces these keys?

a) Noni

b) Kukui

c) ‘Ōhi‘a lehua

d) Hala

41. The humpback whale filters food from the water using the baleen that hangs from its upper jaw. Baleen is composed of what material?

a) Dentin

b) Rectin

c) Blastin

d) Chitin

42. What is the typical size and weight of a Hawaiian bottlenose dolphin?

a) 7½ feet, 280 pounds

b) 8½ feet, 380 pounds

c) 9½ feet, 480 pounds

d) 10 feet, 550 pounds

43. Delicate, branching corals such as shelf and finger coral are the most common Hawaiian corals growing where?

a) Near shore

b) At rocky points

c) In turbulent bays

d) In calmer, deeper waters

44. Which native bird has a name that comes from, “to rise up,” and “the sun,” which it was given because of the noises it is known to make in the morning.

a) ‘Io

b) Nēnē

c) Moli

d) ‘Alalā

45. This fish likes to eat algae off the surface of coral reefs, and scrapes into the coral, ingesting it along with the algae. The digestive system of the fish breaks down the bits of coral into sand, and one of these fish may produce up to 1 ton of sand per year, making it a major contributor to the sand supply around the Hawaiian Islands.

a) Moorish Idol

b) Cleaner Wrasse

c) Parrotfish

d) Reef Triggerfish

46. In ancient Hawai‘i, dogs were fattened for eating by feeding them taro root mashed with broth, and thus came to be called:

a) Mash dogs

b) Taro dogs

c) Poi dogs

d) Fat dogs

47. The Hawaiian monarch butterfly feeds primarily on this flower, which produces thick, milky sap that is poisonous to most other animals, including humans.

a) Hibiscus

b) Plumeria

c) ‘Ilima

d) Crown flower

48. This ½-inch spider catches leafhoppers and flies in its silk lasso, and is known for the unique markings on its back.

a) X-spider

b) Happyface spider

c) Signature spider

d) Crab spider

49. In 1923, a red variety of this flower, kokio ‘ula, was designated as Hawai‘i‘s official state emblem, but in 1988 it was changed to the yellow variety, ma‘o hau hele. What is this flower’s common name?

a) Heliconia

b) Ginger

c) Hibiscus

d) Hau

50. In 1890, a Frenchman named Dr. George Trousseau began a farm of these animals at Kapi‘olani Park on O‘ahu, paying $1000 each to bring three of them to O‘ahu where they soon multiplied.

a) Ostriches

b) Llamas

c) Lions

d) Water buffalo